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|• Total||587,041 km2 (226,658 sq mi)|
|Coastline||4,828 km (3,000 mi)|
|Highest point|| Maromokotro |
2,876 metres (9,436 ft)
|Lowest point|| Indian Ocean |
|Exclusive economic zone||1,225,259 km2 (473,075 sq mi)|
Madagascar is a large island in the Indian Ocean off the eastern coast of southern Africa, east of Mozambique. It has a total area of 587,040 square kilometres (226,660 sq mi) with 581,540 square kilometres (224,530 sq mi) of land and 5,500 square kilometres (2,100 sq mi) of water. Madagascar is the fourth largest island and the 2nd largest island country in the world. The highest point is Maromokotro, in the Tsaratanana Massif region in the north of the island, at 2,876 metres (9,436 ft). The capital Antananarivo is in the Central Highlands near the centre of the island. It has the 25th largest Exclusive Economic Zone of 1,225,259 km2 (473,075 sq mi). Madagascar is 400 kilometres (250 miles) east of mainland Africa.
Madagascar can be divided into five general geographical regions: the east coast, the Tsaratanana Massif, the Central Highlands, the west coast, and the southwest. The highest elevations parallel the east coast. 587,040 square kilometres (226,660 sq mi), which makes it the world's second largest island country.The total size is
The east coast consists of a narrow band of lowlands about fifty kilometers wide, formed from the sedimentation of alluvial soils, and an intermediate zone composed of steep bluffs alternating with ravines bordering an escarpment of about 500 metres (1,640 ft) in elevation, which gives access to the Central Highlands. The coastal region roughly from north of Baie d'Antongil, the most prominent feature on the Masoala Peninsula, to the far north of the island. The coastline is straight, with the exception of a bay, offering less in the way of natural harbors than the west coast.
The Canal des Pangalanes, an 800-kilometre (497 mi)-long lagoon formed naturally by the washing of sand up on the island by the Indian Ocean currents and by the silting of rivers, is a feature of the coast; it has been used both as a means of transportation up and down the coast and as a fishing area. The beach slopes steeply into deep water. The east coast is considered dangerous for swimmers and sailors because of the large number of sharks that frequent the shoreline.
The Tsaratanana Massif region at the north end of the island contains Maromokotro, the highest point on the island at 2,880 metres (9,449 ft). Further north is the Montagne d'Ambre (Ambohitra), which is of volcanic origin. The coastline is deeply indented; two prominent features are the natural harbor at Antsiranana (Diego Suárez), just south of the Cap d'Ambre (Tanjon' i Bobaomby), and the large island of Nosy Be to the west. The mountainous topography of the Tsaratanana Massif limits the potential of the port at Antsiranana by impeding the flow of traffic from other parts of the island.
The Central Highlands, which range from 800 to 1,800 m (2,625 to 5,906 ft) in altitude, contain a wide variety of topographies: rounded and eroded hills, massive granite outcrops, extinct volcanoes, eroded peneplains, and alluvial plains and marshes, which have been converted into irrigated rice fields. The Central Highlands extend from the Tsaratanana Massif in the north to the Ivakoany Massif in the south. They are defined rather clearly by the escarpments along the east coast, and they slope gently to the west coast. The Central Highlands include the Anjafy High Plateaux; the volcanic formations of Itasy (Lake Itasy is in a volcanic crater) and the Ankaratra Massif, reaching a height of 2,643 m (8,671 ft). The Isalo Roiniforme Massif lies between the central highlands and the west coast.
Antananarivo, the national capital, is located in the northern portion of the Central Highlands at 1,276 m (4,186 ft) above sea level. A prominent feature of the Central Highlands is a rift valley running north to south, located east of Antananarivo and including Lac Alaotra, the largest body of water on the island. The lake is located 761 m (2,497 ft) above sea level and is bordered by two cliffs, rising 701 m (2,300 ft) to the west and 488 m (1,601 ft) to the east, which form the walls of a valley. This region has experienced geological subsidence, and earth tremors are frequent.
The west coast, composed of sedimentary formations, is more indented than the east coast, thus offering a number of harbors sheltered from cyclones, such as the harbor at Mahajanga. Deep bays and well-protected harbors have attracted explorers, traders, and pirates from Europe, Africa, and the Middle East since ancient times; thus, the area has served as an important bridge between Madagascar and the outside world. Silting up of harbors on this coast, caused by sediment from the high levels of erosion suffered inland in Madagascar, is a major problem. The broad alluvial plains found on the coast between Mahajanga and Toliara, which are believed to have great agricultural potential, are thinly inhabited, in many places covered with swamps of Madagascar mangroves, and remain largely unexplored, although they are the subject of mineral and hydrocarbon exploration activity. The giant oil fields of Tsimiroro (heavy oil) and Bemolanga (ultra heavy oil) lie towards the west of the island.
The southwest is bordered on the east by the Ivakoany Massif and on the north by the Isala Roiniforme Massif. It includes two regions along the south coast, the Mahafaly Plateau and the desert region occupied by the Antandroy people.
The Mananara and Mangoro rivers flow from the Central Highlands to the east coast, as does the Maningory, which flows from Lake Alaotra. Other rivers flowing east into the Indian Ocean include the Bemarivo, the Ivondro, and the Mananjary. These rivers tend to be short because the watershed is located close to the east coast. Owing to the steep elevations, they flow rapidly, often over spectacular waterfalls.
The rivers flowing to the west coast discharge into the Mozambique Channel and tend to be lengthier and have a lesser gradient. The major rivers on the west coast are the Sambirano, the Mahajamba, the Betsiboka (part of Mahajanga is located at the mouth), the Mania, the North and South Mahavavy, the Mangoky, and the Onilahy. The Ikopa, which flows past Antananarivo, is a tributary of the Betsiboka. The Onilahy, located in the driest part of the island, occasionally dries up during droughts.
Important lakes, aside from Alaotra, include Lake Kinkony in the northwest, Lake Itasy in the center and Lake Ihotry in the southwest.
Madagascar originated as part of the Gondwana supercontinent. Its west coast was formed when Africa broke off from Gondwana around 165 million years ago. Madagascar eventually broke off from India about 88 million years ago. It is geologically located within the Somali plate.
Madagascar has been called the "Great Red Island" because of the prominence of red lateritic soils. The red soils predominate the Central Highlands, although there are much richer soils in the regions of former volcanic activity, Itasy and Ankaratra, and Tsaratanana to the north. A narrow band of alluvial soils is found all along the east coast and at the mouths of the major rivers on the west coast; clay, sand, and limestone mixtures are found in the west; and shallow or skeletal laterite and limestone are located in the south. Deforestation and grazing cause aggressive erosion in many locations.
A recent global remote sensing analysis suggested that there were 1,748 square kilometres (675 sq mi) of tidal flats in Madagascar, making it the 18th ranked country in terms of how much tidal flat occurs there.
The climate is tropical along the coast, temperate inland, and arid in the south. The weather is dominated by the southeastern trade winds that originate in the Indian Ocean anticyclone, a center of high atmospheric pressure that seasonally changes its position over the ocean. Madagascar has two seasons: a warm, wet season from November to April; and a cooler, dry season from May to October. There is, however, great variation in climate owing to elevation and position relative to dominant winds. Overall, surface water is most abundant along the east coast and in the far north (with the exception of the area around Cap d'Ambre, which has relatively little surface water). Amounts diminish to the west and south, and the driest regions are in the extreme south.
The east coast has a tropical rainforest climate; being most directly exposed to the trade winds, it has the highest rainfall, averaging as high as 4,000 mm (157.5 in) annually in some places. This region has a hot, humid climate in which tropical fevers are endemic. Destructive cyclones occur during the rainy season, coming in principally from the direction of the Mascarene Islands. Because rain clouds discharge much of their moisture east of the highest elevations on the island, the Central Highlands are drier and, owing to the altitude, also cooler. Thunderstorms are common during the rainy season in the Central Highlands and the eastern coastal lowlands.
Antananarivo receives practically all of its average annual 1,400 mm (55.1 in) of rainfall between November and April. The dry season is sunny, although somewhat chilly, especially in the mornings. Although frosts are rare in Antananarivo, they are common at higher elevations. Hail is common in many of the higher areas of the island (including Antananarivo), but there is no snowfall except on the Ankaratra massif where above 2,400 m (7,874 ft) it may occasionally fall and even remain for several days.
The west coast is drier than either the east coast or the Central Highlands because the trade winds lose their humidity by the time they reach this region. The southwest and the extreme south are semidesert; as little as 330 mm (13 in) of rain falls annually at Toliara.
|Climate data for Antananarivo (1981–2010)|
|Record high °C (°F)||33.0|
|Average high °C (°F)||26.6|
|Daily mean °C (°F)||20.8|
|Average low °C (°F)||17.3|
|Record low °C (°F)||10.9|
|Average precipitation mm (inches)||340|
|Average rainy days||19||17||14||7||5||5||7||6||4||8||11||15||118|
|Average relative humidity (%)||79||80||79||77||77||77||76||74||70||69||71||77||76|
|Mean monthly sunshine hours||210.5||178.0||199.1||220.5||228.8||206.1||213.9||235.0||249.5||251.0||232.7||201.1||2,626.2|
|Source 1: NOAA|
|Source 2: Pogoda|
|Climate data for Toamasina (1961–1990, extremes 1889–present)|
|Record high °C (°F)||37.4|
|Average high °C (°F)||30.1|
|Daily mean °C (°F)||26.0|
|Average low °C (°F)||22.5|
|Record low °C (°F)||18.0|
|Average rainfall mm (inches)||410.1|
|Average rainy days (≥ 1.0 mm)||19||17||21||18||17||18||22||20||15||13||14||17||211|
|Average relative humidity (%)||83||83||85||84||85||85||84||85||83||82||83||84||84|
|Mean monthly sunshine hours||224.7||198.2||191.0||196.9||192.1||162.5||162.8||184.6||209.7||232.7||236.0||219.2||2,410.4|
|Source 1: NOAA|
|Source 2: Deutscher Wetterdienst (humidity, 1951–1967), Meteo Climat (record highs and lows)|
|Climate data for Toliara (Tulear), Madagascar (1961–1990, extremes 1951–present)|
|Record high °C (°F)||42.3|
|Average high °C (°F)||32.2|
|Daily mean °C (°F)||27.5|
|Average low °C (°F)||22.9|
|Record low °C (°F)||14.6|
|Average rainfall mm (inches)||94.7|
|Average rainy days (≥ 1.0 mm)||6||6||3||2||2||2||1||1||1||1||2||5||32|
|Average relative humidity (%)||77||77||75||76||75||74||74||72||74||75||75||77||75|
|Mean monthly sunshine hours||310.7||271.9||299.9||289.4||296.4||282.5||295.3||315.4||304.4||314.3||316.2||300.6||3,597|
|Source 1: NOAA|
|Source 2: Deutscher Wetterdienst (humidity, 1951–1980), Meteo Climat (record highs and lows)|
Climate change is a significant threat to Madagascar's environment and people. Climate change has raised temperatures, made the dry season longer and has resulted in more intense tropical storms. The country's unique ecosystems, animal and plant life are being impacted.Climate change is projected to drive declines in coral reefs and forest habitats, and threaten native species such as lemurs. The human population is highly vulnerable due to severe impacts on water and agriculture, with implications for food security. Infectious diseases are also expected to increase. Madagascar is a signatory to the Paris Agreement and has set out goals for climate change adaptation, although their implementation faces challenges due to country's relative poverty.
Madagascar occasionally experiences the impact of cyclones. During February 2–4, 1994, Madagascar was struck by Cyclone Geralda. The cyclone killed seventy people and destroyed enough property to leave approximately 500,000 homeless, including 30,000 in Antananarivo and 80,000 in Toamasina. The cyclone also significantly damaged the country's infrastructure, most notably coastal roads, railroads, and telecommunications, as well as agriculture. The damage was estimated at US$45 million.
During March 1–18, 2004, Madagascar was impacted by Cyclone Gafilo, the most intense tropical cyclone ever recorded in the South-West Indian Ocean. The National Rescue Council in Antananarivo reported 237 dead, 181 missing, 879 injured, and 304,000 homeless (174,000 in Antalaha alone). More than 20,000 homes were destroyed, as well as 413 public buildings and 3,400 schools were damaged, including 1,400 schools completely destroyed. The Cyclone left an estimated damage of US$250 million.
In February 2022, Cyclone Batsirai killed at least 10 people and caused floods, power outages, and structural damages, mere weeks after Cyclone Ana had killed 55 and displaced 130,000 people on the island.
The island of Madagascar has been described as an "alternate world" or a "world apart" because of the uniqueness and rarity of many of its plant and animal species. Their characteristics are believed to reflect the island's origins as a part of Gondwanaland and its many millions of years of isolation following the breakup of the landmass.
Many of the characteristic African species—large mammals such as the elephant, rhinoceros, giraffe, zebra, and antelope and predators such as lions and leopards—do not exist in Madagascar. In addition, the island has been spared the great variety of venomous snakes indigenous to the African continent. Although it is assumed that most life forms on the island had an African (or South American) origin, isolation has allowed old species—elsewhere extinct—to survive and new species unique to the island to evolve. Thus, a great number of plant, insect, reptile, and fish species are endemic to Madagascar, and all indigenous land mammal species—66 in all—are unique to the island.
Madagascar was once covered almost completely by forests, but slash and burn practices for dry rice cultivation has denuded most of the landscape, especially in the Central Highlands. Rain forests are concentrated on the steep hillsides along a slender north–south axis bordering the east coast, from the Tsaratanana Massif in the north to Tolagnaro in the south. Secondary growth, which has replaced the original forest and consists to a large extent of traveller's trees, raffia palm, and baobabs, is found in many places along the east coast and in the north. The vegetation of the Central Highlands and the west coast is for the most part savanna or steppe, and coarse prairie grass predominates where erosion has not exposed the orange-red lateritic soil. In the southwest, the vegetation is adapted to desert conditions.
The remaining rain forest contains a great number of unique plant species. The country has some 900 species of orchid. Bananas, mangoes, coconut, vanilla, and other tropical plants grow on the coasts, and the eucalyptus tree, brought from Australia, is widespread today.
Wood and charcoal from the forests are used to meet 80% of domestic fuel needs. As a result, wood has become scarce. In 1990, the World Bank launched an environmental program that has increased the planting of pine and eucalyptus to satisfy fuel needs.
Madagascar has a number of natural resources, including graphite, chromite, coal, bauxite, rare Earth elements, salt, quartz, tar sands, semi-precious stones and mica. There are also fishing areas offshore and potential for hydropower. In 2011, it was estimated that 5.96% of the land area was used for arable land and 1.02% had permanent crops. Twenty-six percent of the land is forested. The majority of the population depends on subsistence farming, largely rice and cattle. The manufacturing sector is small but growing.
Madagascar is currently suffering in some areas from soil erosion as a result of deforestation and overgrazing, desertification, and contamination of surface water with raw sewage and organic waste. Several species of flora and fauna that are unique to the islands are endangered. Regular cyclones cause flooding in low-lying coastal regions.
This is a list of the extreme points of Madagascar, the points that are farther north, south, east or west than any other location.
Paved and unpaved roadways, as well as railways, provide the main forms of transport in Madagascar. Madagascar has approximately 31,640 km (19,660 mi) of paved roads and 836 km of rail lines. In 2010, Madagascar had 432 km (270 mi) of navigable waterways.
Mahajanga was a former province of Madagascar that had an area of 150,023 km². It had a population of 1,896,000 (2004). Its capital was Mahajanga, the second largest city in Madagascar.
The Madagascar subhumid forests are a tropical moist broadleaf forest ecoregion that covers most of the Central Highlands of the island of Madagascar. They are included in the WWF's Global 200 list of outstanding ecoregions. Most of the original habitats have been lost due to human pressure.
The Madagascar ericoid thickets is a montane shrubland ecoregion, found at higher altitudes on Madagascar's four major mountains.
Anomostachys is a plant genus of the family Euphorbiaceae first described as a genus in 1951. It contains one known species, Anomostachys lastellei, endemic to Madagascar.
Vakinankaratra is a region in central Madagascar. The capital of the region is Antsirabe. Vakinankaratra covers an area of 16,599 kilometres, and had a population of 2,074,358 in 2018.
Rail transport in Madagascar is primarily operated by Madarail. There are two unconnected systems having a total length of 875 km (544 mi), as of 2006, all metre gauge, 1.000 m. The northern railway is currently concessioned to Maragall. The southern line, Fianarantsoa-Côte-Est railway (FCE), is a parastatal line.
Articles related to Madagascar include:
Montagne d'Ambre National Park is a national park in the Diana Region of northern Madagascar. The park is known for its endemic flora and fauna, water falls and crater lakes. It is 1,000 km (620 mi) north of the capital, Antananarivo and is one of the most biologically diverse places in all of Madagascar with seventy-five species of birds, twenty-five species of mammals, and fifty-nine species of reptiles known to inhabit the park.
The Church of the Province of the Indian Ocean is a province of the Anglican Communion. It covers the islands of Madagascar, Mauritius and the Seychelles. The current Archbishop and Primate is James Wong, Bishop of Seychelles.
Analamanga is a region in central Madagascar, containing the capital Antananarivo and its surrounding metropolitan area. The region has an area of 17,488 square kilometres, and had a population of 3,618,128 in 2018.
Podocarpus rostratus is a species of conifer in the family Podocarpaceae. It is endemic to Madagascar.
The University of Toamasina is a public university in Toamasina, Madagascar. The university campus is located in Barikadimy west of the city of Toamasina, the capital of Atsinanana on the east side of Madagascar.
Melanophylla alnifolia is a species of plant in the Torricelliaceae family. It is endemic to eastern Madagascar. Its natural habitat is tropical moist lowland and montane forests. It is threatened by habitat loss.
Districts are second-level administrative divisions of Madagascar below the regions. There are 114 districts in Madagascar. Districts are in their turn divided into communes; while some of the districts in urban areas and offshore islands each consist of only one commune, most of the districts are divided typically into 5–20 communes.
The 1981–82 South-West Indian Ocean cyclone season was destructive and deadly in Madagascar, where four cyclones killed 100 people and caused $250 million (USD) in damage. The season was fairly active, lasting from October to May. There were nine named storms that attained gale-force winds, or at least 65 km/h (40 mph). Five of the storms attained tropical cyclone status, which have 10-minute sustained winds of at least 120 km/h (75 mph).
Intense Tropical Cyclone Geralda was a powerful tropical cyclone that caused catastrophic damage in Madagascar in late January 1994, among the strongest to hit the country. It was also the most intense tropical cyclone worldwide in 1994. It originated from an area of low pressure over the Indian Ocean on January 25. Over the following few days, the depression underwent gradual intensification, reaching its peak intensity with ten-minute sustained winds of 200 km/h (125 mph) on January 31. Cyclone Geralda made landfall near Toamasina, Madagascar after weakening from its peak intensity. Within hours of moving onshore, the system had substantially weakened, and by February 5, Geralda had degenerated into a land depression, and it became extratropical three days later. Geralda's remnants dissipated on February 12.
Antsirabe I is a district in, and capital of, Vakinankaratra Region, Madagascar. The borders of the district are identical to those of the city and urban commune of Antsirabe.
The Sambirano region, also known as the Sambirano domain, is a biogeographic region of northwestern Madagascar. It has a distinctive lowland climate with year-round rain, differing from the rest of seasonally-dry western and northern Madagascar. The climate supports humid lowland rainforests, with greater similarity to those of eastern Madagascar than the dry deciduous forests characteristic of the Madagascar's western lowlands.