Fuxian Lake

Last updated
Fuxian Lake
1 fuxian lake luchongcun aerial panorama 2018.jpg
Fuxian Lake and Luchong Scenic Resort
China Yunnan location map.svg
Red pog.svg
Fuxian Lake
Location Yunnan Province
Coordinates 24°30′08″N102°53′20″E / 24.50225°N 102.888888889°E / 24.50225; 102.888888889 Coordinates: 24°30′08″N102°53′20″E / 24.50225°N 102.888888889°E / 24.50225; 102.888888889
Primary inflows Liangwang River, Dongda River, Jianshan River
Primary outflows Haikou River
Basin  countries China
Max. length31.5 km (20 mi)
Max. width11.5 km (7 mi)
Surface area211 km2 (100 sq mi)
Average depth89.6 m (294 ft)
Max. depth155 m (509 ft)
Water volume18,900×10^6 m3 (670×10^9 cu ft)
Surface elevation1,721 m (5,646 ft)
Islands Gushan
Settlements Chengjiang County
References [1]
Black-headed Gulls in Fuxian Lake Black-headed Gulls in Fuxian Lake, Yunnan, China.jpg
Black-headed Gulls in Fuxian Lake
Gushan Hill in Fuxian Lake Gushan in Fuxian Lake.jpg
Gushan Hill in Fuxian Lake

Fuxian Lake (Chinese :抚仙湖; pinyin :Fǔxiān Hú) stretches out through Chengjiang, Jiangchuan and Huaning Counties in Yunnan Province, spanning an area of 212 square kilometers. The lake is ranked third-largest in Yunnan, after Dian Lake and Erhai Lake. Also the deepest lake in Yunnan, it is 155 meters deep at its greatest depth. It is also the third-deepest fresh water lake in China, after Tianchi and Kanas Lake. [1]

Contents

Climate

Fuxian Lake has humid subtropical climate (Köppen climate classification Cwa) with humid summers and mild dry winters. [2]

Climate data for Fuxian Lake
MonthJanFebMarAprMayJunJulAugSepOctNovDecYear
Average high °C (°F)16.7
(62.1)
18.7
(65.7)
22.6
(72.7)
25.1
(77.2)
26.4
(79.5)
26.4
(79.5)
25.6
(78.1)
25.9
(78.6)
24.6
(76.3)
21.2
(70.2)
18.7
(65.7)
16.7
(62.1)
22.4
(72.3)
Daily mean °C (°F)10.3
(50.5)
12.1
(53.8)
15.5
(59.9)
18.6
(65.5)
21.0
(69.8)
22.3
(72.1)
21.8
(71.2)
21.6
(70.9)
20.2
(68.4)
17.0
(62.6)
13.7
(56.7)
10.8
(51.4)
17.1
(62.7)
Average low °C (°F)3.9
(39.0)
5.5
(41.9)
8.5
(47.3)
12.2
(54.0)
15.7
(60.3)
18.2
(64.8)
18.0
(64.4)
17.4
(63.3)
15.9
(60.6)
12.8
(55.0)
8.8
(47.8)
4.8
(40.6)
11.8
(53.3)
Average precipitation mm (inches)12
(0.5)
17
(0.7)
19
(0.7)
27
(1.1)
93
(3.7)
165
(6.5)
200
(7.9)
195
(7.7)
113
(4.4)
78
(3.1)
41
(1.6)
14
(0.6)
974
(38.5)
Source: Climate-Data.org

Flora and fauna

Fuxian Lake is known for its unique fauna, including many endemic species. However, its relative isolation makes it vulnerable to biological invasions and pollution. [3] [4]

Together with other Yunnan lakes (Dian, Qilu, Yangzong, Xingyun, and Yilong), Fuxian is recognized as an ecoregion. [5] Fuxian is one of three major Yunnan lakes with a high number of endemics, the others being Dian (Dianchi) and Erhai. [6] There are 24 native fish species and subspecies in Fuxian Lake, including 11 endemics. [6] The situation for most of these is precarious because they have been negatively impacted by the many introduction of exotic species of fish (26 species), habitat degradation, water pollution, and overfishing. [6] [7] The endemic fish are all cyprinids or stone loaches. [6]

Endemic fish in Fuxian Lake
Species IUCN assessmentComment
Poropuntius chonglingchungi Critically endangered [8] Possibly extinct (last seen in the 1990s) [6]
Cyprinus fuxianensis Critically endangered [9] Possibly extinct (last seen in the 1990s) [6]
Schizothorax lepidothorax Endangered [10] Possibly extinct (last seen in the 1990s) [6]
Sinocyclocheilus tingi Endangered [11] Still survives, but strong decline [11]
Tor yunnanensis Endangered [12] Possibly extinct (last seen in the 1990s) [12]
Anabarilius grahami Not assessedStill survives, but nearing extinction [4]
Discogobio longibarbatus Not assessedPossibly extinct (last seen in the 1990s) [6]
Percocypris regani Not assessedStill survives. [6] Recent evidence suggests it should be considered a species (Percocypris regani) instead of a subspecies (Percocypris pingi regani) [13]
Triplophysa fuxianensis Not assessedStill survives [6]
Yunnanilus chuia Not assessedPossibly extinct (last seen in the 1990s) [6]
Yunnanilus obtusirostrisa Not assessedPossibly extinct (last seen in the 1990s) [6]

The fungus Dyrithiopsis lakefuxianensis , growing on submerged wood, has been collected from Fuxian Lake and described as a newly discovered species, as indicated by its scientific name. [14]

A few native hydrophytes have disappeared from the lake. [6]

The prehistoric Fuxianhuia from the early-Cambrian, significant in discussions of early arthropod evolution, is also named after the lake, where it was discovered in 1987.

Lost city

In 2001 it was reported that earthenware and stonework covering an area of approximately 2.4–2.7 square kilometers had been discovered beneath the lake. Carbon dating circa 2007 confirmed an age of 1,750 years, or approximately 257 CE. It is thought that the remains may represent buildings from the ancient Dian Kingdom that slid into the lake during an earthquake. [15] [16]

In 2006, CCTV made an additional survey. Carbon dating in 2007 found shells attached to relics to be roughly 1,750 years old. In October 2014 additional research was made on the site by a multidisciplinary team. Portions were mapped and 42 handmade stone artifacts were recovered from a depth of seven meters. [17] [18]

Notable sites

There are two major sites west of the lake: a military base at Lijiashan (speculated to be used for submarine testing and other forms of nautical engineering) and a nearby tourism resort.

The 1 m solar telescope of Yunnan Observatory is also built on a shore of the lake.

Panorama

The panorama of Fuxian Lake.jpg
Panorama of Fuxian Lake taken from mountains to the west.

Related Research Articles

<i>Cyprinus</i> Genus of fishes

Cyprinus is the genus of typical carps in family Cyprinidae. Most species in the genus are of East Asia origin with only the common carp in Western Asia and Europe; this invasive species has also been introduced to many other regions around the world. Cyprinus are closely related to some more barb-like genera, such as Cyclocheilichthys and Barbonymus (tinfoils). The crucian carps (Carassius) of western Eurasia, which include the goldfish, are apparently not as closely related.

Dian Lake

Dianchi Lake, also known as Lake Dian and Kunming Lake, is a large lake located on the Yunnan-Guizhou Plateau close to Kunming, Yunnan, China. Its nickname is the "Sparkling Pearl Embedded in a Highland" and it was the model for the Kunming Lake in the Summer Palace in Beijing. Its name is the source of Yunnan's Chinese abbreviation 滇.

Erhai Lake

Erhai or Er Lake, is an alpine fault lake in Yunnan province, China. Erhai was also known as Yeyuze (叶榆泽) or Kunming Lake (昆明池) in ancient times.

Anabarilius polylepis is a species of ray-finned fish in the family Cyprinidae, that is endemic to Yunnan, China. It only occurs in Dian Lake and Songhuaba reservoir in Kunming. It was once a major commercial fish species, but it has not been confirmed in the lake since the 1970s. Its decline is attributed to many factors: introduced fish species, decreasing water quality, the loss of macrophytes, over-fishing, and the loss of breeding sites due to siltation and blocked access.

Cyprinus micristius, the Dianchi carp, is a critically endangered species of ray-finned fish in the family Cyprinidae. It is found only in Lake Dianchi and its tributaries in Yunnan, China. The nominate subspecies from the lake itself has not been confirmed since the 1960s.

Sphaerophysa dianchiensis is a critically endangered species of stone loach endemic to the Dian Lake in China, but it has not been confirmed in decades and is likely extinct.

Tor yunnanensis is a species of ray-finned fish in the family Cyprinidae. It is found only in Fuxian Lake in Yunnan, China. It has been severely impacted by the introduced species of fish, pollution, and overfishing, and not seen after the 1990s.

Yunnanilus nigromaculatus is a species of stone loach endemic to the Dianchi Lake basin in China, but has apparently been extirpated from Dianchi Lake itself due to heavy pollution. It was formerly placed in the genus Eonemachilus.

The Kunming catfish is a critically endangered species of catfish in the family Siluridae. It is endemic to Dian Chi Lake, China. There have been no confirmed records in decades and it is feared extinct. S. mento grows to a length of 21.5 centimetres (8.5 in) TL.

Neosalanx tangkahkeii, the Chinese icefish or short-snout icefish, is a species of icefish endemic to fresh and brackish waters in China. Despite its common name it is not the only icefish in China; the majority of the species in this family are found in the country.

Dyrithiopsis is a genus of fungi in the family Amphisphaeriaceae. This is a monotypic genus, containing the single species Dyrithiopsis lakefuxianensis from Fuxian Lake in China.

Anabarilius alburnops is a species of ray-finned fish in the genus Alburnus. It is only known from Dian Lake and Songhuaba Reservoir, both in Kunming, Yunnan. It can reach sizes above 31 cm (12 in) SL.

<i>Anabarilius macrolepis</i> Extinct species of fish

Anabarilius macrolepis is an extinct species of ray-finned fish in the family Cyprinidae that was endemic to Yilong Lake in Yunnan, China. It is believed that it became extinct when Yilong Lake dried up in 1981, as a result of water abstraction for agriculture. The species was not observed in 1983–84, and was declared extinct in 2011.

The golden-line barbel is a species of cyprinid fish endemic to Dian Lake and its tributaries in Yunnan, China. It has been extirpated from the lake itself due to heavy pollution, but survives in a single tributary and a few small temple ponds. This species can reach a length of 23 centimetres (9.1 in) though most are only around 17 centimetres (6.7 in). The greatest weight known for this species is 250 grams (8.8 oz).

Sinocyclocheilus tingi is a species of freshwater fish in the family Cyprinidae. It is only known from Fuxian Lake in Yunnan. It grows to 18.3 cm (7.2 in) SL.

Poropuntius chonglingchungi is a species of ray-finned fish in the genus Poropuntius. The species is only known from Fuxian Lake in Yunnan; it enters streams for spawning. It has been impacted by introduced species, the loss of spawning habitat, and over-fishing. It has not been recorded since the 1980s; IUCN considers it as Critically Endangered and possibly extinct.

Yunnanilus pleurotaenia is a species of stone loach, family Nemacheilidae. It is endemic to Yunnan in southern China. It is known with certainty from Dian Lake and the associated streams; similar fish reported from other lakes might or might not refer to this species. It grows to 6.5 cm (2.6 in) SL.

Cyprinus barbatus is a species of ray-finned fish in the genus Cyprinus. It is endemic to Lake Erhai in Dali, Yunnan. It is negatively impacted by agricultural and domestic pollution and introduced species. The IUCN considers it as critically endangered and possibly extinct, but records as recent as the 2000s (decade) show that it likely does survive.

<i>Margarya melanioides</i> Species of gastropod

Margarya melanioides is a species of large operculate freshwater snail, an aquatic gastropod mollusk in the family Viviparidae, the river snails.

Liobagrus kingi, the King's bullhead, is a species of catfish in the family Amblycipitidae endemic to China, where it is known to occur in the lake Dianchi basin, in its tributaries and effluent river, the Zhangjiu, and two tributaries of the Jinshajiang river in Sichuan and Yunnan. It has not been recorded in the lake since the 1960s. This species grows to a length of 9.5 centimetres (3.7 in) SL.

References

  1. 1 2 Sumin, Wang; Hongshen, Dou (1998). Lakes in China. Beijing: Science Press. p. 374. ISBN   7-03-006706-1.
  2. "Fuxian climate: Average Temperatures, weather by month, Fuxian weather averages - Climate-Data.org". en.climate-data.org. Retrieved 2018-08-29.
  3. Cui, Y. D.; Liu, X. Q.; Wang, H. Z. (2008). "Macrozoobenthic community of Fuxian Lake, the deepest lake of southwest China". Limnologica - Ecology and Management of Inland Waters. 38 (2): 116–125. doi:10.1016/j.limno.2007.10.003.
  4. 1 2 Qin, J.; Xu, J.; Xie, P. (2007). "Diet overlap between the endemic fish Anabarilius grahami (Cyprinidae) and the exotic noodlefish Neosalanx taihuensis (Salangidae) in Lake Fuxian, China". Journal of Freshwater Ecology. 22 (3): 365–370. doi:10.1080/02705060.2007.9664165. S2CID   84874731.
  5. Freshwater Ecoregions of the World: Yunnan Lakes. Archived 2017-01-16 at the Wayback Machine Retrieved 15 February 2017.
  6. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 Wang, Wang, Li, Du, Yang, Lassoie, and Hassan (2013). Six decades of changes in vascular hydrophyte and fish species in three plateau lakes in Yunnan, China. Biodivers. Conserv. 22: 3197–3221. doi: 10.1007/s10531-013-0579-0
  7. Yang, J.X. and Y.R. Chen, editors (1995). The biology and resource utilization of the fishes of Fuxian Lake, Yunnan. Yunnan Science and Technology Press, Kunming, China. ISBN   9787541607677
  8. Zhao, H. (2011). "Poropuntius chonglingchungi". IUCN Red List of Threatened Species . 2011: e.T166192A6189259. doi: 10.2305/IUCN.UK.2011-2.RLTS.T166192A6189259.en . Retrieved 14 January 2018.
  9. Devi, R. & Boguskaya, N. (2011). "Cyprinus fuxianensis". IUCN Red List of Threatened Species . 2011. Retrieved 15 February 2017.
  10. World Conservation Monitoring Centre (1996). "Schizothorax lepidothorax". IUCN Red List of Threatened Species . 1996: e.T19993A9129962. doi: 10.2305/IUCN.UK.1996.RLTS.T19993A9129962.en . Retrieved 14 January 2018.
  11. 1 2 Cui, K. & Chen, X.-Y. (2011). "Sinocyclocheilus tingi". IUCN Red List of Threatened Species . 2011: e.T166116A6177364. doi: 10.2305/IUCN.UK.2011-2.RLTS.T166116A6177364.en . Retrieved 14 January 2018.
  12. 1 2 Chen, X.-Y. (2011). "Folifer yunnanensis". IUCN Red List of Threatened Species . 2011: e.T21992A9345434. doi: 10.2305/IUCN.UK.2011-2.RLTS.T21992A9345434.en . Retrieved 14 January 2018.
  13. Wang, Yang, and Chen (2013). Phylogeny and Biogeography of Percocypris (Cyprinidae, Teleostei). PLoS ONE 8(6): e61827. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0061827
  14. Jeewon, R.; L. Cai; E. C. Y Liew; K. Q Zhang; K. D Hyde (2003-09-01). "Dyrithiopsis lakefuxianensis gen. et sp. nov. from Fuxian Lake, Yunnan, China, and notes on the taxonomic confusion surrounding Dyrithium". Mycologia. 95 (5): 911–920. doi:10.2307/3762019. hdl: 10722/53354 . JSTOR   3762019. PMID   21148998.
  15. "Ancient Buildings Found in Fuxian Lake". 2001-06-04. Retrieved 2010-08-20.
  16. "Mysterious Fuxian Lake's secrets told" . Retrieved 2010-08-20.
  17. "New underwater archeological discoveries made at Fuxian". 23 October 2014.
  18. "云南抚仙湖发现水下史前遗址构件(组图)". 16 October 2014.