Fu (tally)

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  1. Tiger tally was both used in the Western Han and the Eastern Han dynasties; there are evidences recorded in the Book of Han and the Book of Later Han

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Yuanlingshan is a form of round-collared upper garment in Hanfu; it is also referred as yuanlingpao or panlingpao when used as a robe. The yuanlingshan and yuanlingpao were both developed under the influence of Hufu from the Donghu people in the early Han dynasty and later on by the Wuhu in the Six dynasties period. The yuanlingpao is a formal attire usually worn by men, though it was also fashionable for women to wear it in some dynasties, such as in the Tang dynasty. In the Tang dynasty, the yuanlingpao could also transform into the fanlingpao.

<i>Hanfu</i> Traditional dress of the Han people

Hanfu is the traditional styles of clothing worn by the Han Chinese. There are several representative styles of hanfu, such as the ruqun, the aoqun, the beizi and the shenyi, and the shanku.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Round collar robe</span> Round collar robes worn in East Asia

Round collar robe, also called yuanlingpao and yuanlingshan in China, danryeong in Korea, was a style of paofu, a Chinese robe, worn in ancient China, which was long enough to cover the entire body of its wearer. The Chinese yuanlingpao was developed under the influences of the Hufu worn by the Donghu people and by the Wuhu. Depending on time period, the Chinese yuanlingpao also had some traces of influences from the Hufu worn by the Sogdian. The Chinese yuanlingpao continued to evolve, developing distinctive Chinese characteristics with time and lost its Hufu connotation. It eventually became fully integrated in the Hanfu system for the imperial and court dress attire. Under the influence of ancient China, the Chinese yuanlingpao was adopted by the rest of the East Asian cultural sphere.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Mianfu</span>

Mianfu is a kind of Chinese clothing in hanfu; it was worn by emperors, kings, and princes, and in some instances by the nobles in historical China from the Shang to the Ming dynasty. The mianfu is the highest level of formal dress worn by Chinese monarchs and the ruling families in special ceremonial events such as coronation, morning audience, ancestral rites, worship, new year's audience and other ceremonial activities. There were various forms of mianfu, and the mianfu also had its own system of attire called the mianfu system which was developed back in the Western Zhou dynasty. The mianfu was used by every dynasty from Zhou dynasty onward until the collapse of the Ming dynasty. The Twelve Ornaments were used on the traditional imperial robes in China, including on the mianfu. These Twelve Ornaments were later adopted in clothing of other ethnic groups; for examples, the Khitan and the Jurchen rulers adopted the Twelve ornaments in 946 AD and in 1140 AD respectively. The Korean kings have also adopted clothing embellished with nine out of the Twelve ornaments since 1065 AD after the Liao emperor had bestowed a nine-symbol robe to the Korean king, King Munjong, in 1043 AD where it became known as gujangbok.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Buyao</span> Chinese hairpin with dangling ornaments

Buyao is a type of Chinese women's hair ornament. It is a type of Chinese hairpin which was often times decorated with carved designs and jewelries that dangles when the wearer walks, hence the name, which literally means "shake as you go". The buyao is similar to a zan hairpin, except for the presence of its dangling ornaments, which are its primary featured characteristics. The buyao appeared as early as in the Han dynasty, where only noble women in the royal family could wear it. In ancient times, the use of buyao denoted noble status. Some noble women also put buyaos on their tiaras, making their hair decoration more luxurious than simple buyao. Common material used in making the buyao was gold; the ornaments were typically jade and pearls. Other valuable materials could be used, such as silver, agate, etc. Many centuries after the fall of the Han dynasty, the buyao was introduced to ordinary civilians; and when all women were allowed to wear to it, more variety of materials were used to produce them. Buyao was passed down over generations; buyao decorated with pendants are still popular in modern day China.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Zaju chuishao fu</span>

Zaju chuishao fu, also called Guiyi, and sometimes referred as "Swallow-tailed Hems and Flying Ribbons clothing" or "swallow tail" clothing for short in English, is a form of set of attire in hanfu which was worn by Chinese women. The zaju chuishao fu can be traced back to the pre-Han period and appears to have originated the sandi of the Zhou dynasty; it then became popular during the Han, Cao Wei, Jin and Northern and Southern dynasties. It was a common form of aristocratic costumes in the Han and Wei dynasties and was also a style of formal attire for elite women. The zaju chuishao fu can be further divided into two categories of clothing style based on its cut and construction: the guipao, and the guichang.

Hanfu accessories refers to the various form of fashion accessories and self-adornments used and worn with hanfu throughout Chinese history. Hanfu consists of many forms of miscellaneous accessories, such as jewelries, yaopei, ribbons, shawls, scarves, and hand-held accessories, etc.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Paofu</span> Long Chinese robes

Paofu, also known as pao for short, is a form of a long, one-piece robe in Hanfu, which is characterized by the natural integration of the upper and lower part of the robe which is cut from a single fabric. The term is often used to refer to the jiaolingpao and the yuanlingpao. The jiaolingpao was worn since the Zhou dynasty and became prominent in the Han dynasty. The jiaolingpao was a unisex, one-piece robe; while it was worn mainly by men, women could also wear it. It initially looked similar to the ancient shenyi; however, these two robes are structurally different from each other. With time, the ancient shenyi disappeared while the paofu evolved gaining different features in each succeeding dynasties; the paofu continues to be worn even in present day. The term paofu refers to the "long robe" worn by ancient Chinese, and can include several form of Chinese robes of various origins and cuts, including Changshan,Qipao, Shenyi,Tieli, Zhisun, Yesa.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Xiapei</span> A type of Chinese scarf, neckband or waistcoat

Xiapei, also known as hapi in Korea, is a type of Chinese clothing accessory in either the form of a long scarf, a neckband, or in the shape of waistcoat depending on the time period. It was also referred as xiapeizhui when it was ornamented with a peizhui at its front end; the peizhui ornament could be made of diverse materials, such as silver, jade, and gold.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Hufu (clothing)</span> Generic term for non-Han Chinese clothing

Hufu, also referred as Hu clothing, nomadic dress, 'barbarian' clothing or dress, or foreign dress, is a generic term which refers to any clothing which was worn in ancient China and its surrounding regions by non-Han Chinese people. This term is also used to refer to foreigner's dress or clothing of foreign origins in ancient China. The introduction of Hufu-style garments and attire in China occurred by the time of King Wuling of Zhao.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Mili (veil)</span> A veil which typically covers the entire body

Mili is a type of Chinese veil which originated from Hufu of the Rong and Yi people cultures. In the Sui to early Tang dynasties, the mili was typically to a body-long veil which was used to conceal the body of women; it was a form of burnoose which was burqua-like. The full-body mili then evolved into the weimao by the end of the Sui dynasty. The full-body mili continued to be worn in the Tang dynasty,but started to lose popularity by the middle of the 7th century. It eventually disappeared completely by 705 AD. Some Tang dynasty mili also only covered the women's face and neck areas.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Damao (hat)</span> A Chinese round hat with high crown and wide brim

Damao, also known as Big hat in English, is a type of Chinese round hat with a wide brim, which was worn in the Ming dynasty. It was commonly worn by commoners of the Ming dynasty and is often seen in Ming dynasty portraits. It originated in the Yuan dynasty; it was derived from the Mongol's boli hat.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Hebao</span> Chinese embroidery pouches

Hebao, sometimes referred as Propitious pouch in English, is generic term used to refer to Chinese embroidery pouches, purses, or small bag. When they are used as Chinese perfume pouch, they are referred as xiangnang, xiangbao, or xiangdai. In everyday life, hebao are used to store items. In present-days China, xiangbao are still valued traditional gifts or token of fortune. Xiangbao are also used in Traditional Chinese medicine.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Tanling ruqun</span> Traditional Chinese womans costume

Tanling ruqun, also known as Tan collar ruqun and U-collar ruqun, is a type of Hanfu which was developed under the influence of Hufu ; it is a form a kind of ruqun which typically consists of three parts, featuring a low-cut low-cut U-shaped collar upper inner garment with long sleeves, a U-shaped collar banbi upper outer garment with short sleeves, a long high-waisted skirt. It can also be adorned with a shawl, called pipo. It was a popular form of clothing attire in the Sui and Tang dynasty. In the 21st century, the Tanling ruqun re-appeared as a result of the Hanfu movement. The 21st century Tanling ruqun was developed by reproducing the original patterns of the historical tanling ruqun while being aligned with modern aesthetics.

Garment collars in Hanfu are diverse and come in several shapes, including jiaoling, duijin, yuanling, liling, fangling, tanling. Some forms of collars were indigenous to China while others had been adopted from the Hufu of other non-Han Chinese ethnic minorities and/or from the clothing worn by foreigners.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Fanlingpao</span> Lapel robes categorized as Hufu

Fanlingpao, sometimes referred as kuapao and hufu in the Tang dynasty when they feature double overturned lapels, is a type of paofu with lapels. It was categorized as Hufu instead of Hanfu due to its association with clothing of the foreigners who came from the Silk road. Fanlingpao were first introduced in China during the Northern Wei dynasty and became popular in Northern Qi. The custom of wearing fanlingpao were then inherited and further developed in the Sui and Tang dynasties. The fanlingpao could be transformed into a round collar robe, called yuanlingpao, in the Tang dynasty through the use of buttons. The fanlingpao shows foreign influences, which are mostly likely from the Persian, Sassanian Persian, Iranian Sogdian, and Turkic. Fanlingpao were popular fashion during Tang dynasty for both men and women and showed the popularity of Hufu-style clothing during this period; it was considered hufu while yuanlingpao was categorized as a form Hanfu.

Guan, literally translated as hat or cap or crown in English, is a general term which refers to a type of headwear in Hanfu which covers a small area of the upper part of the head instead of the entire head. The guan was typically a formal form of headwear which was worn together with its corresponding court dress attire. There were sumptuary laws which regulated the wearing of guan; however, these laws were not fixed; and thus, they would differ from dynasty to dynasty. There were various forms and types of guan.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Ku (trousers)</span> Traditional Chinese trousers

Ku, also called kuzi, collectively refers to the traditional Chinese trousers in Hanfu in the broad sense. Ku can also refer to the kaidangku, which are Chinese trousers without a rise as opposed to the trousers with a rise, referred as hedangku or kun in ancient times.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Qun</span> Traditional Chinese skirts

Qun, referred as chang prior to the Han dynasty, chang and xiachang, and sometimes referred as apron in English even though they are not apron as defined in the English dictionary, is a generic term which refers to the Chinese skirts used in Hanfu, especially those worn as part of ruqun, and in Xifu. The qun and its predecessor, the chang, along with the upper garment called yi and the trousers called ku, are all indigenous clothing of the Zhongyuan, which conformed to the fashion style of the Chinese civilization in ancient times. Both the qun and the chang, were both typically in the form of a wrap-around skirt like an apron. However, throughout Chinese history, the chang eventually evolved into the qun; and the qun evolved in diverse shapes, styles, and construction throughout the succeeding dynasties. The qun continued to exist even in the Republic of China. Several forms of ancient-style qun regained popularity in the 21st century following the Hanfu movement; this also inspired the development of new styles of qun with modern aesthetics and shapes.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Lingzi</span> Traditional Chinese pheasant feathers decoration on headwear

Lingzi, also called zhiling, refers to a traditional Chinese ornament which uses long pheasant tail feather appendages to decorate some headdress in Xifu, Chinese opera costumes. In Chinese opera, the lingzi not only decorative purpose but are also used express thoughts, feelings, and the drama plot. They are typically used on the helmets of warriors, where a pair of pheasant feathers extensions are the indicators that the character is a warrior figure; the length of the feathers, on the other hand, is an indicator of the warrior's rank. The lingzi are generally about five or six feet long. Most of the time, lingzi are used to represent handsome military commanders.

References

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  4. "The Rites of Zhou - 符 - Chinese Text Project". ctext.org (in Chinese (Taiwan)). Retrieved 2022-05-30.
  5. 1 2 3 4 5 Needham, Joseph (1981). Science in traditional China: a comparative perspective . Chinese University Press. p.  97. ISBN   962-201-212-4.
  6. "Tiger Tally". China Ancient. Retrieved 28 Sep 2011.
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  8. 1 2 Feng, Ge (2015). Traditional Chinese rites and rituals. Zhengming Du. Newcastle upon Tyne: Cambridge Scholars Publishing. ISBN   1-4438-8783-8. OCLC   935642485.
  9. 1 2 3 Zhu, Ruixi; 朱瑞熙 (2016). A social history of middle-period China : the Song, Liao, Western Xia and Jin dynasties. Bangwei Zhang, Fusheng Liu, Chongbang Cai, Zengyu Wang, Peter Ditmanson, Bang Qian Zhu (Updated ed.). Cambridge, United Kingdom. ISBN   978-1-107-16786-5. OCLC   953576345.
  10. Deng, Qiaobing (2019). Chinese painting An intellectual history. Translated by Chun Li, Jiasheng Shi, Wei Lin, Youbin Zhao, Zhiqing Zhang. American Academic Press. ISBN   978-1631816512.
  11. The Oxford dictionary of family names in Britain and Ireland. Patrick Hanks, Richard A. Coates, Peter McClure (First ed.). [Oxford]. 2016. ISBN   978-0-19-252747-9. OCLC   964412220.{{cite book}}: CS1 maint: others (link)
Fu
Qin State Qin Dynasty Bronze Tiger Tally (46552863315).jpg
Tiger tally (Hufu) of Qin dynasty period