Gaspard Amédée Gardanne

Last updated
Gaspard Amédée Gardanne
Born24 April 1758 (1758-04-24)
Solliès-Pont, Var, France
Died14 August 1807 (1807-08-15) (aged 49)
Wroclaw (Breslau), modern-day Poland
Allegiance Flag of France.svg France
Rank General of Division
Battles/wars French Revolutionary Wars
Napoleonic Wars

Gaspard Amédée Gardanne (24 April 1758- 14 August 1807) was a French general who fought in the Napoleonic Wars.

Napoleonic Wars Series of early 19th century European wars

The Napoleonic Wars (1803–1815) were a series of major conflicts pitting the French Empire and its allies, led by Napoleon I, against a fluctuating array of European powers formed into various coalitions, financed and usually led by the United Kingdom. The wars stemmed from the unresolved disputes associated with the French Revolution and its resultant conflict. The wars are often categorised into five conflicts, each termed after the coalition that fought Napoleon: the Third Coalition (1805), the Fourth (1806–07), the Fifth (1809), the Sixth (1813), and the Seventh (1815).

Contents

Biography

Born at Solliès-Pont, he joined the French royal army in 1779. After the French Revolution he joined a volunteer unit as an officer. He fought under Napoleon Bonaparte during the 1796-1797 and 1800 Italian campaigns. He led a division during the Napoleonic Wars and died from illness in 1807. His surname is one of the Names inscribed under the Arc de Triomphe.

Solliès-Pont Commune in Provence-Alpes-Côte dAzur, France

Solliès-Pont is a commune in the Var department in the Provence-Alpes-Côte d'Azur region in southeastern France.

French Revolution social and political revolution in France and its colonies occurring from 1789 to 1798

The French Revolution was a period of far-reaching social and political upheaval in France and its colonies beginning in 1789. The Revolution overthrew the monarchy, established a republic, catalyzed violent periods of political turmoil, and finally culminated in a dictatorship under Napoleon who brought many of its principles to areas he conquered in Western Europe and beyond. Inspired by liberal and radical ideas, the Revolution profoundly altered the course of modern history, triggering the global decline of absolute monarchies while replacing them with republics and liberal democracies. Through the Revolutionary Wars, it unleashed a wave of global conflicts that extended from the Caribbean to the Middle East. Historians widely regard the Revolution as one of the most important events in human history.

Names inscribed under the Arc de Triomphe Wikimedia list article

The following is the list of the names of the 660 persons inscribed on the Arc de Triomphe, in Paris. Most of them are generals who served during the First French Empire (1804–1814) with additional figures from the French Revolution (1789–1799). Underlined names signify those killed in action.

At the outbreak of the War of the Third Coalition, Gardanne commanded an infantry division in Italy under Marshal André Masséna. The 1st Brigade, led by Louis Fursy Henri Compère, included the 22nd Light Infantry and 52nd Line Infantry Regiments. The 2nd Brigade comprised the 29th and 101st Line Infantry Regiments under Louis François Lanchatin. Each regiment had three battalions. Attached to the division was the 15/2nd Foot Artillery company and the 23rd Chasseurs à Cheval, four squadrons strong. This was the division's organization at the Battle of Verona on 18 October 1805 and the Battle of Caldiero from 29 to 31 October. [1]

War of the Third Coalition war

The War of the Third Coalition was a European conflict spanning the years 1803 to 1806. During the war, France and its client states under Napoleon I defeated an alliance, the Third Coalition, made up of the Holy Roman Empire, Russia, Britain and others.

Italy republic in Southern Europe

Italy, officially the Italian Republic, is a country in Southern Europe. Located in the middle of the Mediterranean Sea, Italy shares open land borders with France, Switzerland, Austria, Slovenia and the enclaved microstates San Marino and Vatican City. Italy covers an area of 301,340 km2 (116,350 sq mi) and has a largely temperate seasonal and Mediterranean climate. With around 61 million inhabitants, it is the fourth-most populous EU member state and the most populous country in Southern Europe.

André Masséna French military commander during the Revolutionary and Napoleonic Wars

André Masséna, 1st Duc de Rivoli, 1st Prince d'Essling was a French military commander during the Revolutionary and Napoleonic Wars. He was one of the original eighteen Marshals of the Empire created by Napoleon, with the nickname l'Enfant chéri de la Victoire.

In early 1806, Gardanne's division formed part of Masséna's I Corps of Joseph Bonaparte's Army of Naples. In the campaign that followed, the 1st Brigade included the 20th and 62nd Line Infantry Regiments, three battalions each. The 2nd Brigade was made up of three battalions of the 102nd Line Infantry Regiment, one battalion of the Corsican Legion, and one battalion of the 32nd Light Infantry Regiment. [2] Jean Le Camus led the 1st Brigade while François Valentin commanded the 2nd Brigade. [3] The invasion of the Kingdom of Naples began on 8 February 1806 and progressed rapidly. The only resistance encountered was the fortress of Gaeta, where Masséna detached Gardanne to invest the place while Joseph continued on to occupy Naples. [4]

Joseph Bonaparte elder brother of Napoleon Bonaparte

Joseph-Napoléon Bonaparte, born Giuseppe di Buonaparte was a French diplomat and nobleman, the older brother of Napoleon Bonaparte, who made him King of Naples and Sicily, and later King of Spain. After the fall of Napoleon, Joseph styled himself Comte de Survilliers.

Naples Comune in Campania, Italy

Naples is the regional capital of Campania and the third-largest municipality in Italy after Rome and Milan. In 2017, around 967,069 people lived within the city's administrative limits while its province-level municipality has a population of 3,115,320 residents. Its continuously built-up metropolitan area is the second or third largest metropolitan area in Italy and one of the most densely populated cities in Europe.

Kingdom of Naples former state in Italy

The Kingdom of Naples comprised that part of the Italian Peninsula south of the Papal States between 1282 and 1816. It was created as a result of the War of the Sicilian Vespers (1282–1302), when the island of Sicily revolted and was conquered by the Crown of Aragon, becoming a separate Kingdom of Sicily. Naples continued to be officially known as the Kingdom of Sicily, the name of the formerly unified kingdom. For much of its existence, the realm was contested between French and Spanish dynasties. In 1816, it was reunified with the island kingdom of Sicily once again to form the Kingdom of the Two Sicilies.

Jean Reynier, at the head of 6,000 French troops, smashed Roger de Damas' 10,000-men Neapolitan corps at the Battle of Campo Tenese on 9 March. [5] The remnant of the Neapolitan field army dissolved or was evacuated to Sicily by the British fleet. [6] The Siege of Gaeta, however, lasted from 26 February to 18 July and absorbed the attention of up to 12,000 French soldiers. The garrison commander Louis of Hesse-Philippsthal proved to be a stubborn opponent. His initial garrison of 4,000 was reinforced by sea to 7,000 during the siege. Losses were about 1,000 killed and wounded on each side. The surviving members of the garrison were released on condition that they not fight against France or her allies for one year. [3]

Jean Reynier French general

Jean Louis Ebénézer Reynier rose in rank to become a French army general officer during the French Revolutionary Wars. He led a division under Napoleon Bonaparte in the French Campaign in Egypt and Syria. During the Napoleonic Wars he continued to hold important combat commands, eventually leading an army corps during the Peninsular War in 1810-1811 and during the War of the Sixth Coalition in 1812-1813.

Roger de Damas French general

Roger de Damas was a French Army officer and Royalist general who fought against the French Revolutionary forces in order to assist the Russian Empire and the Kingdom of Naples.

Battle of Campo Tenese battle

The Battle of Campo Tenese saw two divisions of the Imperial French Army of Naples led by Jean Reynier attack the left wing of the Royal Neapolitan Army under Roger de Damas. Though the defenders were protected by field fortifications, a French frontal attack combined with a turning movement rapidly overran the position and routed the Neapolitans with heavy losses. The action occurred at Campotenese, a little mountain village in the municipality of Morano Calabro in the north of Calabria. The battle was fought during the War of the Third Coalition, part of the Napoleonic Wars.

Notes

  1. Schneid, 167
  2. Schneid, 173
  3. 1 2 Smith, 222
  4. Schneid, 49
  5. Smith, 221
  6. Schneid, 50

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References

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