Gabriel Hanotaux

Last updated
Gabriel Hanotaux
Portrait of Gabriel Hanotaux.jpg
Portrait of Gabriel Hanotaux
Born(1853-11-19)19 November 1853
Beaurevoir, France
Died11 April 1944(1944-04-11) (aged 90)
Paris, France

Albert Auguste Gabriel Hanotaux, known as Gabriel Hanotaux (19 November 1853 – 11 April 1944) was a French statesman and historian.



He was born at Beaurevoir in the département of Aisne. He studied history at the École des Chartes, and became maître de conférence in the École des Hautes Études. His political career was that of a civil servant rather than a party politician. In 1879 he entered the ministry of foreign affairs as a secretary, and rose gradually through the diplomatic service.

In 1886, he was elected deputy for Aisne, but, defeated in 1889, he returned to his diplomatic career, and on 31 May 1894 accepted the offer of Charles Dupuy to be minister of foreign affairs. With one interruption (from 28 October 1895 to 29 April 1896, during the ministry of Leon Bourgeois) he held this portfolio until 14 June 1898. During his ministry he developed the rapprochement of France with Russia—visiting Saint Petersburg with the president, Félix Faure—and sought to delimit the French colonies in Africa through agreements with the British. The Fashoda Incident of July 1898 was the most notable result of this policy. This seems to have intensified Hanotaux's distrust of England, which is apparent in his literary works (though most of these were written after he had left the Quai d'Orsay).

Hanotaux was elected a member of the Académie française on 1 April 1897. He served as a delegate for France with the League of Nations and participated in the 1st (15 November – 18 December 1920), 2nd (5 September – 5 October 1921), 3rd (4–30 September 1922) and 4th Assemblies (3–29 September 1923). In the early 1920s, there were proposals for the League of Nations to accept Esperanto as a working language. Ten delegates accepted the proposals with only one voice against, the French delegate, Gabriel Hanotaux. The French employed their veto as a member of the League Council on all such votes, starting with the vote on December 18, 1920. [1] Hanotaux did not like how the French language was losing its position as the international language of diplomacy and saw Esperanto as a threat. [2]

Gabriel Hanotaux died in Paris in 1944 and was interred in the Passy Cemetery. His home in Orchaise now serves as a botanical garden, the Parc botanique du Prieuré d'Orchaise.


Four volumes of his memoir, Mon Temps were published between 1933 and 1947.

He edited the Instructions des ambassadeurs de France à Rome, depuis les traités de Westphalie (1888).


  2. "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 2015-09-24. Retrieved 2018-03-02.CS1 maint: archived copy as title (link)

Related Research Articles

Aostan French is the variety of French spoken in the Aosta Valley, Italy.

Maurice Vaïsse is a French historian specialised in international relations and Defence. He is an Editorial Board member on Journal of Intelligence and Terrorism Studies.

Danielle Bleitrach is a French sociologist and journalist. From the 1970s through the end of the century, she was CNRS researcher and lecturer at the Aix-Marseille University, focusing on the sociology of the working class and urbanization. From 1981 to 1996 she was a member of the Central Committee of the Communist Party of France, then the National Committee of the Party. She was also assistant editor-in-chief of the party weekly Révolution. She has contributed to La Pensée, Les Temps Modernes and Le Monde Diplomatique. In the 2000s and 2010s, after retiring from teaching, she co-authored texts on Cuba, Nazism and Ukraine.

François Émile Michel French painter, art critic and art historian

François Émile Michel was a French painter, art critic and art historian.

Robert-Henri Bautier was a French historian, archivist, and medievalist. He was elected a member of the Royal Academy of Science, Letters and Fine Arts of Belgium in 1986.

Alfred Auguste Nemours was a Haitian General, diplomat and military historian.

Annie Lacroix-Riz is a French historian, professor emeritus of modern history at the university Paris VII - Denis Diderot, specialist in the international relations in first half of the 20th century and collaboration. Her work concerns the political, economic and social history of the French Third Republic and Vichy Government, the relations between the Vatican and Reich, as well as the strategy of the political elites and economic French before and after the Second World War. She is also known for her communist commitment. She denounces contemporary history under the alleged influence of the world of finance. However, she is criticized by many historians because she is considered politically biased, inclined to be revisionist about supposed communist crimes and a believer in the Synarchist conspiracy theory.

Gabriel Le Bras (1891-1970) was a French legal scholar and sociologist.

Louis-François L'Héritier, also known under the name L'Héritier de l'Ain was a 19th-century French playwright, essayist, novelist and journalist.

Georges Vicaire was a French bibliophile and bibliographer. The son of Henri Vicaire (1802-1865), General Director of forests, and Marthe Vicaire Blais, Georges Vicaire was the father of Jean Vicaire and Marcel Vicaire (1893–1976), an orientalist painter.

The prix Broquette-Gonin was a former prize awarded by the Académie française.

Auguste Jubé, baron de La Perelle was a French general, politician and historiographer.

Pierre Louvet

Pierre Louvet was a 17th-century French historian, archivist and historiographer. He was one of the few seventeenth historians who worked as an archivist and the only one to specialize in local history.

Émile Molinier French art historian

Émile Molinier was a 19th-century French curator and art historian.

Marc H. Smith is a French historian and palaeographer Born in Newcastle upon Tyne in England, he has both French and British citizenship.

Yann Le Bohec is a French historian, specializing in ancient Rome, in particular North Africa during Antiquity and military history.

William Seston was a 20th-century French historian and epigrapher, a specialist of the history of the Roman Empire. He was professor at the Sorbonne and a member of the Académie des Inscriptions et Belles-Lettres.

Dominique Briquel is a French scholar, a specialist of archaeology and etruscology. Briquel studied at the École Normale Supérieure from 1964 to 1969 and was a member of the École française de Rome from 1971 to 1974. Since 1974 he taught Latin at the École Normale Supérieure. From 1984 to 1996 he was a professor of Latin at the University of Burgundy in Dijon. Since 1992, he has been Director of studies at the École pratique des hautes études, in the department of historical and philological sciences and since 1996, professor of Latin at the Université de Paris-Sorbonne.

Alphonse Péron French paleontologist (1834-1908)

Alphonse Péron was a French soldier and amateur naturalist. He used his spare time to pursue his interest in paleontology, and authored or coauthored several important works on the geology and paleontology of France and Algeria.

Alfred Franklin (historian) French librarian

Alfred Louis Auguste Poux, better known by his pen name Alfred Franklin, (1830–1917) was a French librarian, historian, and writer.


Political offices
Preceded by
Jean Casimir-Perier
Minister of Foreign Affairs
Succeeded by
Marcelin Berthelot
Preceded by
Léon Bourgeois
Minister of Foreign Affairs
Succeeded by
Théophile Delcassé
Preceded by
André Lebon
interim Minister of Colonies
Succeeded by
Georges Trouillot