|Headquarters||New York City, United States|
|Robert M. Hutchins|
|Ford Foundation (funder)|
The Fund for the Republic (1951–1959) was an [ clarify ] created by the Ford Foundation and dedicated to protecting freedom of speech and other civil liberties in the United States. In 1959, the Fund moved from New York City to Santa Barbara, California, and changed its name to the Center for the Study of Democratic Institutions (CSDI).[ citation needed ]
With the growth of McCarthyism and the Second Red Scare, the subject of communism in America began to loom large in the public consciousness.
In 1951, Robert M. Hutchins became the president of the Fund for the Republic, a non-profit organization whose basic objectives were to research and analyze civil liberties and civil rights. In 1954, Wilbur Hugh Ferry became Fund vice president, responsible for administration and public relations, and moved with the Fund to Santa Barbara 1959.
In August 1953, Clifford P. Case resigned from the House to become president of the Ford Foundation's Fund for the Republic.He served in that position until March 1954.
Walter Millis, former editorial and staff writer for the New York Herald Tribune (1924–1954), became a staff member of the Fund for the Republic (1954–1968).[ citation needed ]
Bethuel M. Webster served as legal counsel to the Fund and represented the Fund in hearings before the notorious Un-American Activities Committee of the House of Representatives (HUAC). During this period he also defended William Remington, an economist and alleged Communist accused of espionage.[ citation needed ]
Political scientist Clinton Rossiter of Cornell University directed the Fund for the Republic, which aimed to publish a full-scale history of American communism. It engaged David A. Shannon of the University of Wisconsin to write the history of the Communist Party USA during the post-war period. In 1952, it engaged Theodore Draper to write a monograph on the party's early years. Draper had already been thinking of writing a "traditional" history of the Party, based upon documentary sources and meeting scholarly standards. [ citation needed ] Robert W. Iversen wrote a book for the fund called Communism and the Schools, published in 1959.In 1954, Millis became the director of the Fund's study of demilitarization.
Other fellows and grant recipients include Rev. Glenn E. Smiley et al. for Martin Luther King and the Montgomery Story (1957),David Fellman (1957–1958), and Norman St John-Stevas (1958).
In 1956, the Fund may have[ clarification needed ] set up the Robert E. Sherwood Award, given to Jerome Coopersmith for writing the episode[ clarification needed ] "I Was Accused" (based on the true story of actor George Voskovec, interned at Ellis Island during days of McCarthyism.
Joseph Raymond McCarthy was an American politician and attorney who served as a Republican U.S. Senator from the state of Wisconsin from 1947 until his death in 1957. Beginning in 1950, McCarthy became the most visible public face of a period in the United States in which Cold War tensions fueled fears of widespread communist subversion. He is known for alleging that numerous communists and Soviet spies and sympathizers had infiltrated the United States federal government, universities, film industry, and elsewhere. Ultimately, the smear tactics that he used led him to be censured by the U.S. Senate. The term "McCarthyism", coined in 1950 in reference to McCarthy's practices, was soon applied to similar anti-communist activities. Today, the term is used more broadly to mean demagogic, reckless, and unsubstantiated accusations, as well as public attacks on the character or patriotism of political opponents.
McCarthyism is the practice of making accusations of subversion or treason, especially when related to communism. The term refers to U.S. senator Joseph McCarthy (R-Wisconsin) and has its origins in the period in the United States known as the Second Red Scare, lasting from the late 1940s through the 1950s. It was characterized by heightened political repression and a campaign spreading fear of communist influence on American institutions and of espionage by Soviet agents. After the mid-1950s, McCarthyism began to decline, mainly due to the gradual loss of public popularity and opposition from the U.S. Supreme Court led by Chief Justice Earl Warren. The Warren Court made a series of rulings that helped bring an end to McCarthyism.
A Red Scare is the promotion of a widespread fear of a potential rise of communism or anarchism by a society or state. The term is most often used to refer to two periods in the history of the United States which are referred to by this name. The First Red Scare, which occurred immediately after World War I, revolved around a perceived threat from the American labor movement, anarchist revolution, and political radicalism. The Second Red Scare, which occurred immediately after World War II, was preoccupied with the perception that national or foreign communists were infiltrating or subverting U.S. society and the federal government. The name refers to the red flags typically used by communists.
Red Channels: The Report of Communist Influence in Radio and Television was an anti-Communist document published in the United States at the start of the 1950s. Issued by the right-wing journal Counterattack on June 22, 1950, the pamphlet-style book names 151 actors, writers, musicians, broadcast journalists, and others in the context of purported Communist manipulation of the entertainment industry. Some of the 151 were already being denied employment because of their political beliefs, history, or association with suspected subversives. Red Channels effectively placed the rest on a blacklist.
Arthur Garfield Hays was an American lawyer and champion of civil liberties issues, best known as a co-founder and general counsel of the American Civil Liberties Union and for participating in notable cases including the Sacco and Vanzetti trial. He was a member of the Committee of 48 and a contributor to The New Republic. In 1937, he headed an independent investigation of an incident in which 19 people were killed and more than 200 wounded in Ponce, Puerto Rico, when police fired at them. His commission concluded the police had behaved as a mob and committed a massacre.
Corliss Lamont was an American socialist philosopher and advocate of various left-wing and civil liberties causes. As a part of his political activities he was the Chairman of National Council of American-Soviet Friendship starting from the early 1940s.
Michael Wilson was an American screenwriter who was blacklisted by the Hollywood film studios during the era of McCarthyism for being a communist.
The Center for the Study of Democratic Institutions in Santa Barbara, California was an influential think tank from 1959 to 1977. Its influence waned thereafter and it closed in 1987. It held discussions on subjects it hoped would influence public deliberation. It attained some controversy with its conference of student radical leaders in 1967, and with a suggested new U.S. Constitution proposed by Fellow Rexford G. Tugwell.
Theodore H. "Ted" Draper (1912–2006) was an American historian and political writer. Draper is best known for the 14 books he completed during his life, including work regarded as seminal on the formative period of the American Communist Party, the Cuban Revolution, and the Iran–Contra Affair. Draper was a fellow of the American Academy of Arts and Sciences and the 1990 recipient of the Herbert Feis Award for Nonacademically Affiliated Historians from the American Historical Association.
Clinton Rossiter was an American historian and political scientist at Cornell University (1947-1970) who wrote The American Presidency among 20 other books and won both the Bancroft Prize and the Woodrow Wilson Foundation Award for his book Seedtime of the Republic.
George Ephraim Sokolsky (1893–1962) was a weekly radio broadcaster for the National Association of Manufacturers and a columnist for The New York Herald Tribune, who later switched to The New York Sun and other Hearst newspapers. He was also an expert on China.
The Hollywood blacklist was the colloquial term for what was in actuality a broader entertainment industry blacklist put in effect in the mid-20th century in the United States during the early years of the Cold War. The blacklist involved the practice of denying employment to entertainment industry professionals believed to be or to have been Communists or sympathizers. Not just actors, but screenwriters, directors, musicians, and other American entertainment professionals were barred from work by the studios. This was usually done on the basis of their membership in, alleged membership in, or even just sympathy with the Communist Party USA, or on the basis of their refusal to assist Congressional investigations into the party's activities. Even during the period of its strictest enforcement, from the late 1940s through to the late 1950s, the blacklist was rarely made explicit or easily verifiable, as it was the result of numerous individual decisions by the studios and was not the result of official legal action. Nevertheless, it quickly and directly damaged or ended the careers and income of scores of individuals working in the film industry.
The following is a bibliography on American Communism, listing some of the most important works on the topic.
Wilbur H. 'Ping' Ferry was an American activist and philanthropist.
The Jefferson School of Social Science was an adult education institution of the Communist Party USA located in New York City. The so-called "Jeff School" was launched in 1944 as a successor to the party's New York Workers School, albeit skewed more towards community outreach and education rather than the training of party functionaries and activists, as had been the primary mission of its predecessor. Peaking in size in 1947 and 1948 with an attendance of about 5,000, the Jefferson School was embroiled in controversy during the McCarthy period including a 1954 legal battle with the Subversive Activities Control Board over the school's refusal to register as a so-called "Communist-controlled organization."
The National Federation for Constitutional Liberties (NFCL) was a civil rights advocacy group made up from a broad range of people.
Robert William Iversen (1920–1988) was an American historian who wrote The Communists and the Schools in 1959, which discusses the Teachers Union, Local 5 of the American Federation of Teachers in New York City; the book is often cited often by scholars on academic freedom in the 20th-century United States.
American Committee for the Protection of Foreign Born was the successor group to the National Council for the Protection of the Foreign Born and its successor, seen by the US federal government as subversive for "protecting foreign Communists who come to this country," thus "enabling them to operate here.".
Public Affairs Press was a book publisher in Washington, DC, owned and often edited by Morris Bartel Schnapper (1912-1999).