General of Ili

Last updated
Former Residence of Ili General Former Residence of Ili General (IMG 20170511 174557).jpg
Former Residence of Ili General

The General of Ili (Chinese :伊犁將軍; pinyin :Yīlí Jiāngjūn Officially 总统伊犁等处将軍), also known in western sources as the Kuldya Military Governor, was a position created during the reign of the Qing Qianlong Emperor (r. 1735-1799) to "pacify" Dzungaria (now part of Xinjiang) and suppress uprisings by the Khoja "Rebels". The General of Ili governed the entire Xinjiang during Qing rule until it was turned into a province.

Contents

History

Based in Huiyuan City (惠远城; now Huiyuan Town, Huocheng County), [1] in the Qing delineated greater Xinjiang region in the northwest of China, the general was the senior military commander in the area. [2] In 1759, Qing general Zhao Hui  [ zh ] (Manchu: Zhaohuui) suppressed the Revolt of the Altishahr Khojas and reestablished Qing control over the western part of Xinjiang. As a result, in 1762 the Qing court established the position of General of Ili with Ming Rui as the first incumbent. [2]

At the same time, the offices of Military Attache or Dūtǒng (都统) and Imperial Resident (駐紮大臣) were created under the general to manage military affairs north and south of the Tian Shan range of mountains. The northern circuit (天山北路) or Tarim Basin was administered by the Ili Ministerial Attache (伊犁参赞大臣), five Ministerial Leaders (领队大臣), a Tarbagatai Ministerial Attache (塔尔巴哈台参赞大臣) [A] and a Minister of Affairs (办事兼领队大臣). In the south (天山南路) or Altishahr there was a General Minister for Altashahr Affairs (總理回疆事務参赞大臣) responsible for Kashgar, Ye 'erqiang (葉爾羌; now Yarkant County), Yingjisha'er (英吉沙尔; now Yengisar County), Uqturpan County, Aksu, Kuqa County, Hetian (和阗; now Hotan) and Kalash'er (喀喇沙尔 now Karasahr) amongst others. In the western circuit (东路 the Urumqi Military Command (乌鲁木齐都统) was responsible for Gucheng (Chinese :古城; now Qitai County), Barköl Kazakh Autonomous County, Hamiting  [ zh ] (now Hami City) and Ku'erkalawusu  [ zh ] (now Wusu) among other locations.

In 1763, the Qianlong Emperor ordered the construction of the new city of Huiyuan on the north bank of the Ili River as a base for the General of Ili. Thereafter, Huiyuan became the capital of the Qing Xinjiang Region. A further eight fortified cities were then constructed across the Ili or Dzungarian Basin: Ningyuan City (宁远城; now Yining City), Huining City (惠宁城; now Bayandai Township [巴彦岱镇) 10–18 kilometres (6.2–11.2 mi) west of Yining), Taleqi City (塔勒奇城; now part of Huocheng County), Zhande City (瞻德城; now part of Qingshuihe County), Guangren City (广仁城; now Lucaogou Town (芦草沟镇 in Huocheng County), Gongchen City (拱宸城; now Khorgas City), Xichun City (熙春城; now part of Yining City) and Suiding City (绥定城; now Shuiding Town).

The headquarters of the Manchu bannermen was in Huiyuan and Huining while the Green Standard Army was distributed across the remaining towns with their commander in Suiding. Uyghur merchants (including the Taranchi) resided in Ningyuan. Their affairs were managed by the General of Ili through the East Yamen (东衙门; 東衙門; Dōng Yámén).

In 1864, during the reign of the Tongzhi Emperor, the Xinjiang Hui Rebellion  [ zh ] broke out concurrent with the Dungan Revolt of 1862-77 further east. On 8 March 1866, a large force of Hui Muslims captured the General of Ili Mingsioi's Yamen. He committed suicide by blowing himself up but his predecessor Cangcing (Chinese :常清; pinyin :Cháng Qīng) was captured and paraded through the streets. [3]

After Tzarist Russia invaded the Ili Basin in 1865 they demolished Huiyuan then in 1876 Qing General Zuo Zongtang, at the head of a large army, ended Yaqub Beg's occupation of the southern part of Xinjiang. In 1881 the Qing army recaptured the Ili Basin and two years later rebuilt Huiyaun 7.5 kilometres (4.7 mi) north of its former site. This new settlement was known historically as "New Huiyuan" (新惠远.

Xinjiang officially became a province in 1883 with its capital at Dihua Fu (迪化府 modern day Urumqi) and Huiyuan gradually lost its political status as the centre of the region. The General of Yili retained responsibility for defence in the north of the new province until the position was abolished following the 1911 Xinhai Revolution, which marked the end of Imperial China.

Incumbents

NameAppointedEnd date Banner
Ming Rui October 1762March 1767Bordered Yellow Banner
Agui March 1767April 1768Bordered Blue Banner
Yi Letu  [ zh ]July 1768October 1769Plain White Banner
Yong Gui  [ zh ]October 1769October 1770Plain White Banner   
Zeng Hai  [ zh ]October 1770December 1770Bordered Blue Banner Imperial Clan
Yi LetuDecember 1770July 1772Plain White Banner
Shu Hede  [ zh ]October 1772July 1774Plain White Banner   
Yi LetuJuly 1774June 1784Plain White Banner 
Ming Liang  [ zh ]June 1784July 1784Plain Yellow Banner
Hai Lu (海禄)July 1784August 1784Plain Blue Banner
Yi LetuAugust 1784July 1793Plain White Banner
Kui Lin  [ zh ]July 1793September 1795Bordered Yellow Banner
Yong Duo (永铎)September 1795November 1795Bordered Blue Banner

See also

Notes

  1. ^
    Responsible for the area around modern-day Tacheng

Related Research Articles

Ili Kazakh Autonomous Prefecture Sub-provincial autonomous prefecture in Xinjiang, Peoples Republic of China

Ili is an autonomous prefecture for Kazakh people in Xinjiang, China, one of 5 autonomous prefectures in Xinjiang. Yining City is its capital. It is bordered by Mongolia, Russian Federation and Republic of Kazakhstan on the northeast to southwest, with a boundary line of 2,019 kilometers. Including Khorgas, Bakhty (巴克图) and Jeminay, there are 9 ports of entry at the national level. With the unique location advantage, Ili has been an important commercial hub and international channel of opening up to the west.

Yining County-level city in Xinjiang, Peoples Republic of China

Yining, also known as Ghulja or Qulja and formerly Ningyuan (寧遠), is a county-level city in Northwestern Xinjiang, People's Republic of China and the seat of the Ili Kazakh Autonomous Prefecture. Historically, Yining is the successor to the ruined city of Almaliq in neighbouring Huocheng County. Yining is the third largest city in Xinjiang after Ürümqi and Korla.

Korla County-level city in Xinjiang, Peoples Republic of China

Korla, also known as Kurla or from Mandarin Chinese as Ku'erle or Kuerle, is the second largest city in Xinjiang. It is a county-level city and the seat of the Bayingolin Mongol Autonomous Prefecture, the largest prefecture of China.

Tacheng County-level city in Xinjiang, Peoples Republic of China

Tacheng, as the official romanized name, also transliterated from Mongolian as Qoqak, is a county-level city and the administrative seat of Tacheng Prefecture, in northern Ili Kazakh Autonomous Prefecture, Xinjiang.

Bortala Mongol Autonomous Prefecture Autonomous prefecture in Xinjiang, Peoples Republic of China

Bortala is an autonomous prefecture for Mongol people in the northern middle of Xinjiang Uyghur Autonomous Region, Western China. It has an area of 27,000 km2 (10,000 sq mi). Bole is its capital. "Boro tala" comes from the Mongolian language and means "brown steppe".

Qapqal Xibe Autonomous County Autonomous county in Xinjiang, Peoples Republic of China

Qapqal Xibe Autonomous County in Ili Kazakh Autonomous Prefecture in Northern Xinjiang, is the only Xibe autonomous county of the People's Republic of China, bordering Kazakhstan's Almaty Region to the west. It has an area of 4,430 square kilometers and a population 160,000 (2000). Qapqal means "the granary" in the Xibe language.

Shuiding, formerly Suiding (Suiting) is a town in the Ili Kazakh Autonomous Prefecture, Xinjiang Uyghur Autonomous Region, China and the county seat of Huocheng County. It is located some 40 kilometres (25 mi) to the northwest of Yining, the main city of the prefecture, and some 10 kilometres (6.2 mi) north of the Ili River.

Akto County County in Xinjiang, Peoples Republic of China

Akto County is a county in Kizilsu Kyrgyz Autonomous Prefecture, Xinjiang Uygur Autonomous Region, China. The county borders Tajikistan and Kyrgyzstan and has two towns, 11 townships, four state-owned farms and a plant nursery under its jurisdiction with the county seat is Akto Town. The county contains an area of 24,555 km2 (9,481 sq mi) and has a population of 231,756.

Yuli County County in Xinjiang, Peoples Republic of China

Yuli County as the official romanized name, also transliterated from Mongolian as Lopnur County, is a county in the Xinjiang Uyghur Autonomous Region and is under the administration of the Bayin'gholin Mongol Autonomous Prefecture. It contains an area of 59,399 km2 (22,934 sq mi). According to the 2002 census, it has a population of 100,000.

Toksun County County in Xinjiang, Peoples Republic of China

Toksun County is a county in Turpan Prefecture, Xinjiang Uyghur Autonomous Region, China.

Hoboksar Mongol Autonomous County Autonomous county in Xinjiang, Peoples Republic of China

Hoboksar is an autonomous county for Mongol people in the middle north of Xinjiang Uyghur Autonomous Region, Western China, it is under administration of Tacheng Prefecture. The county has an area of 28,784 km2 (11,114 sq mi) with a population of 62,100. It has eight towns and townships and seven farms, Hoboksar Town is its county seat.

Huocheng County County in Xinjiang, Peoples Republic of China

Huocheng County as the official romanized name, also transliterated from Uyghur as Korgas County, is situated within the Xinjiang Uyghur Autonomous Region and under the administration of the Ili Kazakh Autonomous Prefecture. It is located between Yining and the border city Khorgas, occupying an area of 5,466 km2 (2,110 sq mi) and has a population of 360,000. Including the Han and Uyghur nationalities, there are twenty nine ethnic groups living in the county.

Yishan, courtesy name Jingxuan, was a Manchu lesser noble and official of the Qing dynasty. He is best known for his failure to defend Guangzhou (Canton) from British forces during the First Opium War, and for signing the treaties of Kulja and Aigun with the Russian Empire in 1851 and 1858 respectively.

Huiyuan, Xinjiang Town in Xinjiang, China

The town of Huiyuan is located within Huocheng County, in the Ili Kazakh Autonomous Prefecture, Xinjiang, China. It is situated close to the Ili River, some 30 kilometres (19 mi) to the west of Yining, the main city of the prefecture and some 8 kilometres (5.0 mi) south of Shuiding, the county seat. As of the 2000 census, Huiyuan's population was reported as 20,564.

<i>Qapqal News</i> newspaper

The Qapqal News is the world's only newspaper in the Xibe language, a Tungusic language spoken in Northwest China. It is one of roughly fifty minority-language newspapers in the Xinjiang autonomous region of China.

Burhan Shahidi Chinese politician (1894-1989)

Burhan Shahidi was a political leader in Xinjiang, China during the 20th century.

Jinghe–Yining–Khorgos railway

The Jingyihuo railway, short for Jinghe–Yining–Khorgas railway, is the first electrified railway in operation in Xinjiang, China. The line is 286 km in length and connects Jinghe, Yining and Khorgos. The Jingyihuo railway branches from the Northern Xinjiang railway at Jinghe in the Junggar Basin, and heads south through the Tian Shan range into the Ili River Valley. Cities and towns along route include Jinghe, Nilka County, Yining County, Yining, Huocheng County, and Khorgos, on the border with Kazakhstan.

G3016 Qingshuihe–Yining Expressway road

The Qingshuihe–Yining Expressway, commonly referred to as the Qingyi Expressway, is a 56.36-kilometre-long-Chinese expressway (35.02 mi) in the Ili Kazakh Autonomous Prefecture of Xinjiang, China. It connects the towns of Qingshuihe, in Huocheng County, and Bayandai, in Yining City. It opened on 20 April 2009.

Revolt of the Altishahr Khojas 18th-century uprising in China

The Revolt of the Altishahr Khojas was an uprising against the Qing dynasty of China, which broke out in 1757 during the reign of the Qianlong Emperor. The rebels were led by Khwāja-i Jahān, leader of the White Mountain Sufis. Qing era documents refer to the event as the "Pacification of the Muslim regions". Hojijan and his brother, Burhān al-Dīn, both held the Muslim title Khoja.

References

  1. Millward, James A. (1998). Beyond the pass: economy, ethnicity, and empire in Qing Central Asia, 1759-1864. Stanford University Press. pp. 77–79, 277. ISBN   0-8047-2933-6.
  2. 1 2 James Z. Gao (2009). Historical Dictionary of Modern China (1800-1949). Scarecrow Press. ISBN   978-0-8108-6308-8.
  3. Hodong Kim (2004). Holy War in China: The Muslim Rebellion and State in Chinese Central Asia, 1864-1877. Stanford University Press. p. 55. ISBN   978-0-8047-6723-1.