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Gabriel Jean Joseph Molitor
Gabriel Jean Joseph Molitor
|Born||7 March 1770|
|Died||28 July 1849 79) (aged|
|Years of service||1789–1827|
|Rank||Maréchal de France|
|Other work|| Governor of Les Invalides |
Gabriel-Jean-Joseph, 1er Comte Molitor (7 March 1770 – 28 July 1849), was a Marshal of France.
He was born in Hayingen in Lorraine. Upon the outbreak of the French Revolution, Molitor joined the French revolutionary armies as a captain in a battalion of militia. In 1793 he was given command of a brigade and served under Hoche under whom he fought at Kaiserslautern and Wissembourg. In 1795, Molitor was severely wounded in the Battle of Mainz. In 1799, Molitor was sent to Switzerland where he fought under André Masséna against an Austro-Russian force led by Alexander Suvorov. In 1800, he fought in the Army of the Rhine under Moreau.
Hayange is a commune in the Moselle department in Grand Est in north-eastern France.
The Moselle is a river that flows through France, Luxembourg, and Germany. It is a left tributary of the Rhine, which it joins at Koblenz. A small part of Belgium is also drained by the Moselle through the Sauer and the Our.
The French Revolution was a period of far-reaching social and political upheaval in France and its colonies beginning in 1789. The Revolution overthrew the monarchy, established a republic, catalyzed violent periods of political turmoil, and finally culminated in a dictatorship under Napoleon who brought many of its principles to areas he conquered in Western Europe and beyond. Inspired by liberal and radical ideas, the Revolution profoundly altered the course of modern history, triggering the global decline of absolute monarchies while replacing them with republics and liberal democracies. Through the Revolutionary Wars, it unleashed a wave of global conflicts that extended from the Caribbean to the Middle East. Historians widely regard the Revolution as one of the most important events in human history.
Molitor was promoted to the rank of général de division in 1801. He was sent with Massena to Italy in 1805, where he served at Vago and Caldiero. In 1806 he took part in the relief of Republic of Ragusa. In 1807, Molitor was transferred to the German theatre of operations, where he served against the Swedes around Stralsund. He was then made governor of Pommern and was granted a comital title by Napoleon. In 1809 he was given command of a division in Massena's IV Corps and he saw action in the battles of Aspern and Wagram. In 1810 he was sent to occupy the cities of the Hanseatic League, from 1811 to 1813 he served in Holland, in the campaign of 1814 he served under MacDonald.
The Battle of Caldiero took place on 30 October 1805, pitting the French Armée d'Italie under Marshal André Masséna against an Austrian army under the command of Archduke Charles, Duke of Teschen. The French engaged only a part of their forces, around 33,000 men, whilst Archduke Charles engaged the bulk of his army, 49,000 men, leaving out Paul Davidovich's corps to defend the lower Adige and Franz Seraph of Orsini-Rosenberg's corps to cover the Austrian right against any flanking maneuvers. The fighting took place at Caldiero, 15 kilometres east of Verona, in the War of the Third Coalition, part of the Napoleonic Wars.
The Republic of Ragusa was an aristocratic maritime republic centered on the city of Dubrovnik in Dalmatia that carried that name from 1358 until 1808. It reached its commercial peak in the 15th and the 16th centuries, before being conquered by Napoleon's French Empire and formally annexed by the Napoleonic Kingdom of Italy in 1808. It had a population of about 30,000 people, of whom 5,000 lived within the city walls. Its Latin motto was "Non bene pro toto libertas venditur auro", which means "Liberty is not well sold for all the gold".
Stralsund, is a Hanseatic town in the Pomeranian part of Mecklenburg-Vorpommern, Germany. It is located at the Southern coast of the Strelasund, a sound of the Baltic Sea separating the island of Rügen from the mainland.
After the abdication of Napoleon, Molitor made his submission to the Bourbons who made him Inspector-General of the infantry. Upon the return of the emperor from Elba, Molitor joined him during the Hundred Days, for which he was stripped of his functions after Napoleon's defeat. In 1818, Molitor was restored to grace and in 1823 he commanded the II Corps which was sent to Spain. The same year he was made a Marshal of France as well as a Peer. From 1827, he served as secretary to the Chamber of Peers. After the July Revolution, Molitor was allowed to keep all his functions and he later served as Governor of Les Invalides and as Grand Chancellor of the Legion d'Honneur. He died in 1849 in Paris. A statue of Molitor was later erected in Nancy.
Elba is a Mediterranean island in Tuscany, Italy, 10 kilometres (6.2 mi) from the coastal town of Piombino, and the largest island of the Tuscan Archipelago. It is also part of the Arcipelago Toscano National Park, and the third largest island in Italy, after Sicily and Sardinia. It is located in the Tyrrhenian Sea about 50 kilometres (30 mi) east of the French island of Corsica.
The Hundred Days marked the period between Napoleon's return from exile on the island of Elba to Paris on 20 March 1815 and the second restoration of King Louis XVIII on 8 July 1815. This period saw the War of the Seventh Coalition, and includes the Waterloo Campaign, the Neapolitan War as well as several other minor campaigns. The phrase les Cent Jours was first used by the prefect of Paris, Gaspard, comte de Chabrol, in his speech welcoming the king back to Paris on 8 July.
The Peerage of France was a hereditary distinction within the French nobility which appeared in 1180 in the Middle Ages, and only a small number of noble individuals were peers. It was abolished in 1789 during the French Revolution, but it reappeared in 1814 at the time of the Bourbon Restoration which followed the fall of the First French Empire, when the Chamber of Peers was given a constitutional function somewhat along British lines, which lasted until the Revolution of 1848. On 10 October 1831, by a vote of 324 against 26 of the Chamber of Deputies, hereditary peerages were abolished, but peerages for the life of the holder continued to exist until the chamber and rank were definitively abolished in 1848.
The 1697 Molitor Stradivarius, rumored to have once been owned by Napoleon Bonaparte, belonged to Molitor beginning in 1804.It was sold by Tarisio Auctions in October 2010 for a world record $3.6M.
The Molitor Stradivarius is an antique violin made by Italian luthier Antonio Stradivari of Cremona in 1697, the very beginning of the maker's celebrated "Golden" period. It bears the label "Antonius Stradivarius Cremonensis / Faciebat Anno 1697" and is branded to the lower rib, "Curtis Phila."
Tarisio Auctions is a web-based auction house that specializes in string instruments and bows. Founded in 1999 with locations in New York and London, its online auctions provide a global marketplace for musical instrument sales.
André Masséna, 1st Duke of Rivoli, 1st Prince of Essling was a French military commander during the Revolutionary and Napoleonic Wars. He was one of the original eighteen Marshals of the Empire created by Napoleon, with the nickname l'Enfant chéri de la Victoire.
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