General Secretary of the Communist Party of China

Last updated

General Secretary of the
Central Committee of the
Communist Party of China
中国共产党中央委员会总书记
Danghui.svg
Emblem of the Communist Party of China
Flag of the Chinese Communist Party.svg
Flag of the Communist Party of China
Xi Jinping March 2017.jpg
Incumbent
Xi Jinping

since 15 November 2012
Central Committee of the Communist Party of China
Type Party leader, Paramount leader
Reports to National Congress of the Communist Party of China
Seat Qinzheng Hall, Zhongnanhai, Beijing [1] [2]
Nominator Central Committee of the Communist Party of China
AppointerCentral Committee of the Communist Party of China
Term length Renewable every five years, no term limit
Constituting instrument Constitution of the Communist Party of China
Inaugural holder Chen Duxiu (1925)
Hu Yaobang (1982)
FormationJanuary 1925
September 1982
General Secretary of the Communist Party of China
Simplified Chinese 中国共产党中央委员会总书记
Traditional Chinese 中國共產黨中央委員會總書記
Commonly abbreviated as
Simplified Chinese 中共中央总书记
Traditional Chinese 中共中央總書記
National Emblem of the People's Republic of China (2).svg
This article is part of a series on the
politics and government of
China

The General Secretary of the Central Committee of the Communist Party of China (Chinese :中国共产党中央委员会总书记) is head of the Communist Party of China and the highest-ranking official within the People's Republic of China. [3] The General Secretary is a standing member of the Politburo and head of the Secretariat. The officeholder is usually considered the "paramount leader" of China. [4]

Chinese language family of languages

Chinese is a group of related, but in many cases not mutually intelligible, language varieties, forming the Sinitic branch of the Sino-Tibetan language family. Chinese is spoken by the ethnic Chinese majority and many minority ethnic groups in China. About 1.2 billion people speak some form of Chinese as their first language.

In a governmental system, a party leader acts as the official representative of their political party. The party leader is typically responsible for managing the party's relationship with the general public. As such, they will take a leading role in developing and communicating party policy, especially election platforms, to the electorate. They are also typically the public face of the respective party and the principal media contact.

Communist Party of China Political party of the Peoples Republic of China

The Communist Party of China (CPC), also referred to as the Chinese Communist Party (CCP), is the founding and ruling political party of the People's Republic of China. The Communist Party is the sole governing party within mainland China, permitting only eight other, subordinated parties to co-exist, those making up the United Front. It was founded in 1921, chiefly by Chen Duxiu and Li Dazhao. The party grew quickly, and by 1949 it had driven the nationalist Kuomintang (KMT) government from mainland China after the Chinese Civil War, leading to the establishment of the People's Republic of China. It also controls the world's largest armed forces, the People's Liberation Army.

Contents

According to the Constitution, the General Secretary serves as an ex officio member of the Politburo Standing Committee, China's de facto top decision-making body. [5] Since 1989, the holder of the post has been, except for transitional periods, the Chairman of the Central Military Commission, making the holder the Supreme Military Command of the People's Liberation Army. [lower-alpha 1]

The Constitution of the Communist Party of China (CPC) has 53 Articles and includes contents of General Program, Membership, Organization System, Central Organizations, Local Organizations, Primary Organizations, Party Cadres, Party Discipline, Party Organs for Discipline Inspection, Leading Party Members' Groups, Relationship Between the Party and the Communist Youth League, Party Emblem and Flag.

An ex officio member is a member of a body who is part of it by virtue of holding another office. The term ex officio is Latin, meaning literally "from the office", and the sense intended is "by right of office"; its use dates back to the Roman Republic.

Politburo Standing Committee of the Communist Party of China top leadership of the Communist Party of China and Chinas de facto top decision-making body

The Standing Committee of the Central Political Bureau of the Communist Party of China, usually known as the Politburo Standing Committee (PSC), is a committee consisting of the top leadership of the Communist Party of China. Historically it has been composed of five to eleven members, and currently has seven members. Its officially mandated purpose is to conduct policy discussions and make decisions on major issues when the Politburo, a larger decision-making body, is not in session. According to the party's Constitution, the General Secretary of the Central Committee must also be a member of the Politburo Standing Committee.

The current General Secretary is Xi Jinping, who took office on 15 November 2012 and was re-elected on 25 October 2017. Afterwards, he was given the ability to have no limit to the amount of terms as a General Secretary. [lower-alpha 2]

Xi Jinping General Secretary of the Communist Party of China and paramount leader of China

Xi Jinping is a Chinese politician serving as general secretary of the Communist Party of China (CPC), president of the People's Republic of China (PRC), and chairman of the Central Military Commission (CMC). Often described as China's "paramount leader" since 2012, he officially received the title of "core leader" from the CPC in 2016. As general secretary, Xi holds an ex-officio seat on the Politburo Standing Committee of the Communist Party of China, China's top decision-making body.

Powers and position

Since the abolition of the post of Chairman of the Communist Party of China by the 12th Central Committee in 1982, the General Secretary has been the highest-ranking official of the party and heads the Central Secretariat, Political Bureau and its Standing Committee. [7]

Chairman of the Communist Party of China Leader of the Communist Party of China between 1943 and 1982

The Chairman of the Central Committee of the Communist Party of China was the head of the Communist Party of China (CPC). It was established at the 8th National Congress in 1945 and abolished at the 12th National Congress in 1982, and was succeeded by the General Secretary of the Central Committee. Offices with the name Chairman of the Central Executive Committee in 1922–1923 and Chairman of the Central Committee existed in 1928–1931. For information about these offices, see the article leader of the Communist Party of China

The 12th Central Committee of the Communist Party of China was in session from September 1982 to November 1987. It held seven plenary sessions. It was securely succeeded by the 13th Central Committee.

Politburo of the Communist Party of China decision-making body in China

The Central Politburo of the Communist Party of China, formally known as the Political Bureau of the CPC Central Committee and known as Central Bureau (中央局) before 1927, is a group of 25 people who oversee the Communist Party of China. Unlike politburos of other Communist parties, power within the politburo is centralized in the Politburo Standing Committee, a smaller group of Politburo members.

Since its revival in 1982, the post of General Secretary has been as de jure government position, the most important post in the PRC, though it did not become the de facto most important post until Deng Xiaoping's retirement in 1990. As China is a de facto one-party state, the General Secretary holds ultimate power and authority over state and government. However, the men who have held the post have held far less power than Chairman Mao Zedong. Since the mid-1990s, the General Secretary has traditionally also held the post of President of the PRC. While the presidency is nominally a ceremonial post, it is customary for the General Secretary to assume the presidency to confirm his status as de jure head of state.

Deng Xiaoping Chinese politician, Paramount leader of China

Deng Xiaoping was a Chinese politician who was the paramount leader of the People's Republic of China from 1978 until his retirement in 1989. After Chairman Mao Zedong's death in 1976, Deng led China through far-reaching market-economy reforms.

A one-party state, single-party state, one-party system, or single-party system is a type of state in which one political party has the right to form the government, usually based on the existing constitution. All other parties are either outlawed or allowed to take only a limited and controlled participation in elections. Sometimes the term de facto one-party state is used to describe a dominant-party system that, unlike the one-party state, allows democratic multiparty elections, but the existing practices or balance of political power effectively prevent the opposition from winning the elections.

Mao Zedong Chairman of the Central Committee of the Communist Party of China

Mao Zedong, also known as Chairman Mao, was a Chinese communist revolutionary who became the founding father of the People's Republic of China, which he ruled as the Chairman of the Communist Party of China from its establishment in 1949 until his death in 1976. His theories, military strategies, and political policies are collectively known as Maoism.

Since Xi Jinping's ascendance to power, two new bodies of the Communist Party, the National Security Commission and Central Leading Group for Comprehensively Deepening Reforms, have been established, ostensibly concentrating political power in the "paramount leader" to a greater degree than anyone since Deng. [8] These bodies were tasked with establishing the general policy direction for national security as well as the agenda for economic reform. Both groups are headed by the General Secretary, thus the power of the General Secretary has become more concentrated. [9]

National Security Commission of the Communist Party of China

The Central National Security Commission of the Communist Party of China (CPC) was established at the 3rd Plenary Session of the 18th Central Committee in November 2013, and was considered a "major regrouping of the top CCP power structure."

List of general secretaries

See also

Notes

  1. Xi Jinping, 59, was named general secretary of the 82-million-member Communist Party and is set to take over the presidency, a mostly ceremonial post, from Hu Jintao in March. [6]
  2. "Xi's here to stay: China leader tipped to outstay term". Daily Mail. 9 August 2016. "A lot of analysts now see it as a given" that Xi will seek to stay party general secretary, the country's most powerful post, said Christopher K. Johnson, a former CIA analyst and now China specialist at the Washington-based Center for Strategic and International Studies.

Related Research Articles

Central Military Commission (China) Peoples Republic of China political bodies governing the military

The Central Military Commission (CMC) refers to the parallel national defense organizations of the Communist Party of China and the People's Republic of China: the Central Military Commission of the Communist Party of China, a Party organ under the CPC Central Committee, and the Central Military Commission of the People's Republic of China, a central state organ under the National People's Congress, being the military branch of the national government.

The Orders of precedence in China is the ranking of political leaders in China for the purposes of event protocol and to arrange the ordering of names in official news bulletins, both written and televised. It is also sometimes used to assess perceived level of political power. Although there is no formally published ranking, there is usually an established convention and protocol, and the relative positions of Chinese political figures can usually be deduced from the order in meetings and especially by the time and order in which figures are covered by the official media.

Secretariat of the Communist Party of China body serving the Politburo of the Communist Party of China and its Standing Committee

The Central Secretariat of the Communist Party of China is a body serving the Politburo of the Communist Party of China and its Standing Committee. The secretariat is mainly responsible for carrying out routine operations of the Politburo and the coordination of organizations and stakeholders to achieve tasks as set out by the Politburo. It is empowered by the Politburo to make routine day-to-day decisions on issues of concern in accordance to the decisions of the Politburo, but it must consult the Politburo on substantive matters.

In modern Chinese politics, the paramount leader of the Communist Party of China and the government of China is an informal term for the most prominent political leader in the People's Republic of China. The paramount leader is not a formal position nor an office unto itself and the term gained prominence during the era of Deng Xiaoping (1978–1989), who was able to wield power without necessarily holding any official or formally significant party or government positions at any given time.

Since both the Communist Party of China and the People's Liberation Army promote according to seniority, it is possible to discern distinct generations of Chinese leadership. In official discourse, each group of leadership is identified with a distinct extension of the ideology of the party. Historians have studied various periods in the development of the government of the People's Republic of China by reference to these "generations".

Central Foreign Affairs Commission organization

The Central Foreign Affairs Commission, formerly known as the Central Foreign Affairs Leading (Small) Group is a commission of the Central Committee of the Communist Party of China that exercises general oversight on matters related to foreign affairs. It is currently chaired by Party General Secretary and President Xi Jinping, who is assisted by its office director and Premier Li Keqiang is deputy director. Politburo member Yang Jiechi, and its membership includes officials of minister-rank and above.

The central government of the People's Republic of China is divided among several state organs:

  1. the legislative branch, the National People's Congress and its Standing Committee
  2. the presidency, including the President and the Vice-President
  3. the executive branch, the State Council, whose Premier is the head of government
  4. the military branch, the People's Liberation Army (PLA) and the People's Armed Police (PAP), via the Central Military Commission, whose Chairman is the Commander-in-chief
  5. the supervisory branch, the National Supervisory Commission
  6. the judicial branch, the Supreme People's Court
  7. the prosecutorial branch, the Supreme People's Procuratorate
Li Zhanshu Member of the Politburo Standing Committee of the Communist Party of China

Li Zhanshu is a Chinese politician, and the current Chairman of the Standing Committee of the National People's Congress, head of China's top legislative body. He is a member of the Politburo Standing Committee, China's top decision-making body. Li began his political career in rural regions of his native Hebei province, methodically rising through the ranks as the Communist Party Secretary of Xi'an, Governor of Heilongjiang province, and the Party Secretary of Guizhou province. In 2012 he was transferred to become chief of the General Office of the Communist Party of China. Following the 18th Party Congress, Li became one of the top advisors to party General Secretary Xi Jinping.

18th National Congress of the Communist Party of China National legislature roster in China

The 18th National Congress of the Communist Party of China began on November 8, 2012 at the Great Hall of the People. It was preceded by the 17th National Congress of the Communist Party of China. Due to term and age limits restrictions, seven of the nine members of the powerful Politburo Standing Committee (PSC) retired during the Congress, including Hu Jintao, who was replaced by Xi Jinping as General Secretary of the Communist Party of China. The Congress elected the 18th Central Committee of the Communist Party of China, and saw the number of Politburo Standing Committee seats reduced from nine to seven. It was succeeded by the 19th National Congress of the Communist Party of China.

The succession of power in the People's Republic of China (PRC) takes place in the context of a single party system. Despite the guarantee of universal franchise in the constitution, the appointment of the Paramount Leader lies largely in the hands of his predecessor and the powerful factions that control the Central Committee of the Communist Party of China. The appointment of the leader of the world’s most populous country occurs after two five year terms in accordance with the Constitution of the People's Republic of China.

Central Financial and Economic Affairs Commission organization

The Central Financial and Economic Affairs Commission, formerly known as the Central Leading Group for Financial and Economic Affairs from 1989–2018, is a commission of the Central Committee of the Communist Party of China at the dependence of the CPC Politburo in charge of leading and supervising economic work of both the CPC Central Committee and the State Council. The Commission is headed by CPC General Secretary or Premier of the State Council.

Central Leading Group for Taiwan Affairs organization

The Central Leading Group for Taiwan Affairs is an internal policy coordination group of the Central Committee of the Communist Party of China and the State Council of the People's Republic of China, reporting to the Politburo, in charge of supervising and coordinating Beijing's policy towards Taiwan, including developing cross-strait relations. It was established in 1979 and has been led by the General Secretary of the Communist Party of China since 1989.

The 18th Central Politburo of the Communist Party of China was elected by the 18th Central Committee of the Communist Party of China on 15 November 2012, which was formally elected by the 18th National Congress of the Communist Party of China. It was nominally preceded by the 17th Politburo. It was ultimately succeeded by the 19th Politburo of the Communist Party of China.

Central Comprehensively Deepening Reforms Commission

The Central Comprehensively Deepening Reforms Commission, formerly known as the Central Leading Group for Comprehensively Deepening Reforms is a policy formulation and implementation body set up under the Politburo of the Communist Party of China in charge of "Comprehensively Deepening Reforms". These reforms are intended to be even more far-reaching than the previous round of comprehensive Chinese economic reforms initiated by Deng Xiaoping.

Central Leading Group for Military Reform organization

The Leading Group for National Defence and Military Reform of the Central Military Commission is a policy formulation and implementation body set up under the Central Military Commission of the Communist Party of China and ultimately answerable to the Central Committee of the Communist Party of China for the purpose of formulating policies related to military reform. The group is headed by Xi Jinping, General Secretary of the Communist Party of China and Chairman of the Central Military Commission.

President of the Peoples Republic of China Ceremonial office and nominal de jure Head of State of China


The President of the People's Republic of China is the head of state of the People's Republic of China. Under the country's constitution, the presidency is a largely ceremonial office with limited powers. However, since 1993, as a matter of convention, the presidency has been held simultaneously by the General Secretary of the Communist Party of China, the top leader in the one party system. The office is officially regarded as an institution of the state rather than an administrative post; theoretically, the President serves at the pleasure of the National People's Congress, the legislature, and is not legally vested to take executive action on its own prerogative. The current President is Xi Jinping, who took office in March 2013.

References

Citations

  1. "文革后的中南海:中央办事效率最高的时期". LYWZC.com. Comsenz Inc. Retrieved 7 February 2018..
  2. Li, Xiaoqing (2015-06-10). "卓琳以死相逼之前 曾被江泽民一度糊弄". Epoch USA, Inc. The Epoch Times. Retrieved 10 February 2018.
  3. Chris Buckley and Adam Wu (10 March 2018). "Ending Term Limits for China's Xi Is a Big Deal. Here's Why. - Is the presidency powerful in China?". New York Times. In China, the political job that matters most is the general secretary of the Communist Party. The party controls the military and domestic security forces, and sets the policies that the government carries out. China’s presidency lacks the authority of the American and French presidencies.
  4. "China's 'Chairman of Everything': Behind Xi Jinping's Many Titles". The New York Times. 25 October 2017. Mr. Xi’s most important title is general secretary, the most powerful position in the Communist Party. In China’s one-party system, this ranking gives him virtually unchecked authority over the government.
  5. Chapter III Central Organizations of the Party - Article 22
  6. Who’s Who in China’s New Communist Party Leadership Lineup - Bloomberg
  7. https://www.britannica.com/topic/Chinese-Communist-Party
  8. 习近平频现身成常态 将回归"领导核心"?. Duowei News. January 7, 2014.
  9. "How the Chinese government works". South China Morning Post. Xi Jinping is the most powerful figure in China's political system, and his influence mainly comes from his position as the General Secretary of the Chinese Communist Party.

Sources

  • China Online Encyclopedia