Fushimi Castle

Last updated
Fushimi Castle
伏見城
Fushimi-ku, Kyoto, Japan
Fushimimomoyamajo 03.jpg
Type Azuchi-Momoyama castle
Site information
Controlled by Toyotomi Hideyoshi (1592–1598)
Torii Mototada (1598–1600)
Tokugawa shogunate (1600–1623)
Japan (1964–present)
ConditionReconstructed; buildings closed to the public since 2003
Site history
Built1592–1594, rebuilt late 1590s, again in 1964
Built by Toyotomi Hideyoshi (original)
In use1592–1623
Materialsstone, wood, plaster, gold
Demolished1596 by an earthquake; dismantled 1623

Fushimi Castle (伏見城, Fushimi-jō), also known as Momoyama Castle (桃山城, Momoyama-jō) or Fushimi-Momoyama Castle, is a Japanese castle located in Fushimi Ward, Kyoto.

Contents

Fushimi Castle was constructed from 1592 to 1594 by Toyotomi Hideyoshi at the end of the Sengoku period as his retirement residence. Fushimi Castle was destroyed in 1596 and rebuilt before eventually being demolished in 1623 and its site later used for the tomb of Emperor Meiji. The current Fushimi Castle is a replica constructed in 1964 near the original site in Fushimi. [1]

The Azuchi-Momoyama period of Japanese history partially takes its name from Fushimi Castle.

History

Golden Tea Room in Fushimi Castle FushimijoChashitsu.jpg
Golden Tea Room in Fushimi Castle

The construction of the original Fushimi Castle was begun in 1592, the year after Toyotomi Hideyoshi's retirement from the regency, and completed in 1594. Twenty provinces provided workers for the construction, which numbered between 20,000 and 30,000. [2] [3]

Though bearing the external martial appearance of a castle, the structure was intended as a retirement palace for Hideyoshi, and was furnished and decorated as such. It is particularly famous for its Golden Tea Room in which both the walls and the implements were covered in gold leaf. The castle was intended to be the site for Hideyoshi's peace talks with Chinese diplomats seeking an end to the Seven-Year War in Korea, but an earthquake destroyed the castle entirely only two years after its completion.

Karamon gate was moved to Nishi Hongan-ji Nishihonganji06s4592.jpg
Karamon gate was moved to Nishi Hongan-ji

It was rebuilt soon afterwards, and came to be controlled by Torii Mototada, a vassal of Tokugawa Ieyasu. In 1600, the castle fell in a famous and significant siege by Ishida Mitsunari. Torii Mototada, in a celebrated act of honor and bravery, defended the castle for eleven days, delaying Ishida's forces and allowing his lord Tokugawa time to build his own army. This had a profound effect on the Battle of Sekigahara, which came soon afterwards, and which marked the final victory of Tokugawa Ieyasu over all his rivals.

Fushimi-Momoyama Castle in autumn Fushimi-Momoyama-Castle-autumn-Luka-Peternel.jpg
Fushimi-Momoyama Castle in autumn

In 1623, the castle was dismantled, and many of its rooms and buildings were incorporated into castles and temples across Japan. Several temples in Kyoto, such as Yōgen-in (養源院), Genkō-an (源光庵), and Hōsen-in (宝泉院), have a blood-stained ceiling that had been the floor of a corridor at Fushimi Castle where Torii Mototada and company had committed suicide. [4]

In 1912, the tomb of Emperor Meiji was built on the original site of the castle. The castle was not rebuilt until 1964, when a replica was created very nearby and primarily in concrete. The new structure served as a museum of the life and campaigns of Toyotomi Hideyoshi, and the main attraction of a small theme park called "Castle Land", but was closed to the public in 2003. [5] The castle grounds, however, were reopened in 2007. [6]

See also

Related Research Articles

Sengoku period Period of Japanese history from 1467 to 1615

The Sengoku period was a period in Japanese history of near-constant civil war and social upheaval from 1467–1615.

Azuchi–Momoyama period Final phase of the Sengoku period of Japanese history (1568-1600)

The Azuchi–Momoyama period was the final phase of the Sengoku period in Japanese history from 1568 to 1600.

Battle of Sekigahara 1600 battle in Japan

The Battle of Sekigahara was a decisive battle on October 21, 1600 in what is now Gifu prefecture, Japan, at the end of the Sengoku period. This battle was fought by the forces of Tokugawa Ieyasu against a coalition of Toyotomi loyalist clans under Ishida Mitsunari, several of which defected before or during the battle, leading to a Tokugawa victory. The Battle of Sekigahara was the largest battle of Japanese feudal history and is often regarded as the most important. Toyotomi's defeat led to the establishment of the Tokugawa shogunate.

Ishida Mitsunari Samurai who led the Western army in the Battle of Sekigahara

Ishida Mitsunari was a Japanese samurai and military commander of the late Sengoku period of Japan. He is probably best remembered as the commander of the Western army in the Battle of Sekigahara following the Azuchi–Momoyama period of the 16th century. He is also known by his court title, Jibu-no-shō (治部少輔).

Fushimi-ku, Kyoto Ward of Kyoto in Kinki, Japan

Fushimi is one of the eleven wards in the city of Kyoto, in Kyoto Prefecture, Japan. Famous places in Fushimi include the Fushimi Inari Shrine, with thousands of torii lining the paths up and down a mountain; Fushimi Castle, originally built by Toyotomi Hideyoshi, with its rebuilt towers and gold-lined tea-room; and the Teradaya, an inn at which Sakamoto Ryōma was attacked and injured about a year before his assassination. Also of note is the Gokōgu shrine, which houses a stone used in the construction of Fushimi Castle. The water in the shrine is particularly famous and it is recorded as one of Japan's 100 best clear water spots.

Council of Five Elders 1598–1600 government in feudal Japan

The Council of Five Elders was a group of five powerful feudal lords formed in 1598 by the Regent Toyotomi Hideyoshi, shortly before his death the same year. While Hideyoshi was on his deathbed, his son, Toyotomi Hideyori, was still only 5 years old and as such Hideyoshi needed to create the council in order to ensure his heir would be able to succeed him after coming of age. They also acted as advisers for the Five Commissioners, which had also been established by Hideyoshi to govern Kyoto and the surrounding areas.

Uesugi Kagekatsu Japanese samurai daimyō during the Sengoku and Edo periods

Uesugi Kagekatsu was a Japanese samurai daimyō during the Sengoku and Edo periods. He was the adopted son of Uesugi Kenshin and Uesugi Kagetora’s brother in law.

Shimazu Yoshihiro

Shimazu Yoshihiro was the second son of Shimazu Takahisa and the younger brother of Shimazu Yoshihisa. Traditionally believed to be the 17th head of the Shimazu clan, he was a skilled general during the Sengoku period who greatly contributed to the unification of Kyūshū.

Torii Mototada

Torii Mototada was a Japanese Samurai and Daimyo of the Sengoku period through late Azuchi–Momoyama period, who served Tokugawa Ieyasu. Torii died at the siege of Fushimi where his garrison was greatly outnumbered and destroyed by the army of Ishida Mitsunari. Torii's refusal to surrender had a great impact on Japanese history; the fall of Fushimi bought Ieyasu some time to regroup and eventually win the Battle at Sekigahara.

Yodo-dono Japanese samurai class woman

Yodo-dono (淀殿) or Yodogimi (淀君) was a prominently placed figure in the late-Sengoku period. She was the daughter of Oichi and sister of Ohatsu and Oeyo. She was a concubine and second wife of Toyotomi Hideyoshi, who was then the most powerful man in Japan. She also became the mother of his son and successor, Hideyori. Her time period being that of large turmoil and overhaul, Yodo-dono had an interest toward both politics and administration. She actively acted in the restoration of the Toyotomi clan after the fall of the Council of Five Elders, as Hideyori's guardian. Alongside her son, Yodo-dono led the last anti-Tokugawa shogunate resistance in the siege of Osaka.


Ōno Harunaga was a general under Toyotomi Hideyori, and fought in the Siege of Osaka in 1615. He became lord of Osaka castle after the Battle of Sekigahara. Ono led forces against those of Wakayama Castle in the Battle of Kashii, also the Battle of Shigino, and the Battle of Tennoji, where he was killed in action. He held the rank at court of Junior Fifth Rank. Harunaga had a fiefdom of 15,000 koku.

Ueda Castle

Ueda Castle is a Japanese castle located in Ueda, northern Nagano Prefecture, Japan. At the end of the Edo period, Ueda Castle was home to a cadet branch of the Matsudaira clan, daimyō of Ueda Domain, but the castle is better known for its association with the Sengoku period Sanada clan. It was also called Amagafuji-jō or Matsuo-jō. The castle was designated a National Historic Site of Japan in 1934.

Jurakudai

The Jurakudai or Jurakutei (聚樂第/聚楽第) was a palace constructed at the order of Toyotomi Hideyoshi in Kyoto, Japan. Construction began in 1586, when Hideyoshi had taken the post of Kampaku, and required nineteen months to complete. Its total area was almost equal to the Imperial Palace Enclosure. It was decorated exceptionally lavishly, but had thick walls and a moat more reminiscent of fortresses such as that at Osaka. It was located in present-day Kamigyō, on the site where the Imperial palace had stood in the Heian period.

The Sekigahara Campaign was a series of battles in Japan fought between the Eastern Army aligned with Tokugawa Ieyasu and the Western Army loyal to Ishida Mitsunari, culminating in the decisive Battle of Sekigahara. The conflict was sparked by a punitive expedition led by Ieyasu against the Uesugi clan in the northeastern Tōhoku region, providing Mitsunari with an opportunity to denounce Ieyasu in the name of the infant ruling taikō Toyotomi Hideyori while the Tokugawa troops were in the field.

Siege of Fushimi Castle

The siege of Fushimi was a crucial battle in the series leading up to the decisive Battle of Sekigahara which ended Japan's Sengoku period. Fushimi Castle was defended by a force loyal to Tokugawa Ieyasu's Eastern army, led by Torii Mototada. Knowing of his inevitable defeat, Torii's sacrifice diverted Ishida Mitsunari's attention, and part of his Western army, away from his Nakasendō fortresses, which were attacked by Tokugawa during the siege of Fushimi. Ultimately, the castle fell, but served a crucial role in allowing for greater strategic victories by Tokugawa.

Ōgaki Castle

Ōgaki Castle is a flatlands-style Japanese castle located in the city of Ōgaki, Gifu Prefecture, Japan. During the Sengoku period, Ōgaki Castle was home to several of Toyotomi Hideyoshi's most trusted generals and relatives; during the Edo period, it was home to the Toda clan, daimyō of Ōgaki Domain, who dominated parts of the province of Mino under the Tokugawa shogunate. Other names for the castle include Bi Castle and Kyoroku Castle.

Yamagata Castle

Yamagata Castle is a flatland-style Japanese castle located in the center of the city of Yamagata, eastern Yamagata Prefecture, Japan. Throughout the Edo period, Yamagata Castle was the headquarters for the daimyō of Yamagata Domain. The castle was also known as "Ka-jō" (霞城). The castle grounds are protected as a National Historic Site by the Japanese government

Hōsen-in

Hōsen-in (宝泉院) is a Buddhist temple of the Tendai-shū, located in Sakyō-ku of Kyoto-shi, in the prefecture of Kyoto, Japan. It is specified as a natural monument by the Kyoto government.

Iwakitaira Castle

Iwakitaira Castle is a hilltop-style Japanese castle located in the city of Iwaki, Fukushima Prefecture, in the Tōhoku region of Japan. It also called Ryūgajō Castle (龍ヶ城). Built in the early Edo period, it served as the headquarters for a succession of daimyō of Iwakitaira Domain under the Tokugawa shogunate. The site is now mostly on private lands, with only a small portion of the moats and ramparts remaining.

Lady Acha Japanese noble woman from the Tokugawa clan

Lady Acha or Acha no Tsubone was a Japanese noble woman from the Sengoku period to the early Edo period. She was a concubine of Tokugawa Ieyasu, the founder of the Tokugawa shogunate. Due to her intelligence, Ieyasu entrusted her with management of the family's affairs, sending her to negotiate peace during the Siege of Osaka. Her contributions to the stabilization of the Tokugawa shogunate and service to the country were notable for the court; being enducted to the Junior First Rank of the Imperial Court the second highest honor that could be conferred by the Emperor of Japan.

References

  1. "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 2007-02-19. Retrieved 2015-08-17.{{cite web}}: CS1 maint: archived copy as title (link)
  2. "Castles of Japan".
  3. Sansom, George (1961). A History of Japan, 1334-1615 . Stanford: Stanford University Press. p.  383-384. ISBN   0804705259.
  4. "The Blood Ceilings of Kyoto, memories of Hideyoshi, Fushimi Castle, Tokugawa Ieyasu". www.samuelhawley.com.
  5. O'Grady, Daniel. "Japanese Castle Explorer – Fushimi Castle - 伏見城". www.japanese-castle-explorer.com.
  6. "Fushimi-Momoyama Castle | Japan Experience". www.japan-experience.com. Retrieved 2022-06-08.

Further reading

Coordinates: 34°56′15″N135°46′52″E / 34.937534°N 135.781194°E / 34.937534; 135.781194