The General of Ili (Chinese :伊犁將軍; pinyin :Yīlí Jiāngjūn Officially 总统伊犁等处将軍), also known in western sources as the Kuldya Military Governor, was a position created during the reign of the Qing Qianlong Emperor (r. 1735-1799) to "pacify" Dzungaria (now part of Xinjiang) and suppress uprisings by the Khoja "Rebels". The General of Ili governed the entire Xinjiang during Qing rule until it was turned into a province.
Based in Huiyuan City (惠远城; now Huiyuan Town, Huocheng County), in the Qing delineated greater Xinjiang region in the northwest of China, the general was the senior military commander in the area. In 1759, Qing general Zhao Hui (Manchu: Zhaohuui) suppressed the Revolt of the Altishahr Khojas and reestablished Qing control over the western part of Xinjiang. As a result, in 1762 the Qing court established the position of General of Ili with Ming Rui as the first incumbent.
At the same time, the offices of Military Attache or Dūtǒng (都统) and Imperial Resident (駐紮大臣) were created under the general to manage military affairs north and south of the Tian Shan range of mountains. The northern circuit (天山北路) or Tarim Basin was administered by the Ili Ministerial Attache (伊犁参赞大臣), five Ministerial Leaders (领队大臣), a Tarbagatai Ministerial Attache (塔尔巴哈台参赞大臣) [A] and a Minister of Affairs (办事兼领队大臣). In the south (天山南路) or Altishahr there was a General Minister for Altashahr Affairs (總理回疆事務参赞大臣) responsible for Kashgar, Ye 'erqiang (葉爾羌; now Yarkant County), Yingjisha'er (英吉沙尔; now Yengisar County), Uqturpan County, Aksu, Kuqa County, Hetian (和阗; now Hotan) and Kalash'er (喀喇沙尔 now Karasahr) amongst others. In the western circuit (东路 the Urumqi Military Command (乌鲁木齐都统) was responsible for Gucheng (Chinese :古城; now Qitai County), Barköl Kazakh Autonomous County, Hamiting (now Hami City) and Ku'erkalawusu (now Wusu) among other locations.
In 1763, the Qianlong Emperor ordered the construction of the new city of Huiyuan on the north bank of the Ili River as a base for the General of Ili. Thereafter, Huiyuan became the capital of the Qing Xinjiang Region. A further eight fortified cities were then constructed across the Ili or Dzungarian Basin: Ningyuan City (宁远城; now Yining City), Huining City (惠宁城; now Bayandai Township [巴彦岱镇) 10–18 kilometres (6.2–11.2 mi) west of Yining), Taleqi City (塔勒奇城; now part of Huocheng County), Zhande City (瞻德城; now part of Qingshuihe County), Guangren City (广仁城; now Lucaogou Town (芦草沟镇 in Huocheng County), Gongchen City (拱宸城; now Khorgas City), Xichun City (熙春城; now part of Yining City) and Suiding City (绥定城; now Shuiding Town).
The headquarters of the Manchu bannermen was in Huiyuan and Huining while the Green Standard Army was distributed across the remaining towns with their commander in Suiding. Uyghur merchants (including the Taranchi) resided in Ningyuan. Their affairs were managed by the General of Ili through the East Yamen (东衙门; 東衙門; Dōng Yámén).
In 1864, during the reign of the Tongzhi Emperor, the Xinjiang Hui Rebellion :常清; pinyin :Cháng Qīng) was captured and paraded through the streets.broke out concurrent with the Dungan Revolt of 1862-77 further east. On 8 March 1866, a large force of Hui Muslims captured the General of Ili Mingsioi's Yamen. He committed suicide by blowing himself up but his predecessor Cangcing (Chinese
After Tzarist Russia invaded the Ili Basin in 1865 they demolished Huiyuan then in 1876 Qing General Zuo Zongtang, at the head of a large army, ended Yaqub Beg's occupation of the southern part of Xinjiang. In 1881 the Qing army recaptured the Ili Basin and two years later rebuilt Huiyaun 7.5 kilometres (4.7 mi) north of its former site. This new settlement was known historically as "New Huiyuan" (新惠远.
Xinjiang officially became a province in 1883 with its capital at Dihua Fu (迪化府 modern day Urumqi) and Huiyuan gradually lost its political status as the centre of the region. The General of Yili retained responsibility for defence in the north of the new province until the position was abolished following the 1911 Xinhai Revolution, which marked the end of Imperial China.
|Ming Rui||October 1762||March 1767||Bordered Yellow Banner|
|Agui||March 1767||April 1768||Bordered Blue Banner|
|Yi Letu||July 1768||October 1769||Plain White Banner|
|Yong Gui||October 1769||October 1770||Plain White Banner|
|Zeng Hai||October 1770||December 1770||Bordered Blue Banner Imperial Clan|
|Yi Letu||December 1770||July 1772||Plain White Banner|
|Shu Hede||October 1772||July 1774||Plain White Banner|
|Yi Letu||July 1774||June 1784||Plain White Banner|
|Ming Liang||June 1784||July 1784||Plain Yellow Banner|
|Hai Lu (海禄)||July 1784||August 1784||Plain Blue Banner|
|Yi Letu||August 1784||July 1793||Plain White Banner|
|Kui Lin||July 1793||September 1795||Bordered Yellow Banner|
|Yong Duo (永铎)||September 1795||November 1795||Bordered Blue Banner|
Ili is an autonomous prefecture for Kazakh people in Xinjiang, China, one of 5 autonomous prefectures in Xinjiang. Yining City is its capital. It is bordered by Mongolia, Russian Federation and Republic of Kazakhstan on the northeast to southwest, with a boundary line of 2,019 kilometers. Including Khorgas, Bakhty (巴克图) and Jeminay, there are 9 ports of entry at the national level. With the unique location advantage, Ili has been an important commercial hub and international channel of opening up to the west.
Yining, also known as Ghulja or Qulja and formerly Ningyuan (寧遠), is a county-level city in Northwestern Xinjiang, People's Republic of China and the seat of the Ili Kazakh Autonomous Prefecture. Historically, Yining is the successor to the ruined city of Almaliq in neighbouring Huocheng County. Yining is the third largest city in Xinjiang after Ürümqi and Korla.
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Tacheng, as the official romanized name, also transliterated from Mongolian as Qoqak, is a county-level city and the administrative seat of Tacheng Prefecture, in northern Ili Kazakh Autonomous Prefecture, Xinjiang.
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Shuiding, formerly Suiding (Suiting) is a town in the Ili Kazakh Autonomous Prefecture, Xinjiang Uyghur Autonomous Region, China and the county seat of Huocheng County. It is located some 40 kilometres (25 mi) to the northwest of Yining, the main city of the prefecture, and some 10 kilometres (6.2 mi) north of the Ili River.
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Yishan, courtesy name Jingxuan, was a Manchu lesser noble and official of the Qing dynasty. He is best known for his failure to defend Guangzhou (Canton) from British forces during the First Opium War, and for signing the treaties of Kulja and Aigun with the Russian Empire in 1851 and 1858 respectively.
The town of Huiyuan is located within Huocheng County, in the Ili Kazakh Autonomous Prefecture, Xinjiang, China. It is situated close to the Ili River, some 30 kilometres (19 mi) to the west of Yining, the main city of the prefecture and some 8 kilometres (5.0 mi) south of Shuiding, the county seat. As of the 2000 census, Huiyuan's population was reported as 20,564.
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The Jingyihuo railway, short for Jinghe–Yining–Khorgas railway, is the first electrified railway in operation in Xinjiang, China. The line is 286 km in length and connects Jinghe, Yining and Khorgos. The Jingyihuo railway branches from the Northern Xinjiang railway at Jinghe in the Junggar Basin, and heads south through the Tian Shan range into the Ili River Valley. Cities and towns along route include Jinghe, Nilka County, Yining County, Yining, Huocheng County, and Khorgos, on the border with Kazakhstan.
The Qingshuihe–Yining Expressway, commonly referred to as the Qingyi Expressway, is a 56.36-kilometre-long-Chinese expressway (35.02 mi) in the Ili Kazakh Autonomous Prefecture of Xinjiang, China. It connects the towns of Qingshuihe, in Huocheng County, and Bayandai, in Yining City. It opened on 20 April 2009.
The Revolt of the Altishahr Khojas was an uprising against the Qing dynasty of China, which broke out in 1757 during the reign of the Qianlong Emperor. The rebels were led by Khwāja-i Jahān, leader of the White Mountain Sufis. Qing era documents refer to the event as the "Pacification of the Muslim regions". Hojijan and his brother, Burhān al-Dīn, both held the Muslim title Khoja.