The Gail Valley dialect (Slovene : ziljsko narečje, ziljščina :20) is the westernmost Slovene dialect in the Carinthian dialect group, spoken in parts of southern Carinthia in Austria, in the northeasternmost part of the Province of Udine in Italy, and in northeastern Upper Carniola in Slovenia.
It is spoken in Austrian Carinthia in the Gail Valley east of Hermagor and west of Faak am See (Slovene : Bače), in the upper Canale Valley (Italian : Val Canale, Slovene : Kanalska dolina) along the Fella River (Slovene : Bela) to east of Pontebba and, together with the Kranjska Gora subdialect, along the upper course of the Sava Dolinka River to east of Gozd Martuljek. Settlements in the dialect area include Malborghetto, Ugovizza, Valbruna, Camporosso, Cave del Predil, and Tarvisio (in Italy), Förolach, Faak am See, Feistritz an der Gail, Arnoldstein, Fürnitz, and Mallestig (in Austria), and Rateče, Kranjska Gora, and Gozd Martuljek (in Slovenia). Viktor Paulsen divided the Gail Valley dialect into six subdialects: the Egg-Görtschach subdialect (comprising the Egg and Görtschach groups), the Potschach subdialect, the Saak subdialect, the Vorderberg subdialect, the Feistritz subdialect, and the Radendorf subdialect.
The Gail Valley dialect has pitch accent, reduction of vowels to ə in preaccentual position, development of open e and o > a in postaccentual position, shortening of long vowels in closed syllables, frequent epenthetic n, v > b before e i r l, hiatus as a result of elision of intervocalic [w] (e.g., krava > kraa 'cow'), voiced obstruents in word-final position, and an inflected conditional auxiliary (besem, besi, be). [piu̯], [piu̯a] instead of [piu̯], [pila] 'drank' (masc., fem.), a phenomenon known as švapanje in Slovene. :33The Gail Valley dialect has palatalization of k, g, h > č, ž, š before front vowels and lacks the standard Slovene morphophonemic alternation between [l] and [w]; for example,
Slovene dialects are the regional spoken varieties of Slovene, a South Slavic language. Spoken Slovene is often considered to have at least 48 dialects (narečja) and subdialects (govori). The exact number of dialects is open to debate, ranging from as many as 50 to merely 7. The various dialects are so different from each other that a speaker of one dialect may have a very difficult time understanding a speaker of another, particularly if they belong to different regional groups. Speakers of dialects that strongly differ accommodate each other by gravitating toward standard Slovene. Slovene dialects are part of the South Slavic dialect continuum, transitioning into Serbo-Croatian to the south and bordering Friulian and Italian to the west, German to the north, and Hungarian to the east.
The Resian dialect is a distinct dialect of Slovene spoken in the Resia Valley, Province of Udine, Italy, close to the border with Slovenia. Because of its remote location outside Slovenia, the dialect has phonetic properties different from standard Slovene, and from most other Slovene dialects. Many, arguably the majority, of its speakers consider it a separate language.
Upper Carniola is a traditional region of Slovenia, the northern mountainous part of the larger Carniola region. The centre of the region is Kranj, while other urban centers include Jesenice, Tržič, Škofja Loka, Kamnik, and Domžale. It has around 300,000 inhabitants or 14% of the population of Slovenia.
Gozd Martuljek is a settlement in the Municipality of Kranjska Gora in the Upper Carniola region of Slovenia. The settlement was once called Rute and even today divided into Spodnje Rute and Zgornje Rute.
Weissenfels Castle is a castle ruin above the settlement of Fusine in Valromana in the extreme northeast corner of Italy. The ruins are located 5.7 kilometers (3.5 mi) from the tripoint between Slovenia, Austria, and Italy.
The Upper Carniolan dialect group is a group of closely related dialects of Slovene. The Upper Carniolan dialects are spoken in most of Upper Carniola and in Ljubljana.
The Carinthian dialect group is a group of closely related dialects of Slovene, a South Slavic language. The Carinthian dialects are spoken by Carinthian Slovenes in Austria, in Slovenian Carinthia, and in the northwestern parts of Slovenian Styria along the upper Drava Valley, in the westernmost areas of Upper Carniola on the border with Italy, and in some villages in the Province of Udine in Italy.
The Littoral dialect group is a group of very heterogeneous dialects of Slovene. The Littoral dialects are spoken in most of the Slovenian Littoral and in the western part of Inner Carniola. They are also spoken by Slovenes in the Italian provinces of Trieste and Gorizia, and in the mountainous areas of eastern Friuli.
The Lower Carniolan dialect is a major Slovene dialect in the Lower Carniolan dialect group. It is one of the two central Slovene dialects and was the original foundation for standard Slovene along with the Ljubljana urban dialect. It is spoken in most of Lower Carniola as far west as Cerknica and including the settlements of Grosuplje and Ribnica, and encompassing the area of the Eastern Lower Carniolan subdialect.
The Rižana subdialect is a Slovene subdialect of the Istrian dialect in the Littoral dialect group. It is spoken in Italy in most of the municipalities of San Dorligo della Valle and Muggia south of Trieste, as well as in some southern suburbs of Trieste ; in Slovenia, it is spoken in the northern part of the Slovenian Istria, in the Rižana Valley east and north of Koper, including the settlements of Bertoki, Dekani, Osp, Črni Kal, Presnica, Podgorje, and Zazid.
The Upper Savinja dialect is a Slovene dialect in the Styrian dialect group. It is spoken in the upper Savinja Valley and along the Dreta River, extending eastwards to east of Mozirje and Nazarje, up to the Solčava subdialect northwest of Luče in Solčava and the Logar Valley. It includes the settlements of Ljubno, Luče, Gornji Grad, and Bočna.
The Solčava subdialect is a Slovene subdialect in the Styrian dialect group. It is a subdialect of the Upper Savinja dialect spoken around Solčava and the Logar Valley. It is the westernmost of the (sub)dialects in the Styrian dialect group.
The Jaun Valley dialect is a Slovene dialect in the Carinthian dialect group. It is primarily spoken in the Jaun Valley of Austria as well as in Strojna and Libeliče, Slovenia. It is spoken west of a line from Diex to Völkermarkt to Eberndorf, east of Sittersdorf, and north of the Ebriach dialect. Major settlements in the dialect area are Griffen, Kühnsdorf, Globasnitz, Bleiburg, and Lavamünd.
The Rosen Valley dialect is a Slovene dialect in the Carinthian dialect group. It is spoken in the Rosen Valley of Austria, west of a line from Villach to Faak am See and east of a line from Sittersdorf and Lake Klopein to Brückl, excluding the Ebriach dialect area to the southeast. Settlements in the dialect area include Wernberg, Köstenberg, Velden am Wörthersee, Ludmannsdorf, Köttmannsdorf, Viktring, Grafenstein, Tainach, and Rosegg, and Sankt Jakob im Rosental, Feistritz im Rosental, Windisch Bleiberg, Ferlach, Zell, and Gallizien.
The Soča dialect is a Slovene dialect in the Littoral dialect group. It includes the subdialects of Borjana, Kobarid, and Bovec in the Upper Soča Valley.
The Karst dialect, sometimes Gorizia–Karst dialect, is a Slovene dialect in the Littoral dialect group, spoken in western Slovenia and in parts of the Italian provinces of Trieste and Gorizia. It takes its name from the Karst Plateau.
The Inner Carniolan dialect is a Slovene dialect in the Littoral dialect group. It is spoken in a relatively large area, extending from western Inner Carniola up to Trieste in Italy, also covering the upper Vipava Valley and the southern part of the Karst Plateau.
The Kranjska Gora subdialect is a Slovene subdialect of the Gail Valley dialect in the Carinthian dialect group. It was included among the Carinthian dialects by Tine Logar and Jakob Rigler (sl) in contrast to its earlier classification by Fran Ramovš as an Upper Carniolan dialect.
The Municipality of Kranjska Gora is a municipality on the Sava Dolinka River in the Upper Carniola region of northwest Slovenia, close to the Austrian and Italian borders. The seat of the municipality is the town of Kranjska Gora.
Minority languages are spoken in a number of autochthonous settlements in Austria. These are:
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