# General Schedule (US civil service pay scale)

Last updated

The General Schedule (GS) is the predominant pay scale within the United States civil service. The GS includes the majority of white collar personnel (professional, technical, administrative, and clerical) positions. As of September 2004, 71 percent of federal civilian employees were paid under the GS. The GG pay rates are identical to published GS pay rates.

## Contents

The remaining 29 percent were paid under other systems such as the Federal Wage System (WG, for federal blue-collar civilian employees), the Senior Executive Service and the Executive Schedule for high-ranking federal employees, and other unique pay schedules used by some agencies such as the United States Securities and Exchange Commission and the Foreign Service. Starting in 2009, some federal employees were also paid under Pay Bands. [1]

## History

The GS was enacted into law by the Classification Act of 1949, which replaced Classification Act of 1923. The GS is now codified as part of Chapter 53 of Title 5 of the United States Code sections 5331 to 5338 (5 U.S.C.   §§ 5331 5338). The pay scale was originally created with the purpose of keeping federal salaries in line with equivalent private sector jobs. Although never the intent, the GS pay scale does a good job of ensuring equal pay for equal work by reducing pay gaps between men, women, and minorities, in accordance with another, separate law, the Equal Pay Act of 1963. [ citation needed ]

Prior to January 1994, GS personnel were generally paid the same amount (for a given grade and step) regardless of where they worked. This system ignored the growing reality of regional differences in salaries and wages across the United States, and this led to a perception that in many locations federal civil service salaries were increasingly uncompetitive with those in the private sector, thus affecting recruiting and retention efforts by federal agencies. In January 1994, the Federal Employees Pay Comparability Act of 1990 (FEPCA) introduced a "locality pay adjustment" component to the GS salary structure. Both Republican and Democratic administrations have complained about the methodology used to compute locality adjustments and the projected cost of closing the pay gap (as determined by FEPCA) between federal salaries and those in the private sector. In December 2007, the President's Pay Agent reported that an average locality pay adjustment of 36.89 per cent would be required to reach the target set by FEPCA (to close the computed pay gap between federal and non-federal pay to a disparity of five per cent). By comparison, in calendar year 2007, the average locality pay adjustment actually authorized was 16.88 per cent. As a result, FEPCA has never been fully implemented. [ citation needed ]

The United States Office of Personnel Management administers the GS pay schedule on behalf of other federal agencies.

Changes to the GS must normally be authorized by either the president (via Executive Order) or by Congress (via legislation). Normally, the President directs annual across-the-board pay adjustments at the beginning of a calendar year after Congress has passed the annual appropriations legislation for the federal government.

Under FEPCA, the Bureau of Labor Statistics conducts annual surveys of wages and salaries paid to non-federal workers in designated locality pay areas. Surveys are used to determine the disparity, if any, between federal and non-federal pay in a given locality pay area. The Federal Salary Council (created by FEPCA) prepares recommendations concerning the composition of the designated locality pay areas and the annual comparability adjustment for each area, as well as an adjustment for all other workers outside these areas, referred to as "Rest of U.S.". The council's recommendations are transmitted to the President's Pay Agent (also created by FEPCA), which then establishes, modifies, or disestablishes individual locality pay areas and makes the final recommendation on pay adjustments to the president, who may either accept the agent's recommendations or (in effect) reject them through the submission of an alternative pay plan.

FEPCA also provides for an automatic annual across-the-board adjustment of GS pay rates. A common misconception is that the annual federal pay adjustments are determined according to cost of living fluctuations and other regional considerations. In fact, the across-the-board adjustments to the GS (but not locality pay) are determined according to the rise in the cost of employment as measured by the Department of Labor's Employment Cost Index, which does not necessarily correlate to the better-known Consumer Price Index, which tracks consumer prices.

The GS is separated into 15 grades (GS-1, GS-2, etc. up to GS-15); each grade is separated into 10 steps. At one time, there were also three GS "supergrades" (GS-16, GS-17 and GS-18); these were eliminated under the provisions of the Civil Service Reform Act of 1978 and replaced by the Senior Executive Service and the more recent Senior Level (non-supervisory) pay scale.

Most positions in the competitive service are paid according to the GS. In addition, many positions in the excepted service use the GS as a basis for setting pay rates. Some positions in the excepted service use the grade designator "GG"—for example, "GG-12" or "GG-13". The GG pay rates are generally identical to published GS pay rates.

The GS-1 through GS-7 range generally marks entry-level positions, while mid-level positions are in the GS-8 to GS-12 range and top-level positions (senior managers, high-level technical specialists, or physicians) are in the GS-13 to GS-15 range. A new GS employee is normally employed in the first step of their assigned GS grade, although the employer has discretion to, as a recruiting incentive, authorize initial appointment at a higher step (other agencies may place the employee at a higher grade). In most professional occupations, entry to mid-level positions are classified at two-grade intervals—that is, an employee would advance from GS-5 to GS-7, then to GS-9 and finally to GS-11, skipping grades 6, 8 and 10.

Permanent employees below step 10 in their grade normally earn step increases after serving a prescribed period of service in at least a satisfactory manner. The normal progression is 52 weeks (one year) between steps 1–2, 2–3, and 3–4, then 104 weeks (two years) between steps 4–5, 5–6, and 6–7, and finally 156 weeks (three years) between steps 7–8, 8–9, and 9–10. [2] However, an employee can be rewarded for outstanding work performance via a "quality step increase" ("QSI"), which advances the employee one step within grade regardless of time at the previous step. [3] (When a QSI is awarded, the date of the QSI becomes the starting date for the next step increase, which (if future step increases are awarded on the normal progression) will shorten the overall time for an employee to reach the final step within a grade.)

Depending on the agency and the work description, a GS position may provide for advancement within a "career ladder," meaning that an employee performing satisfactorily will advance between GS grades, normally on an annual basis, until he(she) has reached the top GS grade for that job (which represents full performance). Advancement beyond the top grade (to either a specialized technical position or to a managerial position) would be subject to competitive selection.

Not all positions, however, provide for such a "career ladder," thus requiring employees who seek advancement to consider other career paths, either within their agency or outside it.

An example is the "career ladder" for auditors within the Defense Contract Audit Agency (DCAA). The traditional "entry level" grade within DCAA is the GS-7 level (some employees come in either at the lower GS-5 level or higher GS-9 or GS-11 levels) and the "career ladder" is GS-7 to GS-9 to GS-11 and finally to GS-12, with the employee expected to advance between grades after one year and to reach the GS-12 level after three years. Beyond the GS-12 level, advancements to the higher levels (GS-13, GS-14, and GS-15, most of which are managerial positions) are based on competitive selections.

Furthermore, if an employee is promoted to a grade which is not part of the career ladder (such as a promotion to a supervisory position), the employee's salary is set at the step within the higher grade nearest the employee's current salary (but never below the current salary), plus additional steps to reward the employee for the promotion and to account for the increased responsibilities that go along with the new position. As an example (and not including locality adjustments), an employee at GS-12 Step 10 (base salary $86,021) being promoted to a GS-13 position would initially have his/her salary set at GS-13 Step 4 (base salary$86,550, as it is the nearest salary to GS-12 Step 10 but not lower than it), and then have his/her salary adjusted to a higher step (such as GS-13 Step 6, having a base salary of $91,796). ## Salary calculation Salaries under the GS have two components: a base salary and a "locality pay adjustment". ### Base salary The base salary is based on a table compiled by Office of Personnel Management (the 2020 table is shown below), [4] and is used as the baseline for the locality pay adjustment. The increases between steps for Grades GS-1 and GS-2 varies between the steps; for Grades GS-3 through GS-15 the increases between the steps are the same within the grade, but increase as the grade increases. The table is revised effective January of each year to reflect the basic cost of living adjustment (known as the General Schedule Increase). 2020 General Schedule Basic Pay GradeStep 1Step 2Step 3Step 4Step 5Step 6Step 7Step 8Step 9Step 10 1$19,543$20,198$20,848$21,494$22,144$22,524$23,166$23,814$23,840$24,448 2$21,974$22,497$23,225$23,840$24,108$24,817$22,526$26,235$26,944$27,653 3$23,976$24,775$25,574$26,373$27,172$27,971$28,770$29,569$30,368$31,167 4$26,915$27,812$28,709$29,606$30,503$31,400$32,297$33,194$34,091$34,988 5$30,113$31,117$32,121$33,125$34,129$35,133$36,137$37,141$38,145$39,149 6$33,567$34,686$35,805$36,924$38,043$39,162$40,281$41,400$42,519$43,638 7$37,301$38,544$39,787$41,030$42,273$43,516$44,759$46,002$47,245$48,488 8$41,310$42,687$44,064$45,441$46,818$48,195$49,572$50,949$52,326$53,703 9$45,627$47,148$48,669$50,190$51,711$53,232$54,753$56,274$57,795$59,316 10$50,246$51,921$53,596$55,271$56,946$58,621$60,296$61,971$63,646$65,321 11$55,204$57,044$58,884$60,724$62,564$64,404$66,244$68,084$69,924$71,764 12$66,167$68,373$70,579$72,785$74,991$77,197$79,403$81,609$83,815$86,021 13$78,681$81,304$83,927$86,550$89,173$91,796$94,419$97,042$99,665$102,288 14$92,977$96,076$99,175$102,274$105,373$108,472$111,571$114,670$117,769$120,868 15$109,366$113,012$116,658$120,304$123,950$127,596$131,242$134,888$138,534\$142,180

Some positions have their own unique GS scales. One notable example being patent examiner positions who can receive a supplement of more than 50% from the standard GS scale. Under the laws governing special GS scales, employees whose positions are covered by those scales earn either the special scale salary, or the standard GS scale salary plus a locality adjustment (see below), whichever is higher. [5]

The second component of the GS salary, the locality pay adjustment, was introduced in 1994 as part of the Federal Employees Pay Comparability Act of 1990 (FEPCA). Prior to FEPCA, all GS employees received the same salary regardless of location, which failed to reflect both the disparity between public sector and private sector pay as well as differences in cost of living in major metropolitan areas. As noted earlier, an employee in a position with a special GS scale does not receive a locality adjustment unless the pay under the special scale is lower than using the locality pay adjustment.

Under FEPCA, specified metropolitan areas, plus Alaska and Hawaii, are designated to receive pay adjustments in excess of the general adjustment provided to the "Rest of U.S.". Salary adjustments in other U.S. Territories and for overseas employees are separate from this adjustment. As of 2020, 52 areas, plus the entire states of Alaska and Hawaii, have been designated to receive this excess adjustment. [6]

2017 Major metropolitan areas and their designated percentage adjustments
Alaska 27.13% Cincinnati 19.52% Harrisburg 15.63% Los Angeles 29.65% Portland 21.95% Washington, D.C. 27.10%
Albany 15.85% Cleveland 19.71% Hartford 27.57% Miami 22.13% Raleigh 19.02%"Rest of U.S."15.06%
Albuquerque 15.36% Colorado Springs 15.99% Hawaii 17.92% Milwaukee 19.61% Richmond 18.19%
Atlanta 20.70% Columbus 18.49% Houston 30.97% Minneapolis 22.72% Sacramento 24.14%
Austin 15.97% Dallas 22.61% Huntsville 17.82% New York City 31.22% St. Louis 15.83%
Boston 26.73% Davenport 15.56% Indianapolis 15.85% Palm Bay 15.48% San Diego 26.98%
Buffalo 18.66% Dayton 17.59% Kansas City 15.59% Philadelphia 23.87% San Jose 38.17%
Charlotte 15.65% Denver 24.65% Laredo 16.68% Phoenix 18.57% Seattle 24.24%
Chicago 26.85% Detroit 25.68% Las Vegas 15.93% Pittsburgh 17.86% Tucson 15.66%

The total pay with locality is calculated as follows:

${\displaystyle {\text{Total pay}}={\text{Locality}}\%\cdot ({\text{Base Pay}})+{\text{Base Pay}}={\text{Base Pay}}\times (1+{\text{Locality}}\%)}$

FEPCA places a cap on the total salary of highly paid employees (mainly those at the higher GS-15 Grade steps) the total base pay plus locality adjustment cannot exceed the salary for employees under Level IV of the Executive Schedule.

The locality pay adjustment is counted as part of the "high-3" salary in calculating Federal Employees Retirement System (FERS) and Civil Service Retirement System (CSRS) annuities, as well as the baseline for individuals having a percentage of salary deducted for deposit into the Thrift Savings Plan.

### Personnel outside the United States

Personnel based outside the United States (e.g. U.S. territories, foreign overseas areas) receive a lower locality adjustment (4.76 percent for 2010). However, they may also receive certain non-taxable allowances such as cost-of-living allowances, post allowances and housing allowances in accordance with other laws, such as the Foreign Service Act. Federal civilian workers based in CONUS do not normally receive housing allowances or government-furnished housing. Also, some civilian personnel stationed overseas do not receive housing allowances; this may include military dependents working in federal civilian positions overseas, military members that left the service while overseas and were hired into an overseas position, and U.S. citizens hired into overseas positions while traveling abroad.

In contrast, the tax-free allowances paid during overseas assignments (especially the housing allowances) are generally considered to be an incentive to serve overseas, as they can be quite generous. While this situation may be advantageous to some personnel during their assignment overseas, these tax-free allowances are not considered to be part of one's salary, therefore they are not counted when computing a civil service annuity at retirement. CONUS locality adjustments, however, are counted when computing annuities.

Employees stationed in Alaska and Hawaii were formerly considered OCONUS and received a cost of living adjustment, but are being phased into the domestic locality pay system.

NOTE:"Employees of the U.S. Government are not entitled to the foreign earned income exclusion or the foreign housing exclusion/deduction under section 911 because “foreign earned income” does not include amounts paid by the U.S. Government as an employee. But see Other Employment, later" [7]

## Comparison between civilian and military rank equivalents

Protocol Precedence Lists for civilian and military personnel have been developed by each of the Department of Defense organizations to establish the order of government, military, and civic leaders for diplomatic, ceremonial, and social events. Protocol is a code of established guidelines on proper etiquette. Precedence is defined as priority in place, time, or rank. In the government, military and diplomatic corps, precedence among individuals' positions plays a substantial role. Equivalency between civilian pay grades and military rank is only for protocol purposes and informally for delegated supervisory responsibilities. While the authority of military rank extends across services and within each service, the same does not exist for civilian employees and therefore, there is no equivalency of command or supervisory authority between civilian and military personnel external to the local organization. The "Department of the Army Protocol Precedence List" is developed by the Army Protocol Directorate. Another form of the Army "Precedence List" can be found in Appendix D of DA PAM 600-60: A Guide to Protocol and Etiquette for Official Entertainment. The Department of the Navy "Civilian and Military Pay Grades" list can be found in Annex D of OPNAVINST 1710.7A: Social Usage and Protocol. The Department of the Air Force "Military and Civilian Rank Equivalents" can be found in Attachment 10 of AFI 34-1201. Consolidated DOD lists have been compiled by JMAR. [8]

Geneva Convention CategoryMILITARYGS
V: General OfficerO-7 through O-10Senior Executive Service
O-5
O-4
GS-14/GS-15
GS-13
GS-12
O-2
O-1
GS-10/GS-11
GS-8/GS-9
GS-6/GS-7
II: Non-commissioned Officer (NCO)E-8/E-9
E-5/E-6/E-7
WS/GS-5
WL/WS/GS-1 through GS-4
I: EnlistedE-1 through E-4WG/WL

The comparison of GS and military ranks with respect to financial accounting has different rules than those treating protocol. According to DoD 7000.14-R Financial Management Regulation Volume 11A, Chapter 6 Appendix B (January 2011): [9]

Geneva Convention CategoryGS/SESMILITARY
V: General OfficerES Level III
ES Level IV
ES Level V
O-9
O-8
O-7
GS-14
GS-13
O-6
O-5
O-4
GS-11
GS-09
O-3, WO-5/WO-4
O-2, WO-3
O-1, WO-2/WO-1
II: Non-commissioned Officer/Senior Non-commissioned OfficerGS-08
GS-07
GS-06
GS-05
E-9
E-8
E-7
E-6/E-5
I: EnlistedGS-04
GS-03
GS-02
GS-01
E-4
E-3
E-2
E-1

## Pay for performance

In recent years, there have been several attempts to eliminate the GS and replace it with various pay systems emphasizing "pay for performance" (i.e., a system in which pay increases are awarded based more on merit and work performance and less on seniority and length of service). The pay structure which enables this is typically known as pay banding. The best known efforts in this area are the pay systems created for the Departments of Homeland Security and Defense (the National Security Personnel System) [10] in 2002 and 2003, respectively. These efforts were challenged by federal labor unions and other employee groups.[ citation needed ] Many supervisory and non-bargaining-unit employees, however, were converted from their GS positions into equitable NSPS positions. As part of his fiscal 2007 and 2008 budget proposals, President George W. Bush proposed the eventual elimination of the GS to be replaced by a pay-for-performance concept throughout the Executive Branch of the government. The Office of Management and Budget prepared draft legislation, known as the "Working for America Act", [11] but as of January 2008[ needs update ] Congress has not implemented the proposal. President Barack Obama signed the legislation repealing the NSPS system on October 29, 2009. Under the terms of the 2010 Defense Authorization Act, Public Law 111-84, all employees under NSPS must be converted back to their previous pay system not later than January 1, 2012. The law also mandates that no employees lose pay as a result of this conversion. [12] In order to ensure this, a set of conversion rules has been developed. In most cases, if an employee's current NSPS salary falls between two step levels of the GS grade to which their position is classified, their salary will be increased to the higher step. Employees whose salary was increased beyond the GS step 10 amount while under NSPS will be placed on retained pay, meaning they will receive 50% of the annual cost of living increase until the GS table catches up to the level of salary they are earning. [13]

## Related Research Articles

Cost of living is the cost of maintaining a certain standard of living. Changes in the cost of living over time are often operationalized in a cost-of-living index. Cost of living calculations are also used to compare the cost of maintaining a certain standard of living in different geographic areas. Differences in cost of living between locations can also be measured in terms of purchasing power parity rates.

The Federal Employees' Retirement System (FERS) is the retirement system for employees within the United States civil service. FERS became effective January 1, 1987, to replace the Civil Service Retirement System (CSRS) and to conform federal retirement plans in line with those in the private sector.

The Senior Executive Service (SES) is a position classification in the civil service of the United States federal government, equivalent to general officer or flag officer ranks in the U.S. Armed Forces. It was created in 1979 when the Civil Service Reform Act of 1978 went into effect under President Jimmy Carter.

The Federal Employees Pay Comparability Act of 1990 or FEPCA was an attempt to address the need for pay reform in the executive branch of the United States Government that became apparent in the 1980s as Federal civil service salaries fell behind those in the private sector. FEPCA provided guidelines to achieve pay comparability between Federal and non-Federal jobs. FEPCA was enacted as Section 529 of the Treasury, Postal Service and General Government Appropriations Act, 1991.

United States Military Pay is money paid to members in the United States Armed Forces. The amount of pay may vary by the member's rank, time in the military, location duty assignment, and by some special skills the member may have.

Rural letter carriers are United States Postal Service and Canada Post employees who deliver mail in what are traditionally considered rural and suburban areas of the United States and Canada. Before Rural Free Delivery (RFD), rural Americans and Canadians were required to go to a post office to get their mail.

Pay Commission is set up by Government of India, and gives its recommendations regarding changes in salary structure of its employees.set up in 1946, Since India's Independence, seven pay commissions have been set up on a regular basis to review and make recommendations on the work and pay structure of all civil and military divisions of the Government of India. Headquartered in Delhi, the Commission is given 18 months from date of its constitution to make its recommendations.

The United States federal civil service is the civilian workforce of the United States federal government's departments and agencies. The federal civil service was established in 1871. U.S. state and local government entities often have comparable civil service systems that are modeled on the national system, in varying degrees.

Executive Schedule is the system of salaries given to the highest-ranked appointed officials in the executive branch of the U.S. government. The President of the United States appoints individuals to these positions, most with the advice and consent of the United States Senate. They include members of the president's Cabinet, several top-ranking officials of each executive department, the directors of some of the more prominent departmental and independent agencies, and several members of the Executive Office of the President.

The National Security Personnel System (NSPS) was a pay for performance pay system created in 2004-5 under authorization by Congress for the United States Department of Defense (DoD) and implemented in mid-2006. NSPS replaced the General Schedule (GS) grade and step system for the DoD with a pay band system intended to provide more flexibility in establishing pay levels. NSPS had differing policies concerning tenure, hiring, reassignment, promotion, collective bargaining, pay, performance measurement and recognition, etc. It purportedly retained EEO and Veterans' Preference protections although the system was not in place long enough to tell whether or not this was true. There was a significant level of controversy as to whether or not the flexibility gained with the new system was at the expense of the Federal employees within DoD and whether or not the flexibility gained came at a bureaucratic price requiring significantly more effort on the part of managers to document performance and manage compensation. Pay increases that were automatic under the GS system did not exist under NSPS. On October 29, 2009, this pay system was repealed, restoring all DoD employees to the General Schedule by January 1, 2012.

A pay scale is a system that determines how much an employee is to be paid as a wage or salary, based on one or more factors such as the employee's level, rank or status within the employer's organization, the length of time that the employee has been employed, and the difficulty of the specific work performed. Examples of pay scales include U.S. uniformed services pay grades, the salary grades by which United States military personnel are paid, and the General Schedule, the salary grades by which United States white-collar civil service personnel are paid. Private employers use salary structures with grades to define the ranges of pay available to employees in each grade/range.

The Federal Salary Council (FSC) is an advisory body of the executive branch of the United States Government. The FSC was established under the provisions of the Section 5304(e)(1) of Title 5 of the United States Code, to provide recommendations on the locality pay program created by the Federal Employees Pay Comparability Act of 1990 (FEPCA). The locality pay program provides for localized pay differentials for Federal employees paid under the General Schedule (GS) who work in the United States and its territories and possessions.

The Federal Wage System (FWS) in the United States was developed to make the pay of federal blue-collar workers comparable to prevailing private sector rates in each local wage area. The FWS is a partnership worked out between the Office of Personnel Management (OPM), other Federal agencies, and labor organizations.

The Senior Foreign Service (SFS) comprises the top four ranks of the United States Foreign Service. These ranks were created by the Foreign Service Act of 1980 and Executive Order 12293 in order to provide the Foreign Service with senior grades equivalent to general- and flag ranks in the military and naval establishments, respectively, and to grades in the Senior Executive Service. Like military ranks and other Foreign Service ranks, the Senior Foreign Service grade system assigns rank in person, not rank in position.

The NASA Astronaut Corps is a unit of the United States National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) that selects, trains, and provides astronauts as crew members for U.S. and international space missions. It is based at Johnson Space Center in Houston, Texas.

Compensation and benefits (C&B) is a sub-discipline of human resources, focused on employee compensation and benefits policy-making. While compensation and benefits are tangible, there are intangible rewards such as recognition, work-life and development. Combined, these are referred to as total rewards. The term "compensation and benefits" refers to the discipline as well as the rewards themselves.

Servants to the Government of Pakistan refers to all those serving officials either civil or military, who perform their duties while serving their outfits in Federal/Provincial/District areas of the Government of Pakistan.

The 7th Central Pay Commission (7CPC), constituted in February 2014 the principles and structure of emoluments of all central government civilian employees including defence forces in India, submitted its report on 19 November 2015. 7CPC's recommendations affects the organization, rank structure, pay, allowances and pension, of 13,86,171 armed forces personnel.page 105, para 6.2.2[3]

A Title 42 appointment is an excepted service employment category in the United States federal civil service. It allows scientists and special consultants to be hired as part of the Public Health Service or Environmental Protection Agency under a streamlined process "without regard to the civil-service laws". Courts have ruled that, although Title 42 appointments are exempt from hiring and compensation provisions of civil service laws, they are still entitled to protections relating to termination, including appeals to the Merit Systems Protection Board.

Standard Form 50 , officially titled Notification of Personnel Action, is a United States government form used to process various personnel actions for government employees.

## References

1. "GENERAL SCHEDULE WITHIN-GRADE INCREASES". Office of Personnel Management.
2. "Salary Table 2020-GS" (PDF). U.S. Office of Personnel Management. Retrieved February 12, 2020.
3. "Special Rate Table Number 0576". U.S. Office of Personnel Management. January 1, 2017. Retrieved March 26, 2017.
4. "Locality Pay Area Definitions". 2020. Retrieved February 12, 2020.
5. "Precedence Codes". Jmarprotocol.com. Retrieved 2014-05-08.
6. "DoD WORKING CAPITAL FUNDS CIVILIAN/MILITARY EQUIVALENCY RATE" (PDF). comptroller.defense.gov. Retrieved 2016-05-29.
7. "National Security Personnel System". Office of the Secretary of Defense. Archived from the original on 2007-04-06.
8. "Archived copy" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on 2012-11-07. Retrieved 2014-07-21.CS1 maint: archived copy as title (link)
9. Archived January 24, 2010, at the Wayback Machine
10. "Jobs". Federal Aviation Administration. 2014-02-24. Retrieved 2014-05-08.
11. "About AcqDemo". Office of the Under Secretary of Defense for Acquisition and Sustainment (A&S). 2019-02-21. Retrieved 2019-03-31.
12. "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 2007-04-10. Retrieved 2007-04-11.CS1 maint: archived copy as title (link)
13. Archived February 2, 2009, at the Wayback Machine
• Army Regulation 570-4, p. 39–40.