Gandaki River

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Gandaki River
Narayani
Narayani bridge in Gaindakot.jpg
Narayani River in Chitwan
River Ganges and tributaries.png
Map showing the Ghaghara and Gandaki tributaries of the Ganges
Native nameगण्डकी
Location
Country Nepal, India
Cities Lo Manthang, Jomsom, Beni, Kusma, Ridi, Devgat, Narayangarh, Valmikinagar, Triveni, Nepal, Hajipur, Sonpur, Bagaha
Physical characteristics
SourceNhubine Himal Glacier
  location Mustang District, Nepal
  coordinates 29°17′0″N85°50′5″E / 29.28333°N 85.83472°E / 29.28333; 85.83472
  elevation6,268 m (20,564 ft)
Mouth Ganges
  location
Sonpur, India
  coordinates
25°39′9″N85°11′4″E / 25.65250°N 85.18444°E / 25.65250; 85.18444 Coordinates: 25°39′9″N85°11′4″E / 25.65250°N 85.18444°E / 25.65250; 85.18444
  elevation
44 m (144 ft)
Length814 km (506 mi)
Basin size46,300 km2 (17,900 sq mi)
Discharge 
  average2,025 m3/s (71,500 cu ft/s)
  minimum500 m3/s (18,000 cu ft/s)
  maximum30,000 m3/s (1,100,000 cu ft/s)
Basin features
Tributaries 
  left Trishuli, Budhi Gandaki River, Marshyangdi, Madi, Seti Gandaki River, Daraudi, Kali Gandaki
  rightBadigad River

The Gandaki River, also known as the Narayani and the Gandak, is one of the major rivers in Nepal and a left bank tributary of the Ganges in India. Its total catchment area amounts to 46,300 km2 (17,900 sq mi), most of it in Nepal. In the Nepal Himalayas, it is notable for its deep canyon. The basin also contains three mountains over 8,000 m (26,000 ft), namely Dhaulagiri, Manaslu and Annapurna I. Dhaulagiri is the highest point of the Gandaki basin.

Contents

River course

Nepal

Panorama of the Kali Gandaki gorge in Upper Mustang Panorama of the Kali Gandaki gorge in Upper Mustang.jpg
Panorama of the Kali Gandaki gorge in Upper Mustang
Kali Gandaki river north of Kagbeni Kali Gandaki river north of Kagbeni.jpg
Kali Gandaki river north of Kagbeni
In Nepal, the river quickly crosses different zones of climate GandakiKagbeni.JPG
In Nepal, the river quickly crosses different zones of climate
Here, just 25 kilometres (16 mi) downstream from the place above, it flows through a pine forest GandakiPineForest.JPG
Here, just 25 kilometres (16 mi) downstream from the place above, it flows through a pine forest

The Kali Gandaki river source is at the border with Tibet at an elevation of 6,268 metres (20,564 ft) at the Nhubine Himal Glacier in the Mustang region of Nepal. [1] [2]

The headwaters stream on some maps is named the Chhuama Khola and then, nearing Lo Manthang, the Nhichung Khola or Choro Khola. The Kali Gandaki then flows southwest (with the name of Mustang Khola on old, outdated maps) through a sheer-sided, deep canyon before widening at the steel footbridge at Chele, where part of its flow funnels through a rock tunnel, and from this point the now wide river is called the Kali Gandaki on all maps. In Kagbeni a major tributary named Johng Khola, Kak Khola or Krishnaa descends from Muktinath.

The river then flows southward through a steep gorge known as the Kali Gandaki Gorge , or Andha Galchi, between the mountains Dhaulagiri, elevation 8,167 metres (26,795 ft) to the west and Annapurna I, elevation 8,091 metres (26,545 ft) to the east. If one measures the depth of a canyon by the difference between the river height and the heights of the highest peaks on either side, this gorge is the world's deepest. The portion of the river directly between Dhaulagiri and Annapurna I, 7 kilometres (4 mi) downstream from Tukuche), is at an elevation of 2,520 metres (8,270 ft), [3] which is 5,571 metres (18,278 ft) lower than Annapurna I. The river is older than the Himalayas. As tectonic activity forces the mountains higher, the river has cut through the uplift.

South of the gorge, the river is joined by Rahughat Khola at Galeshwor, Myagdi Khola at Beni, Modi Khola near Kushma and Badigaad at Rudrabeni above Ridi Bazaar. The river then turns east to run along the northern edge of the Mahabharat Range. The largest hydroelectricity project in Nepal is located along this stretch of the river. Turning south again and breaking through the Mahabharats, Kali Gandaki is then joined by a major tributary, the Trishuli, at Devghat,which is larger than the Kali Gandaki. Gandaki is then joined by the East Rapti River draining the Inner Terai valley known as Chitwan. The Gandaki then crosses the outermost foothills of the Himalayas—Sivalik Hills—into the Terai plains of Nepal. From Devghat, the river flows southwest of Gaindakot town. The river later curves back towards the southeast as it enters India where it is called the Gandak.

Below Gaindakot the river is known as the Narayani or Sapt Gandaki (Seven Gandakis), for seven tributaries rising in the Himalaya or further north along the main Ganges-Brahmaputra divide. These are the Kali Gandaki, the Trishuli River, and the five main tributaries of the Trishuli known as the Daraudi, Seti, Madi, Marsyandi and Budhi Gandaki.

River Gandaki in Kagbeni Nepal 1 River Gandhak Gandaki in Kagbeni Nepal before entering India.jpg
River Gandaki in Kagbeni Nepal

India

The entry point of the river at the Indo–Nepal border is also the confluence called Triveni with rivers Pachnad and Sonha descending from Nepal. Pandai river flows into Bihar (India) from Nepal in the eastern end of the Valmiki Sanctuary and meets Masan. The Gandak flows southeast 300 kilometres (190 mi) across the Gangetic plain of Bihar state through West Champaran, Gopalganj, Saran and Muzaffarpur districts. It joins the Ganges near Patna just downstream of Hajipur at Sonpur (also known as Harihar Kshetra). Its drainage area in India is 7,620 square kilometres (2,940 sq mi).

From its exit from the outermost Siwaliks foothills to the Ganges, the Gandak has built an immense megafan comprising Eastern Uttar Pradesh and North Western Bihar in the Middle Gangetic Plains. [4] The megafan consists of sediments eroded from the rapidly uplifting Himalaya. The river's course over this structure is constantly shifting.

Glaciers, glacial lakes and glacial lake outburst floods

The Gandaki river basin is reported to contain 1025 glaciers and 338 lakes. These contribute substantially to the lean season flows of the river.

Glacier lakes, among the most hazardous features of high mountains, are usually formed behind dams of moraine debris left behind by retreating glaciers, a trend that is observed all over the world. Even though glacial lake outburst flood (GLOF) events have been occurring in Nepal for many decades, the Dig Tsho glacier outburst, which took place in 1985, has triggered detailed study of this phenomenon. In 1996, the Water and Energy Commission Secretariat (WECS) of Nepal reported that five lakes were potentially dangerous, namely, Dig Tsho, Imja, Lower Barun, Tsho Rolpa, and Thulagi, all lying above 4,100 metres (13,500 ft). A recent study done by ICIMOD and UNEP (UNEP, 2001) reported 27 potentially dangerous lakes in Nepal. In ten of them GLOF events have occurred in the past few years and some have been regenerating after the event.

Thulagi glacier

The Thulagi glacier, which is located in the Upper Marsyangdi River basin, is one out of the two moraine-dammed lakes (supra-glacial lakes), identified as a potentially dangerous lake. The KfW, Frankfurt, the BGR (Federal Institute for Geosciences and Natural Resources, Germany), in cooperation with the Department of Hydrology and Meteorology in Kathmandu, have carried out studies on the Thulagi Glacier and have concluded that even assuming the worst case, a disastrous outburst of the lake can be excluded in the near future. [5]

Important towns

Major towns and cities located along or near the banks of the Kali Gandaki are Lo Manthang, Jomsom, Beni, Baglung, Kusma, Ridi, Devghat, Bharatpur, Valmikinagar and Triveni. The river also forms the western border of Chitwan National Park. Along the stretch in Nepal, the river carries heavy amounts of glacial silt, imparting the river a black colour. The Kali Gandaki, Marshyandi and Seti Rivers are popular whitewater adventure destinations.[ citation needed ]

Kali Gandaki River near Ghasa, between Annapurna and Dhaulagiri Kaligandaki ghasa.jpg
Kali Gandaki River near Ghasa, between Annapurna and Dhaulagiri

The important towns in the Indian part of the Gandak river are the Valmikinagar (Bhainsalotan) - location of Gandak Barrage, Bagaha, Bettiah (district headquarters & field directorate of Valmiki Tiger Project), Harinagar (Ramnagar), Hajipur (across the Ganges 10  km from Patna) and Sonepur (also Known as Harihar Kshetra), near Patna.[ citation needed ]

National Parks

Chitwan National Park of Nepal and Valmiki National Park of India are adjacent to each other in the vicinity of Valmikinagar around the Gandak Barrage.

Chitwan National Park

Chitwan National Park
IUCN category II (national park)
Rhinos leofleck.jpg
Elephant safari after Indian rhinoceros

Chitwan National Park covers an area of 932 square kilometres (360 sq mi). Established in 1973, it is the oldest national park of Nepal. It was granted the status of a World Heritage Site in 1984. It is located in Chitwan, one of the Inner Terai Valleys of Nepal. The park is rich in flora and fauna, including Bengal Tigers and one of the last populations of single-horned Indian rhinoceros (Rhinoceros unicornis). The area used to be known as the Chitwan Valley. It was a place for big game hunting and until 1951 it was a hunting reserve. At the park there is canoeing, elephant rides, and guided jungle walks.

Valmiki National Park

Valmiki Sanctuary covers about 800 square kilometres (310 sq mi) of forest and was the 18th tiger reserve established in India. [6] It is ranked fourth in terms density of tiger population. Valmikinagar is located nearly 100 kilometres (62 mi) from Bettiah in the northernmost part of the West Champaran district, Bihar, bordering Nepal. Valmikinagar is a small town with scattered habitation, mostly within the forest area and has a railroad station in the district of West Champaran, close to the railhead of Narkatiaganj. It has diverse landscapes, sheltering rich wildlife habitats and floral and faunal composition with the prime protected carnivores and was included in the National Conservation Programme of the Project Tiger in the year 1994. As per Zoological Survey of India's report of 1998 the sanctuary is reported to shelter 53 mammals, 145 birds, 26 reptile and 13 amphibians. [7] and Tiger Reserve [8]

The notable species of wild fauna include: tiger, leopard, wild dog, wild boar, bison, bear, peacock, partridge, hornbill, hill mynah, woolly-necked stork, python, crocodile, deer, sambar, blue bull, barking deer, hog deer.

As per the Botanical Survey of India report of 1998 there are seven types of vegetation consisting of seven classes of forests; home to 84 species of trees (subtropical trees such as sal, sagwan, bamboo, and cane), 32 shrubs and climbers and 81 herbs and grasses.

Religious significance

Valmiki Ashram

The ancient Valmiki Ashram (hermitage) and surrounding temples are located in the Chitwan National Park of Nepal. It is located at a distance of about 7 km from Valmikinagar. It is approachable for pilgrimage only from Valmikinagar near Gandak Barrage, both from Nepal and India.

It is said that Valmiki Rishi (sage) wrote the great epic, "Ramayana" here. It is also believed to be the birthplace of Lava & Kusha (the two sons of Lord Ram and his divine wife Sita. The hermitage also has landmarks of Sita’s ‘Falahar’ (eating place), Meditation place of the great Sage Valmiki, the place where the Ashwamedh horse was tied, Amrit (nectar of immortality) Kuan (well); Vishnu Chakra (disc), and the Hawan (Yagna) Kund (sacred square structure to perform fire rituals).

In the periphery of 3 to 4 kilometres (1.9 to 2.5 mi) around the Valmiki Ashram, the temples of importance are a) the Jatashankar (Shiv) Temple, 2) Nardevi (Sweta Kali) Temple (Form of Durga and 3) Kaleshwaran (an avatar of the God Shiva) Temple. Triveni Temple is located across the Gandak Barrage in Nepal, about 3 km from the Gandak Barrage.

Shaligrams and Mukthinath

Ammonite fossils collected from the bed of the Gandaki River at a place close to Saligrama or Muktinath (literally "place of salvation") in the Mustang district of Nepal are known as shaligrams or shilas and are considered aniconic representations of Vishnu. These are first mentioned in "Devi Bhagavath". In the puranas there is a description of a king, named Dharmadwaja, who was initially a devotee of goddess Lakshmi and who later became her rival which completely ruined him. His son Padmadwaja realized his father's mistake and became a devotee of Lakshmi. Pleased with his devotion, Lakshmi herself incarnated as Tulasi.

Later Tulasi fell in love with Lord Krishna. They married to immortalize their bond. Lord Krishna converted himself as Salagrava (saligram) and Tulasi as the river Gandaki. Even today Salagrava can only be found in the Gandaki river.

The Great Master Sri Shankaracharya who knew this story told it to his disciples; that whenever these stones are taken for the purpose of worship one should never worship those shila without Tulasi, to maintain the relation of Tulasi and Sri Krishna. He further said that the Tulasi which we use for worship, is the hair of Tulasi who converted into river Gandaki. Shankaracharya is quoted in his Brahmasutras about the Salagrava: yatha salagrame Harihe, "salagrama eva visno etyethdupayukameva", "yatha slagrame visnuhu sanihita eti tatvat". Even today all his amnaya peetas have a salagrava for their compulsory daily rituals. Silas are considered unique and are used for worship.

It is a sacred place for Buddhists who call it Chumig Gyatsa, which in Tibetan means 'Hundred Waters'. Hindus call this place Muktinath as well as Mukthiksehtra, which literally means "place of salvation".

These stones are naturally formed round stones, with circular or spiral markings and are fossil ammonite stones found in the rivers of the Himalayas, in particular kinds of ocean sediments, which have been uplifted to the top of the Himalayas.

Between the Dhaulagiri and Annapurna mountain ranges, the Gandaki River flows through the village of Saligrama or Muktinath and the Ashrama of Pulaha. In ancient times, the mountain range surrounding Pulaha was called Salagiris due to the vast forests of sala (sal) trees. The stones found in this region are therefore called Saligrama – Silas (stones found only in the region of Saligrama). It has great significance to Hindus, particularly to Brahmins. Smarthas uses this as the replica of lord Narayana. Srivaisnavas, and Madhva sects who consider the place where one can find saligrama silas in the river bed of the Gandaki River, and the Mukthinath temple as one of the 108 Divyakshetrams [9] or Thirthastanas (temples and celestial abodes of Vishnu) to be visited on a pilgrimage (at least once in their life). At the pilgrimage site of Muktinath (3,710m) one wonders in amazement at the presence of 108 small waterfalls and mysterious natural gas fires, worshiped as Jwalamukhi (in Sanskrit).

Muktinath Vaishnava temple idols, Nepal Mukthinathsaligram.JPG
Muktinath Vaishnava temple idols, Nepal

For Tibetan Buddhists, Muktinath-Chumig Gyatsa is a place of Dakinis, goddesses known as Sky Dancers. It is of great importance for Buddhists that Chumig Gyatsa is one of the 24 Tantric places.

The Tibetan Buddhist tradition states that for this reason Guru Rinpoche, also known as Padmasambhava, the founder of Tibetan Buddhism meditated at Muktinath on his way to Tibet. It is one of the 51 Shakti peetams.

The particular site in the course of the river where the stones become sacred is known as Chakra-Tirtha. The sanctity of this site is said to extend to three yojanas (24 miles) all round.

There is a tributary called Chakra-nadi or Jhong Khola that flows from Muktinath and joins the Kali Gandaki at Kagbeni. This tributary is described in Garuda purana as created by Brahma; the great peak to the north of the river is said to contain the presence of Vishnu. All the stones found in the river as well as in the mountain are believed to bear the marks of Vishnu. The entire area (including streams and the mountainside to the north of Muktinath) covers as many as 12 yojanas (96 miles), according to the Puranic account. Among the Saligrama stones, some are from the waters (jalaja) and some are from the mountainside (sthalaja). Puranic texts testify that the sacred stones are what are found in the river and not what are taken out of the rock on its banks.

Nepali Mandir, Hajipur

It is a unique Shaivite shrine near Hajipur made in the late medieval period (18th century), by one of the army commanders of Nepal. The temple brings-in a fresh pagoda-style architecture of the Himalayan Kingdom to the plains of the Ganges. This temple is built largely of wood. Another distinctive feature of this temple is its fine wooden carving, which includes, of others, generous erotic scenes.

Places of archaeological significance

Archaeologically important places around Valmikinagar are Lauriya-Nandangarh and Someshwar Fort.

In Lauria block, [10] about 1 km east of Nandan Garh, a lion pillar of Ashoka, made out of a single block of polished sandstone, measuring 35 feet (11 m) in height with a diameter of 35" at the base and 22" at the top, which is believed to be over 2,300 years old, is in an excellent condition. Its massiveness and exquisite finish furnish striking proof of the skill and resources of the masons of Ashokan age. Two more such pillars with their capitals removed have been discovered in Rampurwa village, close to Gandhi's Bhitiharawa Ashram in Gaunaha block. One of their capitals, the bull is now in the National Museum at New Delhi and the other, the lion, is at Calcutta Museum.

At Nandan Garh there are also Baudh (Buddha) stupas made out of bricks and about 80 feet (24 m) high which according to the authoritative source are Ashoka Stupas, in which ashes of Lord Buddha’s funeral pyre are enshrined.

Someshwar Fort is situated in Narkatiaganj sub-division, near Nepal border, on top of Someshwar Hill at 2,884 ft (879 m) altitude. It is in a ruined state but its remains are well defined.

The Bhitiharawa Ashram [10] of Mahatma Gandhi near Gaunaha in the eastern end of the Valmiki reserve. It is a village in Gaunaha block in Bihar from where Gandhiji started his freedom movement that came to be known as 'Champaran Satyagraha' in India history. The village houses the hut which is called Ashram and has become a place of Gandhian pilgrimage.

Mustang Caves

October 1966- Gandaki Valley, near Jomosom Nepal, with Tibetan Refugees. Note the head straps for carrying heavy loads. Most Tibetan refugees pass through Nepal to India where The 14th Dalai Lama resides. Rene de Milleville 2.jpg
October 1966- Gandaki Valley, near Jomosom Nepal, with Tibetan Refugees. Note the head straps for carrying heavy loads. Most Tibetan refugees pass through Nepal to India where The 14th Dalai Lama resides.

Mustang caves are a collection of some 10,000 man-made caves dug into the sides of valleys in the Mustang District of Nepal. The caves lie on the steep valley walls near the Kali Gandaki River in Upper Mustang. Several groups of archaeologists and researchers have explored these stacked caves and found partially mummified human bodies and skeletons that are at least 2,000-3,000 years old. Explorations of these caves by conservators and archaeologists have also led to the discovery of valuable religious paintings, sculptures, manuscripts and numerous artifacts belonging to the 12th to 14th century. [11]

Development scenario

Hydropower development

Nepal

In Nepal, Sapta Gandaki alone has a huge hydropower potential of 20,650 MW (economic exploitable potential is 5,270 MW) out of a total estimated potential of 83,290 MW (economically exploitable potential is 42,140 MW). The country has so far been able to generate only around 600 MW of hydropower [12] out of which the Gandak basin projects contribute more than 266 MW, about 44%. The hydropower projects built are the Trisuli at Nuwakot (21 MW), Devighat at Nuwakot (14 MW), Pokhra (1 MW) and Western Gandak HEP, at Nawalparasi (15 MW), Marsyangdi at Tanahu (69 MW), Kali Gandaki at Syanja (144 MW), and Syange (2 MW). Middle Marsyangdi HE Project (70 MW) at Lamjung is under final stage of construction. Several major projects are on the anvil for implementation in the near future. With Government of Nepal now according priority to private-sector participation in a multi-pronged approach, the pace of hydropower development will get accelerated.[ citation needed ]

A major Indian firm has entered into a share purchase and joint venture agreement with a Nepalese firm to acquire 80 per cent stake of Nepalese Company for development of the Upper Marsyangdi HEP (250MW). Achieving the economically exploitable potential need would no more be a mirage. [13]

Reportedly there are several other major projects being pursued by the Government of Nepal for private sector participation on IPP basis.[ citation needed ]

Irrigation

The Gandak Project at Valmikinagar (Bhainsaloton) intercepts water of a catchment area of 37,410 km (23,250 mi), which is mostly in Nepal and partly in India. An agreement was signed on 4 December 1959 between the governments of Nepal and of India on the Gandak Irrigation and Power Project. It encompassed the construction of a barrage, canal head regulators and other appurtenant works about 33 m (108 ft) below the existing Triveni Canal Head Regulator. [14] The agreement was modified in 1964 for the protection of Nepal’s riparian rights. Basically there is an agreed share of water for ‘western canal system including a power station in Nepal and eastern canal system. As a part of this bilateral agreement, the Gandak Barrage, a part of Gandak Project, was built in 1968-69 over the Gandak river for providing irrigation to Nepal, Uttar Pradesh and Bihar. [15] The irrigation potential of this project is 11,510 km2 (4,440 sq mi), spread in the district of West Champaran, East Champaran, Muzaffarpur, Samastipur, Saran, Siwan and Gopalganj. The Eastern Gandak Canal Project was taken up in 1960 and Main Canal system was completed in 1975 for flow irrigation in Nepal for the gross commanded area estimated to be 103,500 acres (419 km2). [16]

A Gandak Hydropower Station with an installed capacity of 15 MW has also been constructed and commissioned on the bypass to Eastern Gandak Canal. [17]

Flood management

Flood management does not aim at total elimination or control of floods or providing total immunity from the effects of all magnitudes of floods, which is neither practicable from economic considerations nor even necessary, keeping in view other realities that are faced in the Indian context. Thus, a multi-pronged strategy ranging from modifying the floods by means of structural measures to learning to live with the floods by means of other non-structural measures is the goal of flood management. Measures for protection against extreme floods of low frequency are seldom economically feasible. The term "flood management" refers to the provision of a reasonable degree of protection against floods by measures to mitigate the recurring havoc caused by floods. This is what is being done in flood plains of Gandak River in Bihar and Uttar Pradesh which are affected by floods. [18]

Nepal has carried out studies on the feasibility of having navigational use of the Gandaki river. Studies indicate that (a) it is feasible only in the lower reaches, (b) link it with India’s number 1 highway from Allahabad to Haldia, and (c) cognizance has to be taken of the adverse situation which could arise due to increased irrigation use in dry seasons which could restrict the river level for maintaining possible navigation. [19]

See also

Related Research Articles

Geography of Nepal

Nepal measures about 880 kilometers (547 mi) along its Himalayan axis by 150 to 250 kilometers across. It has an area of 147,516 km2 (56,956 sq mi), of which 335 km2 (129 sq mi) is disputed with India.

Thakali people

Thakali people are an ethnolinguistic group originating from the Thak Khola region of Mustang District in the Dhaulagiri zone of Nepal. Thak-sat-se is the traditional area of the Thakali community, which lies in the salt-trading zone on the south of Tukuche mountain, the valley of the Kali Gandaki river in western Nepal. According to the 2001 census, Thakali population of around 12,973 constituted only 0.06% of Nepal's population. As per the 2011 Nepal census, there are 13,215 Thakali people in Nepal.

Ghaghara

Ghaghara, also called Karnali is a perennial trans-boundary river originating on the Tibetan Plateau near Lake Manasarovar. It cuts through the Himalayas in Nepal and joins the Sharda River at Brahmaghat in India. Together they form the Ghaghara River, a major left bank tributary of the Ganges. With a length of 507 kilometres (315 mi) it is the longest river in Nepal. The total length of Ghaghara River up to its confluence with the Ganges at Revelganj in Bihar is 1,080 kilometres (670 mi). It is the largest tributary of the Ganges by volume and the second longest tributary of the Ganges by length after Yamuna.

Kali Gandaki Gorge Himalayan gorge in Nepal

The Kali Gandaki Gorge or Andha Galchi is the gorge of the Kali Gandaki in the Himalayas in Nepal. It is the deepest gorge in the world.

Mustang District District in Gandaki Pradesh, Nepal

Mustang District is one of the eleven districts of Gandaki Pradesh and one of seventy-seven districts of Nepal. It covers an area of 3,573 km2 (1,380 sq mi) and has a population (2011) of 13,452. The headquarters is Jomsom.

Baglung Place in Dhaulagiri Zone, Nepal

Baglung is a municipality in western Nepal, 275 km (171 mi) west of Kathmandu. It is the administrative headquarters of Baglung District and Dhaulagiri Zone. Baglung serves as the major center for business, finance, education, service and healthcare for the people of mid-Kali Gandaki valley that encompass Beni, Jaljala, Baglung, Kushma, Kathekhola, Galkot, Phalewas and Jaimuni local bodies. The city is located at the cross-section of Kaligandaki corridor highway and midhill highway that transverse Nepal in north–south and east–west directions respectively.

Valmiki National Park

Valmiki National Park, Tiger Reserve and Wildlife Sanctuary is located at the India-Nepal border in the West Champaran district of Bihar, India on the bank of river Gandak. It is the only National park in Bihar. The extensive forest area of Valmikinagar was previously owned by the Bettiah Raj and Ramanagar Raj until the early 1950s. Valmiki Tiger Reserve (VTR) is one of the natural virgin recesses in east India, situated in the north west corner of Bihar. The pristine forest and wilderness of VTR is an excellent example of Himalayan Terai landscape. VTR comprises the Valmiki National Park and Valmiki Wildlife Sanctuary. The VTR forest area covers 899.38 square kilometres (347.25 sq mi), which is 17.4% of the total geographical area of the district West Champaran. As of 2018, there were 40 tigers in the Reserve.

Kosi River

The Kosi or Koshi is a trans-boundary river which flows through Tibet, Nepal and India. It drains the northern slopes of the Himalayas in Tibet and the southern slopes in Nepal. From a major confluence of tributaries north of the Chatra Gorge onwards, the Kosi River is also known as Saptakoshi for its seven upper tributaries. These include the Tamor River originating from the Kanchenjunga area in the east and Arun River and Sun Kosi from Tibet. The Sun Koshi's tributaries from east to west are Dudh Koshi, Bhote Koshi, Tamakoshi River, Likhu Khola and Indravati. The Saptakoshi crosses into northern Bihar, India where it branches into distributaries before joining the Ganges near Kursela in Katihar district.

Jomsom Airport

Jomsom Airport is a domestic airport located in Jomsom serving Mustang District, a district in Gandaki Pradesh in Nepal. It serves as the gateway to Mustang District that includes Jomsom, Kagbeni, Tangbe, and Lo Manthang, and Muktinath temple, which is a popular pilgrimage for Nepalis and Indian pilgrims.

Jomsom Place in Gandaki Pradesh, Nepal

Jomsom, also known as Dzongsam is the centre of Gharapjhong rural municipality in Mustang district and a former independent village development committee situated at an altitude of about 2,700 metres (8,900 ft) in Gandaki Pradesh of western Nepal. The soaring peaks of Dhaulagiri and Nilgiri form a backdrop to the town straddling the Kali Gandaki River, which flows right through the centre of Jomsom. Along the banks of the Kali Gandaki, black fossilized stones called shaligram, considered as an iconic symbol and reminder of the god Vishnu in the Hindu culture, can be found. Such stones are believed to be found only in the Kali Gandaki, and are holy to the Hindus.

Kagbeni, Mustang Incorporated village in Mustang, Nepal

Kagbeni is a village in the Baragubg Muktikshetra rural municipality of Mustang District of the Himalayas, in Nepal, located in the valley of the Kali Gandaki River. At the time of the 2011 Nepal census it had a population of 555 people. It lies on the trail from Jomsom to the royal capital Lo Manthang, near the junction with the trail to Muktinath. Kagbeni is also regarded as one the oldest village in Himalayas.

Floods in Bihar

Bihar is India's most flood-prone state, with 76% population in the North Bihar living under the recurring threat of flood devastation. Bihar makes up 16.5% of India's flood affected area and 22.1% of India's flood affected population. About 73.06% of Bihar's geographical area, ie 68,800 square kilometres (26,600 sq mi) out of 94,160 square kilometres (36,360 sq mi), is flood affected. On an annual basis, they destroy thousands of human lives apart from livestock and assets worth millions. In total, they have claimed 9,500 lives since the government started publishing figures in 1979. North Bihar districts are vulnerable to at least five major flood-causing rivers during monsoon – Mahananda River, Koshi River, Bagmati River, Burhi Gandak River and Gandak – which originate in Nepal. Some south Bihar districts have also become vulnerable to floods from Son, Punpun and Phalgu rivers. The 2013 flood affected over 5.9 million people in 3,768 villages in 20 districts of the state. 2017 flood affected 19 districts of North Bihar killing 514 people. and affecting 1.71 crore people.

Kamala River

The Kamala River originates from Nepal and flows through Indian state of Bihar.

The Rahughat Khola is a tributary of the Kali Khola and Myagdi Khola in Nepal.

Annapurna Circuit

The Annapurna Circuit is a trek within the mountain ranges of central Nepal. The total length of the route varies between 160–230 km (100-145 mi), depending on where motor transportation is used and where the trek is ended. This trek crosses two different river valleys and encircles the Annapurna Massif. The path reaches its highest point at Thorung La pass (5416m/17769 ft), touching the edge of the Tibetan plateau. Practically all trekkers hike the route anticlockwise, as this way the daily altitude gain is slower, and crossing the high Thorong La pass is easier and safer.

Seti Gandaki River River in Nepal

The Seti Gandaki River, also known as the Seti River or the Seti Khola, is a river of western Nepal, a left tributary of the Trishuli River. Its gorges around Pokhara are a major attraction for tourists worldwide.

Jharkot

Jharkot (झारकोट) is a village in Mustang District in the Dhaulagiri Zone of central Nepal. It is located at an elevation of 3519m between Kagbeni, on the banks of the Kali Gandaki river, and the Hindu pilgrimage site of Muktinath.

Trilokwa Village in Bihar, India

Trilokwa is a village located in East Champaran district in the state of Bihar, India. Trilokwa is considered as India's Biggest village. The village is located at about 100 km from the state capital, Patna. This Village is Located At 8 Km From Kesariya Stup, 5 km from Kesariya and 200 km from Valmiki Nagar National Park. Valmiki National Park, Tiger Reserve and Wildlife Sanctuary is located at the India-Nepal border in the West Champaran district of Bihar, India on the bank of river Gandak. It is the only National park in Bihar. The extensive forest area of Valmikinagar was previously owned by the Bettiah Raj and Ramanagar Raj until the early 1950s. Valmiki Tiger Reserve (VTR) is one of the natural virgin recesses in east India, situated in the north west corner of Bihar. The pristine forest and wilderness of VTR is an excellent example of Himalayan Terai landscape. VTR comprises the Valmiki National Park and Valmiki Wildlife Sanctuary. The VTR forest area covers 899.38 square kilometres, which is 17.4% of the total geographical area of the district West Champaran. As of 2013, there were 22 tigers in the Reserve. The village follows the Panchayati raj system.

Modi River

Modi River or Modi Khola is a tributary of Gandaki River in Parbat district of Nepal. It is a snow-fed perennial river originating from Annapurna Mountains and has a catchment area of 675 km2. It meets the Kali Gandaki River at Modi Beni of Parbat District. The total length of the river is approximately 50km. The main tributaries of Modi river are Bhurangdi Khola, Rati Khola, Pati Khola, Malyangdi Khola, Ghandruk Khola and Ambote Khola. The mean annual precipitation in the basin is approximately 2700mm and 80% of the total annual rainfall occurs during the monsoon.

Valmiki Ashram Hindu temple in Nepal

Valmiki Ashram(Nepali: वाल्मीकि आश्रम) is a Hindu Balmiki temple situated in Chitwan district of Nepal, inside Chitwan National Park. It is close to the Triveni Dham where Tamasa, Sona and Sapta Gandaki rivers meet. Deities worshipped here include Rama, Sita, and Valmiki. The festival of Rama Navami is also celebrated here.

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