Geoffrey Howe

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The Lord Howe of Aberavon

CH PC QC
Lord Geoffrey Howe (cropped).jpg
Geoffrey Howe in 2011
Deputy Prime Minister of the United Kingdom
In office
24 July 1989 1 November 1990
Prime Minister Margaret Thatcher
Preceded by Rab Butler (1963)
Succeeded by Michael Heseltine (1995)
Leader of the House of Commons
Lord President of the Council
In office
24 July 1989 1 November 1990
Preceded by John Wakeham
Succeeded by John MacGregor
Secretary of State for Foreign and Commonwealth Affairs
In office
11 June 1983 24 July 1989
Prime Minister Margaret Thatcher
Preceded by Francis Pym
Succeeded by John Major
Chancellor of the Exchequer
In office
4 May 1979 11 June 1983
Prime Minister Margaret Thatcher
Preceded by Denis Healey
Succeeded by Nigel Lawson
Shadow Chancellor of the Exchequer
In office
18 February 1975 4 May 1979
Leader Margaret Thatcher
Preceded by Robert Carr
Succeeded by Denis Healey
Shadow Secretary of State for Health and Social Services
In office
11 March 1974 18 February 1975
Leader Edward Heath
Preceded by Keith Joseph
Succeeded by Norman Fowler
Minister of State for Trade and Consumer Affairs
In office
5 November 1972 4 March 1974
Prime Minister Edward Heath
Preceded by Michael Noble
Solicitor General for England and Wales
In office
23 June 1970 5 November 1972
Prime Minister Edward Heath
Preceded by Arthur Irvine
Succeeded by Michael Havers
Member of Parliament
for East Surrey
In office
28 February 1974 9 April 1992
Preceded by William Clark
Succeeded by Peter Ainsworth
Member of Parliament
for Reigate
In office
18 June 1970 28 February 1974
Preceded by John Vaughan-Morgan
Succeeded by George Gardiner
Member of Parliament
for Bebington
In office
15 October 1964 31 March 1966
Preceded by Hendrie Oakshott
Succeeded by Edwin Brooks
Member of the House of Lords
Lord Temporal
In office
30 June 1992 19 May 2015
Life peerage
Personal details
Born
Richard Edward Geoffrey Howe

(1926-12-20)20 December 1926
Port Talbot, Glamorgan, Wales
Died9 October 2015(2015-10-09) (aged 88)
Idlicote, Warwickshire, England
NationalityBritish
Political party Conservative
Spouse(s)
Elspeth Shand (m. 1953)
Children3
Alma mater Trinity Hall, Cambridge
Occupation
  • Barrister
  • politician

Richard Edward Geoffrey Howe, Baron Howe of Aberavon, CH , PC , QC (20 December 1926 – 9 October 2015), known from 1970 to 1992 as Sir Geoffrey Howe, was a British Conservative politician.

Privy Council of the United Kingdom Formal body of advisers to the sovereign in the United Kingdom

Her Majesty's Most Honourable Privy Council, usually known simply as the Privy Council of the United Kingdom or just the Privy Council, is a formal body of advisers to the Sovereign of the United Kingdom. Its membership mainly comprises senior politicians who are current or former members of either the House of Commons or the House of Lords.

Queens Counsel Jurist appointed by letters patent in some Commonwealth realms

A Queen's Counsel, or King's Counsel during the reign of a king, is a lawyer who is appointed by the monarch to be one of "Her Majesty's Counsel learned in the law." The term is recognised as an honorific. The position exists in some Commonwealth jurisdictions around the world, but other Commonwealth countries have either abolished the position, or re-named it to eliminate monarchical connotations, such as "Senior Counsel" or "Senior Advocate". Queen's Counsel is an office, conferred by the Crown, that is recognised by courts. Members have the privilege of sitting within the bar of court.

Conservative Party (UK) Political party in the United Kingdom

The Conservative Party, officially the Conservative and Unionist Party, sometimes informally called the Tories, is a centre-right political party in the United Kingdom. The governing party since 2010, it is the largest in the House of Commons, with 312 Members of Parliament, and also has 249 members of the House of Lords, 4 members of the European Parliament, 31 Members of the Scottish Parliament, 11 members of the Welsh Assembly, eight members of the London Assembly and 8,916 local councillors.

Contents

Howe was Margaret Thatcher's longest-serving Cabinet minister, successively holding the posts of Chancellor of the Exchequer, Foreign Secretary, and finally Leader of the House of Commons, Deputy Prime Minister and Lord President of the Council. His resignation on 1 November 1990 is widely considered by the British press to have precipitated Thatcher's own resignation three weeks later.

Margaret Thatcher former Prime Minister of the United Kingdom

Margaret Hilda Thatcher, Baroness Thatcher, was a British stateswoman who served as Prime Minister of the United Kingdom from 1979 to 1990 and Leader of the Conservative Party from 1975 to 1990. She was the longest-serving British prime minister of the 20th century and the first woman to hold that office. A Soviet journalist dubbed her "The 'Iron Lady'", a nickname that became associated with her uncompromising politics and leadership style. As Prime Minister, she implemented policies known as Thatcherism.

Cabinet of the United Kingdom Decision-making body of the Government of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland

The Cabinet of the United Kingdom is the collective decision-making body of Her Majesty's Government of the United Kingdom, composed of the Prime Minister and 22 cabinet ministers, the most senior of the government ministers.

Chancellor of the Exchequer Senior official in the Cabinet of the United Kingdom responsible for economic and financial matters

The Chancellor and Under-Treasurer of Her Majesty's Exchequer, commonly known as the Chancellor of the Exchequer, or simply the Chancellor, is a senior official within the Government of the United Kingdom and head of Her Majesty's Treasury. The office is a British Cabinet-level position.

Early life

Geoffrey Howe was born in 1926 at Port Talbot, Wales, to Benjamin Edward Howe, a solicitor and coroner, and Eliza Florence (née Thomson) Howe. He was to describe himself as a quarter Scottish, a quarter Cornish and half Welsh. [1]

Port Talbot town in Wales

Port Talbot is a town and community in the county borough of Neath Port Talbot, Wales. It is 7 miles (11 km) to the east of Swansea across the Swansea Bay, with a population, in 2011, was 37,276. It is best known for Port Talbot Steelworks, one of the biggest in the world. The steelworks has for many years been under threat of closure.

Scottish people ethnic inhabitants of Scotland

The Scottish people or Scots, are a nation and Celtic ethnic group native to Scotland. Historically, they emerged from an amalgamation of two Celtic-speaking peoples, the Picts and Gaels, who founded the Kingdom of Scotland in the 9th century. Later, the neighbouring Celtic-speaking Cumbrians, as well as Germanic-speaking Anglo-Saxons and Norse, were incorporated into the Scottish nation.

Cornish people ethnic group

The Cornish people or Cornish are a Celtic ethnic group native to, or associated with Cornwall and a recognised national minority in the United Kingdom, which can trace its roots to the ancient Britons who inhabited southern and central Great Britain before the Roman conquest. Many in Cornwall today continue to assert a distinct identity separate from or in addition to English or British identities. Cornish identity has been adopted by migrants into Cornwall, as well as by emigrant and descendant communities from Cornwall, the latter sometimes referred to as the Cornish diaspora. Although not included as an explicit option in the UK census, the numbers of those claiming Cornish ethnic and national identity are officially recognised and recorded.

He was educated at three independent schools: at Bridgend Preparatory School in Bryntirion, followed by Abberley Hall School in Worcestershire and by winning an exhibition to Winchester College in Hampshire. [2] Howe was not sporty, joining instead the debating society. It was during wartime, so he was active in the Home Guard at the school, and set a National Savings group. He was also a keen photographer, and film buff. A gifted classicist, Howe was offered an exhibition to Trinity Hall, Cambridge in 1945, but first decided to join the army. He did a six-month course in maths and physics. Then he did National Service as a lieutenant with the Royal Corps of Signals in East Africa, by his own account giving political lectures in Swahili about how Africans should avoid communism and remain loyal to "Bwana Kingy George"; and also climbed Mount Kilimanjaro. [3] [ page needed ]

An independent school is independent in its finances and governance. It is usually not dependent upon national or local government to finance its financial endowment. It is typically governed by a board of governors which is elected independently of government, and has a system of governance that ensures its independent operation.

Bridgend town in Wales

Bridgend is a town in Bridgend County Borough in Wales, 20 miles (32 km) west of the capital Cardiff and 20 miles (32 km) east of Swansea. The river crossed by the original bridge, which gave the town its name, is the River Ogmore, but the River Ewenny also passes to the south of the town.

Abberley Hall School is a coeducational preparatory day and boarding school with about 300 pupils. It is located between Worcester and Tenbury, near the village of Abberley, Worcestershire, England.

Having declined an offer to remain in the army as a captain, he matriculated at Trinity Hall in 1948, where he read Law and was chairman of the Cambridge University Conservative Association, and on the committee of the Cambridge Union Society. [4]

Captain (Capt) is a junior officer rank of the British Army and Royal Marines and in both services it ranks above lieutenant and below major with a NATO ranking code of OF-2. The rank is equivalent to a lieutenant in the Royal Navy and to a flight lieutenant in the Royal Air Force. The rank of captain in the Royal Navy is considerably more senior and the two ranks should not be confused.

The Cambridge University Conservative Association, or CUCA, is a long-established student political society founded 1921, as a Conservative Association for students at Cambridge University, although it has earlier roots in the late nineteenth century.

He was called to the bar by the Middle Temple in 1952 and practised in Wales. In August 1953 Geoffrey Howe married Elspeth, daughter of P. Morton Shand. They had a son and two daughters. At first the valleys practice struggled to pay, surviving thanks to £1,200 gift from his father and a judicious marriage. [5] He served on the Council of the Bar from 1957 to 1962, and was a council member of the pressure group JUSTICE. A high-earning barrister, he was made a QC in 1965. [6]

Middle Temple one of the four Inns of Court in London, England

The Honourable Society of the Middle Temple, commonly known simply as Middle Temple, is one of the four Inns of Court exclusively entitled to call their members to the English Bar as barristers, the others being the Inner Temple, Gray's Inn and Lincoln's Inn. It is located in the wider Temple area of London, near the Royal Courts of Justice, and within the City of London.

Elspeth Howe, Baroness Howe of Idlicote British peer

Elspeth Howe, Baroness Howe of Idlicote, is a British cross-bench life peer who has served in many capacities in public life. As the widow of Geoffrey Howe, she was formerly known as Lady Howe of Aberavon before receiving a peerage in her own right.

JUSTICE is a human rights and law reform organisation based in the United Kingdom. It is the British section of the International Commission of Jurists, the international human rights organisation of lawyers devoted to the legal protection of human rights worldwide. Consequently, members of JUSTICE are predominantly barristers and solicitors, judges, legal academics, and law students.

Choosing instead a career in politics, Howe stood as the Conservative Party candidate in Aberavon at the 1955 and 1959 general elections, losing in a very safe Labour Party seat.

He helped to found the Bow Group, an internal Conservative think tank of "young modernisers" in the 1950s; he was one of its first chairmen in 1955–1956 and edited its magazine Crossbow from 1960 to 1962. [4] In 1958, he co-authored the report A Giant's Strength published by the Inns of Court Conservative Association. The report argued that the unions had become too powerful and that their legal privileges ought to be curtailed. Iain Macleod discouraged the authors from publicising the report. Harold Macmillan believed that trade union votes had contributed towards the 1951 and 1955 election victories and thought that it "would be inexpedient to adopt any policy involving legislation which would alienate this support". [7] Through a series of Bow Group publications, Howe advanced free market ideas, largely inspired by the thinking of Enoch Powell, which was later to be known as Thatcherism.

Early political career

Backbencher

Howe represented Bebington in the House of Commons from 1964 to 1966 with a much reduced majority. He became a chairman of the backbench committee on social services, being quickly recognised for promotion to the front bench, as HM Opposition spokesman on welfare and labour policy. He was defeated at the 1966 general election.

Howe returned to the bar. He sat as deputy chairman of Glamorgan Quarter Sessions. More politically significant was work on the Latey Committee tasked with recommending a reduction in the voting age. In 1969, he investigated Ely Mental Hospital, Cardiff for alleged abuse. But of more legislative importance were the Street Committee on racial discrimination, and Cripps Committee on discrimination against women, the reports of which helped the Labour government to change the law.

He returned to the House of Commons as the MP for Reigate from 1970 to 1974, and East Surrey from 1974 to 1992. In 1970, he was knighted [8] and appointed Solicitor General in Edward Heath's government. He was responsible for the Industrial Relations Act that caused immediate retaliatory union strikes. He was promoted in 1972 to Minister of State at the Department of Trade and Industry, with a seat in the Cabinet and Privy Council membership, a post he held until Labour were returned to government in March 1974. [4]

Shadow Cabinet

In 1974, the Reigate boundary changes redrew the seat as East Surrey, and Heath appointed him as spokesman for social services. Howe contested the second ballot of the 1975 Conservative leadership election, in which Margaret Thatcher was elected as party leader. She saw him as a like-minded right-winger and he was appointed Shadow Chancellor of the Exchequer. He masterminded the development of new economic policies embodied in an Opposition mini-manifesto The Right Approach to the Economy through dogged patience and quiet determination. At the same time, Labour Chancellor of the Exchequer Denis Healey "went cap in hand to the IMF" to ask for a loan as Britain was bankrupt. In 1978, Healey said that an attack from Howe was "like being savaged by a dead sheep". [9] Nevertheless, when Healey was featured on This Is Your Life in 1989, Howe appeared and paid warm tribute to an old antagonist. Indeed, the two men were friends for many years, and died only six days apart. [10] [ better source needed ]

Thatcher government

Chancellor of the Exchequer

With the Conservative victory in the 1979 general election, Howe became Chancellor of the Exchequer. His tenure was characterised by an ambitious programme of radical policies intended to restore the public finances, reduce inflation and liberalise the economy. The shift from direct to indirect taxation, the development of a medium-term financial strategy, the abolition of exchange controls and the creation of tax-free enterprise zones were among the most important decisions of his Chancellorship. The first of five budgets in 1979, promised to honour Professor Hugh Clegg's report that recommended a return to pre-1975 pay levels in real terms, conceding Howe's point about "concerted action". [lower-alpha 1] Rampant inflation had however eroded competitiveness, devalued pensions, investments, and wages. Thatcher reminded him: "On your own head be it, Geoffrey, if anything goes wrong," commencing an often tense and querulous working relationship. [6] Thatcher's point was that the vast increase in (indirect) taxation and government spending (notably in public sector pay) in 1979 would lead to terrible consequences – which it did, as unemployment doubled. The financial policy tightened money supply, restricted public sector pay, with the ultimate effect of driving up inflation, at least in the short-term, and unemployment in the medium-term.

Fundamentally we do believe in German principles of economic management and should be able to get ourselves alongside them ... pronounce in favour of ... providing greater stability as encouraging convergence on economic policies. [11]

During Thatcher's first term the government's poll ratings plummeted, until the 'Falklands Factor'. Howe's famous 1981 Budget defied conventional economic wisdom at the time by slowing the rate of inflation at a time of recession. At the time, his decision was fiercely criticised by 364 academic economists in a letter to The Times , who contended that there was no place for de-stimulatory policies in the economic climate of the time, remarking the Budget had "no basis in economic theory or supporting evidence". Many signatories were prominent members of the academic sphere, including Mervyn King who later became the Governor of the Bank of England. [12]

The logic in his proposals was that by reducing the deficit which at the time was £9.3 billion (3.6% GDP), and controlling inflation, long-term interest rates would be able to decline, thus re-stimulating the economy. The budget did reduce inflation from 11.9% in early 1981 to 3.8% in February 1983. Long-term interest rates also declined from 14% in 1981 to 10% in 1983. [13] The economy slowly climbed out of recession. However, unemployment, already extremely high, was pushed to a 50-year high of 12% by 1984, narrowly avoiding the figure reached during the Great Depression of 13.5%. Some have argued that the budget, although ultimately successful, was nevertheless over the top. [14] Specialist opinions on the question, expressed with 25 years' hindsight, are collected in an Institute of Economic Affairs report. [15]

Unlike Reaganomics, his macro-economic policy emphasised the need to narrow the budget deficit rather than engage in unilateral tax cuts; despite these measures the budget deficit remained on average 3% of GDP during Howe's tenure. His macro-economic policy was designed to liberalise the economy and promote supply-side reform. This combination of policies became one of the defining features of Thatcherism in power. [16] However, by the time of his last budget shortly before a general election there were early signs of a recovery, which Howe used to justify a cut in taxes. [6]

Documents released under the British government's 30-year rule in 2011 revealed that in the wake of the Toxteth riots in Liverpool in 1981 Howe had warned Thatcher "not to overcommit scarce resources to Liverpool", writing that "It would be even more regrettable if some of the brighter ideas for renewing economic activity were to be sown only on relatively stony ground on the banks of the Mersey. I cannot help feeling that the option of managed decline is one which we should not forget altogether. We must not expend all our limited resources in trying to make water flow uphill". [17] Howe later stated that he had not advocated the "managed decline" policy and that he had merely been warning of the danger of concentrating excessive resources on one area of need. [17]

Foreign Secretary

After the 1983 general election Thatcher reluctantly appointed Howe Foreign Secretary, a post he held for six years, the longest tenure since Sir Edward Grey in 1905 to 1916. [18] With "the quiet determination" applied in the Treasury he set off on a tour of Warsaw Pact countries, interviewing communist leaders and sounding out opponents. [19] The trip opened the way to further discussions with Mikhail Gorbachev, with whom he believed Thatcher shared "extraordinary chemistry." [20] He later looked back on this period (1983–85) as his happiest, and most fruitful and productive, engaging with world leaders across the summit table, sharing decisions with Thatcher, including a notable encounter with Caspar Weinberger on 6 September 1982. Success with the Americans proved decisive in bringing about the end of Communism in Europe. [21]

Howe was closely involved in the negotiations leading up to the 1984 Sino-British Joint Declaration on the future of Hong Kong, and developed a good working relationship with the U.S. Secretary of State George Shultz, mirroring the close connection between Thatcher and President Ronald Reagan. [22] However, Howe's tenure was made difficult by growing behind-the-scenes tensions with the Prime Minister on a number of issues, first on South Africa, next on Britain's relations with the European Community, and then in 1985 the Anglo-Irish Agreement. For his staff, Howe was a respected boss; mild-mannered, polite and courteous, he was assiduous in his attention to detail. However the human rights questions over South African sanctions and trade embargo coupled to his deep concern over Thatcher's strident style in Europe, increasingly drove a stressful wedge between Nos 10 and 11. On policy objectives they began to drift apart with fatal consequences for the Prime Minister's ambitions. Thatcher's dominant style contrasted with his emollience, patience and capacity for negotiation. Their differences were dated to the Westland Affair in 1986, when senior ministers almost forced her to resign, according to Douglas Hurd's memoirs.[ citation needed ]

In June 1989, Howe and his successor as chancellor, Nigel Lawson, both secretly threatened to resign over Thatcher's opposition to British proposed membership of the exchange rate mechanism of the European Monetary System. [4] She turned increasingly for advice to her No.10 private secretary Charles Powell, a career diplomat who contrasted to Howe's mandarin-style. Howe remarked: "She was often exasperated by my tenaciously quiet brand of advocacy." [3] [ page needed ] His friends often wondered why he put up with her style for so long; but many considered him to be her successor. One historian has suggested that the government would have survived even the ructions over Europe had Howe remained her ally. [23] [ page needed ]

Deputy prime minister

In the following month of July 1989, the then little-known John Major was unexpectedly appointed to replace Howe as Foreign Secretary, and the latter became Leader of the House of Commons, Lord President of the Council and Deputy Prime Minister. In the reshuffle, Howe was also offered, but turned down, the post of Home Secretary. [24] Although attempts were made to belittle this aspect, Howe's move back to domestic politics was generally seen as a demotion, especially after Thatcher's press secretary Bernard Ingham belittled the significance of the deputy prime minister appointment, saying that the title had no constitutional significance, at his lobby briefing the following morning. [25]

Howe then had to give up the Foreign Secretary's country residence Chevening. The sceptical attitude towards Howe in Number 10 weakened him politically – even if it might have been driven to some degree by fear of him as a possible successor, a problem compounded by the resignation from the Treasury of his principal ally Nigel Lawson later in the same year. During his time as deputy prime minister, Howe made a series of coded calls on Thatcher to realign her administration, which was suffering rising unpopularity following its introduction of the poll tax, as a 'listening government'. [4]

Relationship with Thatcher

Tensions began to emerge in 1982 during the Falklands War when Thatcher refused to appoint him to the war cabinet. During his first budget, Thatcher wrote to Adam Ridley: "The trouble with people like Geoffrey – lawyers – they are too timid." [26] On the occasion of the general election victory of 1983 there were heated exchange of views in No.10 on her decision to move him to the Foreign Office. Howe was one of those who persuaded Michael Heseltine that on balance it was probably better that he, rather than she, resign during the Westland Affair in 1986. At the Scottish Party Conference in Perth in 1987, Howe spelled out his position for the European single market and the proposed Delors Plan (Thatcher having accepted the Single European Act in 1986 [27] ). In the following year, Thatcher made her speech at Bruges declining the offer to deepen the bureaucratic state towards a "Federalist Superstate".

At the Madrid inter-governmental conference the tensions were ratcheted higher as Thatcher emphatically renounced any advance in British policy over the European agenda for "ever closer union" of political and economic forces. Howe forced her to give conditions for entering the proposal for entry to the ERM in June 1989. Howe and Nigel Lawson threatened to resign; but she called his bluff by appointing John Major over his head. Howe resented having to give up the state residence of Chevening, in Kent on being effectively demoted to Lord President of the Council. He deeply resented leaving the Foreign and Commonwealth Office which was a job he had always coveted. When Lawson resigned it looked like a natural reshuffle, but Howe was frozen out of the inner circle. When Howe attended a meeting with The Queen he found to his surprise that Britain had joined the ERM before he had been informed about it – the ERM had been Howe's policy. The pound sterling was thus pegged to the Deutsche Mark, instead of the U.S. Dollar and the consequence was that Britain's currency was pummelled into devaluation by a much stronger German economy. The option to leave cost Britain billions in 1992. But at the Rome Summit in October 1990, Thatcher was said to have exclaimed, in a fit of pique, "no, no, no" to the Delors Plan, and repeated the government's policy at Paris summit on 18–20 November. [28] She also repeated the "no, no, no" message in the House of Commons on her return to Westminster. Howe had told Brian Walden (a former Labour MP) on ITV's Weekend World, that the "government did not oppose the principle of a single currency," which was factually inaccurate.[ citation needed ]

Resignation

Howe tendered his resignation in a famous moment on 1 November. Sometimes mocked as "Mogadon man" – Mogadon being a well-known sleeping medication – Howe delivered a blow to Thatcher's government in full view of Prime Minister's Questions and a packed House of Commons on 13 November. Howe later contended that the Community Charge was incompetently implemented, but it was the direction of European policy rather than domestic rioting that tipped the balance. His dispute with Thatcher was over matters of substance more than ones of style; he advocated a move back towards a more centrist position on constitutional and administrative issues, such as taxation and European integration. Howe represented a kind of moderate whiggery in the party, being educated, lawyerly, and diligent; while direct, he was conciliatory and collegial in style. [6]

Howe wrote a cautiously worded letter of resignation in which he criticised the Prime Minister's overall handling of UK relations with the European Community. After largely successful attempts by 10 Downing Street to claim that there were differences only of style, rather than substance, in Howe's disagreement with Thatcher on Europe, Howe chose to send a powerful message of dissent. In his resignation speech in the Commons on 13 November 1990, he attacked Thatcher for running increasingly serious risks for the future of the country and criticised her for undermining the policies on EMU proposed by her own chancellor and governor of the Bank of England. [29]

He offered a striking cricket simile for British negotiations on EMU in Europe:

It is rather like sending your opening batsmen to the crease, only for them to find, as the first balls are being bowled, that their bats have been broken before the game by the team captain.

He ended his speech with an appeal to cabinet colleagues:

The time has come for others to consider their own response to the tragic conflict of loyalties, with which I myself have wrestled for perhaps too long. [30]

A few days later, Cledwyn Hughes, the Labour leader in the Lords remarked with thinly-disguised pleasure,[ citation needed ]

I much regretted the departure of Sir Geoffrey Howe from his office and from the Government. Sir Geoffrey was an outstanding member of the Prime Minister's Administration since 1979 and his decision to leave reveals a fatal flaw in the management of our affairs. [31]

Although Howe wrote subsequently in his memoir Conflict of Loyalty that his intention was only to constrain any shift in European policy by the Cabinet under the existing prime minister, his dramatic speech is widely seen as the key catalyst for the leadership challenge mounted by Michael Heseltine a few days later. [30] Although Thatcher won most votes in the leadership election, she did not win by a large enough margin to win outright and subsequently withdrew from the contest on 22 November. [32] Five days later, Chancellor of the Exchequer John Major was elected party leader and thus became prime minister. [32] The change proved to be a positive one for the Tories, who had trailed Labour in most opinion polls by a double-digit margin throughout 1990 but soon returned to the top of the polls and won the general election in April 1992. [32]

Retirement

Howe (second from right) in 2003 Former Foreign Secretarys Reception Dinner.jpg
Howe (second from right) in 2003

Howe retired from the House of Commons in 1992 and was made a life peer on 30 June 1992 as Baron Howe of Aberavon, of Tandridge in the County of Surrey. [33] He published his memoirs Conflict of Loyalty (Macmillan, 1994) soon after. In the Lords, Howe continued to speak on a wide range of foreign-policy and European issues, and led opposition to the Labour government's plans from 1997 to convert the second chamber into a largely elected body [34] [lower-alpha 2]  – a position reiterated in the face of Coalition proposals in 2012. [35] He retired from the House of Lords on 19 May 2015. [36] [37]

Following his retirement from the Commons, Howe took on a number of non-executive directorships in business and advisory posts in law and academia, including as international political adviser to the US law firm Jones Day, a director of GlaxoSmithKline and J. P. Morgan, and visitor at the School of Oriental and African Studies (SOAS), University of London.

His wife, Elspeth, a former chairman of the Broadcasting Standards Commission, was made a life peer in 2001.[ citation needed ] The Baroness Howe of Idlicote and her husband were one of the few couples who both held titles in their own right. Lord Howe was a patron of the UK Metric Association and the Conservative Foreign and Commonwealth Council. Howe was appointed a Companion of the Order of the Companions of Honour (CH) in the 1996 Birthday Honours. [38] He was an honorary fellow of SOAS. [39] From 1996 to 2006 he was president of the Academy of Experts and in November 2014 was made an honorary fellow of the organisation in recognition of his contribution to the development of methods of dispute resolution. [40]

Howe was a close personal friend of Ian Gow, the former MP, parliamentary private secretary, and personal confidant of Margaret Thatcher. He delivered the principal appreciation of Gow at the latter's memorial service after Gow was assassinated by the IRA in July 1990. [41] Obituarists noted how Howe was "warm and well liked by colleagues", [42] with Nigel Lawson writing that he would be remembered by those who knew him "as one of the kindest and nicest men in politics" [43] who, according to Andrew Rawnsley of The Observer , was frequently spoken of by fellow politicians "as one of the most honest and decent practitioners of their profession." [30]

Howe's dramatic resignation speech in the House of Commons formed the basis of Jonathan Maitland's 2015 play Dead Sheep. [44] Howe was interviewed in 2012 as part of The History of Parliament's oral history project. [45] [46]

Howe died at the age of 88 on 9 October 2015 following a suspected heart attack. [47]

Titles, styles and arms

Notes

  1. Clegg was Chairman for the Pay Comparability Commission.
  2. Howe subsequently stated that the "last thing that people want to see here are clones of the clowns in the Commons", and served on the joint committee on the proposed legislation in 2002–03.

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Tory! Tory! Tory! is a 2006 BBC television documentary series on the history of the people and ideas that formed Thatcherism told through the eyes of those on the New Right. It was nominated for the best Historical Documentary at the Grierson Awards in 2006.

First Thatcher ministry Government of the United Kingdom

Margaret Thatcher was Prime Minister of the United Kingdom from 4 May 1979 to 28 November 1990, during which time she led a Conservative government. She was the first woman to hold that office. During her premiership, Thatcher moved to liberalise the British economy through deregulation, privatisation, and the promotion of entrepreneurialism.

Third Thatcher ministry Government of the United Kingdom

Margaret Thatcher was Prime Minister of the United Kingdom from 4 May 1979 to 28 November 1990, during which time she led a Conservative government. She was the first woman to hold that office. During her premiership, Thatcher moved to liberalise the British economy through deregulation, privatisation, and the promotion of entrepreneurialism.

Margaret Thatcher became the first female Leader of the Conservative Party and Leader of the Opposition after winning the 1975 leadership election, the first Conservative leadership election where the post was not vacant. A rule change to enable the election was largely prompted by dissatisfaction with the incumbent leader, Edward Heath, who had lost three of four general elections as leader, including two in 1974. After announcing her first Shadow Cabinet in February 1975, she reshuffled it twice: in January and November 1976. Minor subsequent changes were necessary to respond to various circumstances. Thatcher's Shadow Cabinet ceased to exist upon her becoming Prime Minister following the 1979 general election.

References

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Sources

Further reading

Parliament of the United Kingdom
Preceded by
Hendrie Oakshott
Member of Parliament
for Bebington

19641966
Succeeded by
Edwin Brooks
Preceded by
John Vaughan-Morgan
Member of Parliament
for Reigate

19701974
Succeeded by
George Gardiner
Preceded by
William Clark
Member of Parliament
for East Surrey

19741992
Succeeded by
Peter Ainsworth
Legal offices
Preceded by
Arthur Irvine
Solicitor General for England and Wales
1970–1972
Succeeded by
Michael Havers
Political offices
Preceded by
Robert Carr
Shadow Chancellor of the Exchequer
1975–1979
Succeeded by
Denis Healey
Preceded by
Denis Healey
Chancellor of the Exchequer
1979–1983
Succeeded by
Nigel Lawson
Second Lord of the Treasury
1979–1983
Preceded by
Francis Pym
Secretary of State for Foreign and Commonwealth Affairs
1983–1989
Succeeded by
John Major
Preceded by
Viscount Whitelaw
Deputy Prime Minister of the United Kingdom
1989–1990
Succeeded by
Michael Heseltine
Preceded by
John Wakeham
Leader of the House of Commons
1989–1990
Succeeded by
John MacGregor
Lord President of the Council
1989–1990