Gao Bainian (高百年) (556–564) was a crown prince of the Chinese dynasty Northern Qi.
Gao Bainian was born in 556. He was Emperor Xiaozhao's second son, but was considered his proper heir because he was born of his wife Empress Yuan. After he became emperor in 560, therefore, he created Gao Bainian crown prince. It was during Gao Bainian's tenure as crown prince that he married his wife Crown Princess Hulü, a daughter of the general Hulü Guang. In 561, Emperor Xiaozhao suffered severe injuries after falling off a horse. Believing himself to be near death, he decided that Gao Bainian was too young to take the throne, at age five, so he issued an edict giving the throne instead to his brother Gao Zhan the Prince of Changguang. In a letter to Gao Zhan, Emperor Xiaozhao wrote, "Bainian is innocent. You can do anything with him, but please do not kill him!" He died later that day, and Gao Zhan took the throne as Emperor Wucheng. Emperor Wucheng created Gao Bainian the Prince of Leling.
In 564, there were ominous astrological signs that suggested ill fortune for the emperor. Emperor Wucheng wanted to deflect the ill fortune onto Gao Bainian. The scholar Jia Dezhou (賈德冑) had been earlier commissioned to be Gao Bainian's teacher, and while Gao Bainian learned calligraphy, he had once written several instances of the character chi (敕) -- a character that meant "imperial edict," and which only the emperor was supposed to use. Jia sealed the characters chi that Gao Bainian had written and submitted them to Emperor Wucheng. Emperor Wucheng summoned Gao Bainian to the palace, and Gao Bainian, believing that he was about to be killed, took off the jade pendant that he wore and gave it to Princess Hulü. Once in the palace, Emperor Wucheng ordered Gao Bainian to write the character chi, and the handwriting matched the chi characters that Jia submitted. Emperor Wucheng then had his guards batter Gao Bainian severely with sticks, and then drag him around Liangfeng Hall (涼風堂) and continue to batter him. His blood was everywhere, and he pleaded for his life, to no avail. Eventually, Emperor Wucheng had him beheaded and his body thrown into a pool, staining the pool red. Princess Hulü was so saddened by her husband's death that she refused to eat, and she died after a month of not eating. Later, during the reign of Emperor Wucheng's son Gao Wei, a number of imperial halls were torn down and rebuilt. As one of the halls was torn down, a small body wearing an imperial prince robe was found, and it was thought to be Gao Bainian's.
Feng Ba, courtesy name Wenqi (文起), nickname Qizhifa (乞直伐), formally Emperor Wencheng of (Northern) Yan ( 燕文成帝), was an emperor of the Chinese state Northern Yan. He became emperor after Gao Yun, whom he supported in a 407 coup that overthrew Murong Xi of Later Yan, was assassinated in 409. During his reign, Northern Yan largely maintained its territorial integrity but made no headway against the much stronger rival Northern Wei. He was said to have had more than 100 sons, but after his death in 430, his brother and successor Feng Hong had them all executed.
Lou Zhaojun, formally Empress Ming, was an empress dowager of the Chinese dynasty Northern Qi. She was the wife of Gao Huan, the paramount general of Northern Wei and its branch successor state Eastern Wei, and during Gao Huan's lifetime was already influential on the political scene. After Gao Huan's death, she continued to exert influence through the regency of her son Gao Cheng, and then as empress dowager after another son Gao Yang seized the throne from Emperor Xiaojing of Eastern Wei and established Northern Qi. She continued to serve as grand empress dowager through the reigns of Gao Yang's son Emperor Fei, and then again as empress dowager during the reigns of two more of her own sons, Emperor Xiaozhao and Emperor Wucheng.
Empress Li Zu'e was an empress of the Chinese dynasty Northern Qi, known at times semi-formally as Empress Zhaoxin (昭信皇后). Her husband was Emperor Wenxuan, the first emperor of Northern Qi.
Emperor Fei of Northern Qi ( 齊廢帝) (545–561), personal name Gao Yin (高殷), courtesy name Zhengdao (正道), posthumously Prince Mindao of Ji'nan (濟南閔悼王), was briefly an emperor of the Northern Qi. He was the oldest son of the first emperor, Emperor Wenxuan, and he became emperor after Emperor Wenxuan's death in 559. However, in his young age, the officials fought over power, and in 560, Emperor Fei's uncle Gao Yan the Prince of Changshan killed the prime minister Yang Yin and took over power, soon deposing Emperor Fei and taking the throne himself as Emperor Xiaozhao. In 561, fearful of prophecies that Emperor Fei would return to the throne, Emperor Xiaozhao had him put to death.
Emperor Xiaozhao of Northern Qi ( 齊孝昭帝) (535–561), personal name Gao Yan (高演), courtesy name Yan'an (延安), was an emperor of Northern Qi. He was generally considered a capable ruler, but ruled for less than two years before dying from injuries suffered from falling off a horse. Northern Qi would not have another capable ruler after his death.
Empress Yuan was an empress of the Chinese dynasty Northern Qi, known at times semi-formally as Empress Shuncheng (順成皇后). Her husband was Emperor Xiaozhao.
Gao Yan (558–571), courtesy name Renwei (仁威), posthumously honored Emperor Gong'ai of Chu (楚恭哀帝), was an imperial prince of the Chinese dynasty Northern Qi. He was a son of Emperor Wucheng, and was much favored by both Emperor Wucheng and Empress Hu. In 571, during the reign of his older brother Gao Wei, he tried to seize power and killed Gao Wei's trusted official He Shikai, but his uprising subsequently collapsed when he hesitated at taking further action. Later that year, Gao Wei put him to death.
Emperor Wu of Northern Zhou ( 周武帝) (543–578), personal name Yuwen Yong (宇文邕), Xianbei name Miluotu (禰羅突), was an emperor of the Xianbei dynasty Northern Zhou. As was the case of the reigns of his brothers Emperor Xiaomin and Emperor Ming, the early part of his reign was dominated by his cousin Yuwen Hu, but in 572 he ambushed Yuwen Hu and seized power personally. He thereafter ruled ably and built up the power of his military, destroying rival Northern Qi in 577 and annexing its territory. His death the next year, however, ended his ambitions of uniting China, and under the reign of his erratic son Emperor Xuan, Northern Zhou itself soon deteriorated and was usurped by Yang Jian in 581.
Emperor Wucheng of Northern Qi ( 齊武成帝) (537–569), personal name Gao Zhan, nickname Buluoji (步落稽), was an emperor of Northern Qi. In traditional Chinese historiography, he was presented as a minimally competent ruler who devoted much of his time to feasting and pleasure-seeking, neglecting the affairs of the state. The state was governed with assistance from his adviser He Shikai and other appointed administrators. In 565, he passed the throne to his young son Gao Wei, taking the title Taishang Huang, but continued to make key decisions. He died in 569, and the Northern Qi would fall in 577.
Empress Hu was an empress consort and empress dowager of the Chinese dynasty Northern Qi. Her husband was Emperor Wucheng. She was the empress dowager during the reign of her son Gao Wei.
He Shikai (和士開) (524–571), courtesy name Yantong (彥通), was an official of the Chinese dynasty Northern Qi. He was a close associate of Emperor Wucheng prior to Emperor Wucheng's accession to the throne, and he became a powerful official during Emperor Wucheng's reign. He was criticized in traditional histories as a corrupt and incompetent official. After Emperor Wucheng's death, Emperor Wucheng's son Gao Yan the Prince of Langye was displeased with the authority that He Shikai was still wielding, and killed him in a coup in 571, but subsequently was himself killed.
Gao Wei (高緯) (557–577), often known in history as Houzhu of Northern Qi ( 齊後主), courtesy name Rengang (仁綱), sometimes referred to by his later Northern Zhou-created title of Duke of Wen (溫公), was an emperor of Northern Qi. During his reign, Northern Qi's imperial administration was plunged into severe corruption and wastefulness, with the military suffering after Gao Wei killed the great general Hulü Guang in 572. Rival Emperor Wu of Northern Zhou launched a major attack in 576, and Northern Qi forces collapsed. Gao Wei, who formally passed the throne to his son Gao Heng, was captured while trying to flee to Chen Dynasty, and later that year, the Northern Zhou emperor executed him and almost all members of his clan.
Empress Hulü was an empress of the Chinese dynasty Northern Qi. She was Gao Wei's first empress, and she was a daughter of the general Hulü Guang.
Hulü Guang (斛律光) (515–572), courtesy name Mingyue (明月), was a general of the Chinese dynasty Northern Qi. During the late years of the dynasty—the reigns of Emperor Wucheng and Gao Wei, traditionally viewed as a period of corruption and debauchery when Northern Qi's once-powerful status was deteriorating—Hulü was viewed as the key pillar to the state and its army, maintaining the army's strength against rivals Northern Zhou and Chen Dynasty. The powerful officials Zu Ting and Mu Tipo, who had disagreements with him, however, falsely accused him of plotting treason, and in 572, Gao Wei believed those accusations and killed Hulü. Emperor Wu of Northern Zhou was very glad over the news and declared a general pardon, and in 578, Northern Qi fell to Northern Zhou.
Zu Ting, courtesy name Xiaozheng (孝徵), was an official of the Chinese dynasty Northern Qi (550–577). He was renowned for his literary and administrative talents.
Gao Yanzong (高延宗), often known by his princely title of Prince of Ande (安德王), was an imperial prince of the Chinese dynasty Northern Qi who briefly claimed imperial title in 577 for three days as his cousin, the emperor Gao Wei fled in the face of an attack by rival Northern Zhou. Traditional historians usually did not consider him an emperor of Northern Qi.
Gao Heng, often known in history as the Youzhu of Northern Qi ( 齊幼主), was briefly an emperor of Northern Qi. In 577, with Northern Qi under a major attack by rival Northern Zhou, Gao Heng's father Gao Wei, then emperor, wanted to try to deflect ill omens that portended a change in imperial status, and therefore passed the throne to Gao Heng. Later that year, after they fled in face of Northern Zhou forces' arrival, they were captured and taken to the Northern Zhou capital Chang'an, where, in winter 577, Emperor Wu of Northern Zhou ordered them, as well as other members of the Gao clan, to commit suicide. Northern Qi territory was seized by Northern Zhou, although for several years Gao Wei's cousin Gao Shaoyi claimed imperial title in exile under Tujue's protection.
Gao Shaoyi (高紹義), often known by his princely title of Prince of Fanyang (范陽王), was an imperial prince of the Chinese dynasty Northern Qi, who claimed the Northern Qi throne in exile under the protection of Tujue after rival Northern Zhou seized nearly all of Northern Qi territory and captured the emperors, Gao Shaoyi's cousin Gao Wei and Gao Wei's son Gao Heng in 577. In 580, Tujue, after negotiating a peace treaty with Northern Zhou, turned Gao Shaoyi over to Northern Zhou, and he was exiled to modern Sichuan, ending his claim on the Northern Qi imperial title. Most traditional historians do not consider Gao Shaoyi a true emperor of Northern Qi.
Lu Lingxuan (陸令萱) was a lady in waiting in the palace of the Chinese dynasty Northern Qi. As she served as the wet nurse to the emperor Gao Wei, she became exceedingly powerful during his reign, at times eclipsing in importance his mother Empress Dowager Hu, and was often criticized by historians for her corruption and treachery.
Mu Tipo (穆提婆), né Luo Tipo (駱提婆), was a Xianbei official of the Chinese dynasty Northern Qi. He was a close associate of the emperor Gao Wei, and during the latter part of Gao Wei's reign controlled the political scene along with his mother Lu Lingxuan, and the other favorites of Gao Wei, Han Zhangluan and Gao Anagong. In 577, in the midst of a major attack by rival Northern Zhou, Mu surrendered to Emperor Wu of Northern Zhou and was made a provincial governor, but after Northern Zhou destroyed Northern Qi and took over its territory, Emperor Wu falsely accused Mu of conspiring with Gao Wei, and killed Mu and forced Gao Wei and other members of the Gao clan to commit suicide.