Portrait of Gabriel Hanotaux
|Born||19 November 1853|
|Died||11 April 1944 90) (aged|
Albert Auguste Gabriel Hanotaux, known as Gabriel Hanotaux (19 November 1853 – 11 April 1944) was a French statesman and historian.
A historian is a person who studies and writes about the past, and is regarded as an authority on it. Historians are concerned with the continuous, methodical narrative and research of past events as relating to the human race; as well as the study of all history in time. If the individual is concerned with events preceding written history, the individual is a historian of prehistory. Some historians are recognized by publications or training and experience. "Historian" became a professional occupation in the late nineteenth century as research universities were emerging in Germany and elsewhere.
He was born at Beaurevoir in the département of Aisne. He studied history at the École des Chartes, and became maître de conférence in the École des Hautes Études. His political career was that of a civil servant rather than a party politician. In 1879 he entered the ministry of foreign affairs as a secretary, and rose gradually through the diplomatic service.
Beaurevoir is a commune in the department of Aisne in Hauts-de-France in northern France.
Aisne is a French department in the Hauts-de-France region of northern France. It is named after the river Aisne.
In 1886, he was elected deputy for Aisne, but, defeated in 1889, he returned to his diplomatic career, and on 31 May 1894 accepted the offer of Charles Dupuy to be minister of foreign affairs. With one interruption (from 28 October 1895 to 29 April 1896, during the ministry of Leon Bourgeois) he held this portfolio until 14 June 1898. During his ministry he developed the rapprochement of France with Russia—visiting Saint Petersburg with the president, Félix Faure—and sought to delimit the French colonies in Africa through agreements with the British. The Fashoda Incident of July 1898 was the most notable result of this policy. This seems to have intensified Hanotaux's distrust of England, which is apparent in his literary works (though most of these were written after he had left the Quai d'Orsay).
Charles Alexandre Dupuy was a French statesman, three times prime minister.
Saint Petersburg is Russia's second-largest city after Moscow, with 5 million inhabitants in 2012, part of the Saint Petersburg agglomeration with a population of 6.2 million (2015). An important Russian port on the Baltic Sea, it has a status of a federal subject.
Félix François Faure was President of France from 1895 until his death in 1899.
Hanotaux was elected a member of the Académie française on 1 April 1897. He served as a delegate for France with the League of Nations and participated in the 1st (15 November – 18 December 1920), 2nd (5 September – 5 October 1921), 3rd (4–30 September 1922) and 4th Assemblies (3–29 September 1923). In the early 1920s, there was a proposal for the League of Nations to accept Esperanto as their working language. Ten delegates accepted the proposal with only one voice against, the French delegate, Gabriel Hanotaux. Hanotaux did not like how the French language was losing its position as the international language of diplomacy and saw Esperanto as a threat.
The Académie française is the pre-eminent French council for matters pertaining to the French language. The Académie was officially established in 1635 by Cardinal Richelieu, the chief minister to King Louis XIII. Suppressed in 1793 during the French Revolution, it was restored as a division of the Institut de France in 1803 by Napoleon Bonaparte. It is the oldest of the five académies of the institute.
The League of Nations, abbreviated as LN or LoN, was an intergovernmental organisation founded on 10 January 1920 as a result of the Paris Peace Conference that ended the First World War. It was the first worldwide intergovernmental organisation whose principal mission was to maintain world peace. Its primary goals, as stated in its Covenant, included preventing wars through collective security and disarmament and settling international disputes through negotiation and arbitration. Other issues in this and related treaties included labour conditions, just treatment of native inhabitants, human and drug trafficking, the arms trade, global health, prisoners of war, and protection of minorities in Europe. At its greatest extent from 28 September 1934 to 23 February 1935, it had 58 members.
Esperanto is the most widely spoken constructed international auxiliary language. It was created in the late 19th century by L. L. Zamenhof, a Polish-Jewish ophthalmologist. In 1887, he published a book detailing the language, Unua Libro, under the pseudonym Dr. Esperanto. Esperanto translates to English as "one who hopes".
Gabriel Hanotaux died in Paris in 1944 and was interred in the Passy Cemetery. His home in Orchaise now serves as a botanical garden, the Parc botanique du Prieuré d'Orchaise.
Orchaise is a former commune in the Loir-et-Cher department of central France. On 1 January 2016, it was merged into the new commune of Valencisse.
A botanical garden or botanic garden is a garden dedicated to the collection, cultivation, preservation and display of a wide range of plants labelled with their botanical names. It may contain specialist plant collections such as cacti and other succulent plants, herb gardens, plants from particular parts of the world, and so on; there may be greenhouses, shadehouses, again with special collections such as tropical plants, alpine plants, or other exotic plants. Visitor services at a botanical garden might include tours, educational displays, art exhibitions, book rooms, open-air theatrical and musical performances, and other entertainment.
The Parc botanique du Prieuré d'Orchaise is a botanical garden and park located on the grounds of the former priory at the Place de l'Eglise, Orchaise, Loir-et-Cher, Centre-Val de Loire, France. It is open daily except Friday in the warmer months; an admission fee is charged.
The Bibliothèque nationale de France is the national library of France, located in Paris. It is the national repository of all that is published in France and also holds extensive historical collections.
The Internet Archive is a San Francisco–based nonprofit digital library with the stated mission of "universal access to all knowledge." It provides free public access to collections of digitized materials, including websites, software applications/games, music, movies/videos, moving images, and millions of public-domain books. In addition to its archiving function, the Archive is an activist organization, advocating for a free and open Internet.
Honoré de Balzac was a French novelist and playwright. The novel sequence La Comédie humaine, which presents a panorama of post-Napoleonic French life, is generally viewed as his magnum opus.
Four volumes of his memoir, Mon Temps were published between 1933 and 1947.
He edited the Instructions des ambassadeurs de France à Rome, depuis les traités de Westphalie (1888).
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Aostan French is the variety of French spoken in the Aosta Valley, Italy.
André Siegfried was a French academic, geographer and political writer best known to English speakers for his commentaries on American, Canadian, and British politics.
Antoine Laurent Apollinaire Fée was a French botanist who was born in Ardentes, 7 November 1789, and died in Paris on 21 May 1874. He was the author of works on botany and mycology, practical and historical pharmacology, Darwinism, and his experiences in several regions of Europe.
Pierre Caron was a French historian and archivist, specialising in the French Revolution.
Maurice Vaïsse is a French historian specialised in international relations and Defence. He is an Editorial Board member on Journal of Intelligence and Terrorism Studies.
Danielle Bleitrach is a French sociologist and journalist. From the 1970s through the end of the century, she was CNRS researcher and lecturer at the Aix-Marseille University, focusing on the sociology of the working class and urbanization. From 1981 to 1996 she was a member of the Central Committee of the Communist Party of France, then the National Committee of the Party. She was also assistant editor-in-chief of the party weekly Révolution. She has contributed to La Pensée, Les Temps Modernes and Le Monde Diplomatique. In the 2000s and 2010s, after retiring from teaching, she co-authored texts on Cuba, Nazism and Ukraine.
Robert-Henri Bautier was a French historian, archivist, and medievalist. He was elected a member of the Royal Academy of Science, Letters and Fine Arts of Belgium in 1986.
Annie Lacroix-Riz is a French historian, professor emeritus of modern history at the university Paris VII - Denis Diderot, specialist in the international relations in first half of the 20th century and collaboration. Her work concerns the political, economic and social history of the French Third Republic and Vichy Government, the relations between the Vatican and Reich, as well as the strategy of the political elites and economic French before and after the Second World War. She is also known for her communist commitment. She denounces contemporary history under the alleged influence of the world of finance. However, she is criticized by many historians because she is considered politically biased, inclined to be revisionist about communist crimes and a believer in the Synarchist conspiracy theory.
Gabriel Le Bras (1891-1970) was a French legal scholar and sociologist.
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Georges Vicaire was a French bibliophile and bibliographer. The son of Henri Vicaire (1802-1865), General Director of forests, and Marthe Vicaire Blais, Georges Vicaire was the father of Jean Vicaire and Marcel Vicaire (1893–1976), an orientalist painter.
The prix Broquette-Gonin was a former prize awarded by the Académie française.
Pierre Louvet was a 17th-century French historian, archivist and historiographer. He was one of the few seventeenth historians who worked as an archivist and the only one to specialize in local history.
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Marc H. Smith is a French historian and palaeographer Born in Newcastle upon Tyne in England, he has both French and British citizenship.
William Seston was a 20th-century French historian and epigrapher, a specialist of the history of the Roman Empire. He was professor at the Sorbonne and a member of the Académie des Inscriptions et Belles-Lettres.
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Alfred Louis Auguste Poux, better known by his pen name Alfred Franklin, (1830–1917) was a French librarian, historian, and writer.
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