Georg Simmel

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Georg Simmel
Simmel 01.JPG
Georg Simmel
Born1 March 1858
Died26 September 1918(1918-09-26) (aged 60)
NationalityGerman
Alma mater University of Berlin
Era 19th-century philosophy
Region Western philosophy
School Neo-Kantianism
Lebensphilosophie [1]
Institutions University of Berlin
University of Strasbourg
Notable students György Lukács
Main interests
Philosophy, sociology
Notable ideas
Formal sociology, social forms and contents, the tragedy of culture, [2] web of group affiliation

Georg Simmel ( /ˈzɪməl/ ; German: [ˈzɪməl] ; 1 March 1858 – 26 September 1918) was a German sociologist, philosopher, and critic.

Philosopher person with an extensive knowledge of philosophy

A philosopher is someone who practices philosophy. The term "philosopher" comes from the Ancient Greek, φιλόσοφος (philosophos), meaning "lover of wisdom". The coining of the term has been attributed to the Greek thinker Pythagoras.

Critic professional who makes a living communicating their opinions and assessments of various forms of creative work

A critic is a professional who communicates an assessment and an opinion of various forms of creative works such as art, literature, music, cinema, theatre, fashion, architecture, and food. Critics may also take as their subject social or government policy. Critical judgments, whether derived from critical thinking or not, weigh up a range of factors, including an assessment of the extent to which the item under review achieves its purpose and its creator's intention and a knowledge of its context. They may also include a positive or negative personal response.

Contents

Simmel was one of the first generation of German sociologists: his neo-Kantian approach laid the foundations for sociological antipositivism, asking 'What is society?' in a direct allusion to Kant's question 'What is nature?', [3] presenting pioneering analyses of social individuality and fragmentation. For Simmel, culture referred to "the cultivation of individuals through the agency of external forms which have been objectified in the course of history". [3] Simmel discussed social and cultural phenomena in terms of "forms" and "contents" with a transient relationship; form becoming content, and vice versa, dependent on the context. In this sense he was a forerunner to structuralist styles of reasoning in the social sciences. With his work on the metropolis, Simmel was a precursor of urban sociology, symbolic interactionism and social network analysis. [4] [5]

In social science, antipositivism is a theoretical stance that proposes that the social realm cannot be studied with the scientific method of investigation applied to Nature and that investigation of the social realm requires a different epistemology. Fundamental to that antipositivist epistemology is the belief that the concepts and language that researchers use in their researches shape their perceptions of the social world they are investigating, studying, and defining.

Metropolis very large and significant city or urban area usually with millions of inhabitants

A metropolis is a large city or conurbation which is a significant economic, political, and cultural center for a country or region, and an important hub for regional or international connections, commerce, and communications. The term is Ancient Greek (μητρόπολις) and means the "mother city" of a colony, that is, the city which sent out settlers. This was later generalized to a city regarded as a center of a specified activity, or any large, important city in a nation.

Urban sociology

Urban sociology is the sociological study of life and human interaction in metropolitan areas. It is a normative discipline of sociology seeking to study the structures, environmental processes, changes and problems of an urban area and by doing so provide inputs for urban planning and policy making. In other words, it is the sociological study of cities and their role in the development of society. Like most areas of sociology, urban sociologists use statistical analysis, observation, social theory, interviews, and other methods to study a range of topics, including migration and demographic trends, economics, poverty, race relations and economic trends.

An acquaintance of Max Weber, Simmel wrote on the topic of personal character in a manner reminiscent of the sociological 'ideal type'. He broadly rejected academic standards, however, philosophically covering topics such as emotion and romantic love. Both Simmel and Weber's nonpositivist theory would inform the eclectic critical theory of the Frankfurt School. [6]

Max Weber

Maximilian Karl Emil Weber was a German sociologist, philosopher, jurist, and political economist. His ideas profoundly influenced social theory and social research. Weber is often cited, with Émile Durkheim and Karl Marx, as among the three founders of sociology. Weber was a key proponent of methodological anti-positivism, arguing for the study of social action through interpretive means, based on understanding the purpose and meaning that individuals attach to their own actions. Unlike Durkheim, he did not believe in mono-causality and rather proposed that for any outcome there can be multiple causes.

Ideal type, also known as pure type, is a typological term most closely associated with sociologist Max Weber (1864–1920). For Weber, the conduct of social science depends upon the construction of abstract, hypothetical concepts. The "ideal type" is therefore a subjective element in social theory and research, and one of the subjective elements distinguishing sociology from natural science.

Critical theory philosophy that sociological understandings primarily use should be social reform

Critical theory is the reflective assessment and critique of society and culture by applying knowledge from the social sciences and the humanities. As a term, critical theory has two meanings with different origins and histories: the first originated in sociology and the second originated in literary criticism, whereby it is used and applied as an umbrella term that can describe a theory founded upon critique; thus, the theorist Max Horkheimer described a theory as critical insofar as it seeks "to liberate human beings from the circumstances that enslave them."

Simmel's most famous works today are The Problems of the Philosophy of History (1892), The Philosophy of Money (1900), The Metropolis and Mental Life (1903), Soziologie (1908, inc. The Stranger, The Social Boundary, The Sociology of the Senses, The Sociology of Space, and On The Spatial Projections of Social Forms), and Fundamental Questions of Sociology (1917). He also wrote extensively on the philosophy of Schopenhauer and Nietzsche, as well on art, most notably his book Rembrandt: An Essay in the Philosophy of Art (1916).

The Philosophy of Money (1900) is a book on economic sociology by the German sociologist and social philosopher, Georg Simmel. Probably considered Simmel's greatest work, Simmel saw money as a structuring agent that helps us understand the totality of life.

<i>The Metropolis and Mental Life</i>

The Metropolis and Mental Life is a 1903 book by the German sociologist, Georg Simmel.

Art Creative work to evoke emotional response

Art is a diverse range of human activities in creating visual, auditory or performing artifacts (artworks), expressing the author's imaginative, conceptual ideas, or technical skill, intended to be appreciated for their beauty or emotional power. In their most general form these activities include the production of works of art, the criticism of art, the study of the history of art, and the aesthetic dissemination of art.

Early life and education

Simmel was born in Berlin, Germany, as the youngest of seven children of an assimilated Jewish family. His father, Eduard Simmel, a convert to Roman Catholicism and prosperous businessman, had founded a confectionery store called "Felix & Sarotti" that later was taken over by a chocolate manufacturer. His mother came from a Jewish family who had converted to the Lutheran Church. Georg himself, was baptized as a Protestant when he was a child. [7] His father died in 1874, when Georg was 16, leaving a sizable inheritance. [8] Georg was then adopted by Julius Friedländer, the founder of an international music publishing house, Peters Verlag, who endowed him with the large fortune that enabled him to become a scholar. [9]

Berlin Capital of Germany

Berlin is the capital and largest city of Germany by both area and population. Its 3,748,148 (2018) inhabitants make it the second most populous city proper of the European Union after London. The city is one of Germany's 16 federal states. It is surrounded by the state of Brandenburg, and contiguous with its capital, Potsdam. The two cities are at the center of the Berlin-Brandenburg capital region, which is, with about six million inhabitants and an area of more than 30,000 km², Germany's third-largest metropolitan region after the Rhine-Ruhr and Rhine-Main regions.

Germany Federal parliamentary republic in central-western Europe

Germany, officially the Federal Republic of Germany, is a country in Central and Western Europe, lying between the Baltic and North Seas to the north and the Alps, Lake Constance and the High Rhine to the south. It borders Denmark to the north, Poland and the Czech Republic to the east, Austria and Switzerland to the south, France to the southwest, and Luxembourg, Belgium and the Netherlands to the west.

Jewish assimilation Social process or ideology

Jewish assimilation refers to the gradual cultural assimilation and social integration of Jews in their surrounding culture as well as the ideological program promoting conformity as a potential solution to historic Jewish marginalization in the age of emancipation.

Beginning in 1876, Simmel studied philosophy and history at the Humboldt University of Berlin. [10] In 1881, he received his doctorate for his thesis on Kant's philosophy of matter, Das Wesen der Materie nach Kants Physischer Monadologie (The Nature of Matter According to Kant's Physical Monadology). [10]

Philosophy Study of general and fundamental questions

Philosophy is the study of general and fundamental questions about existence, knowledge, values, reason, mind, and language. Such questions are often posed as problems to be studied or resolved. The term was probably coined by Pythagoras. Philosophical methods include questioning, critical discussion, rational argument, and systematic presentation. Classic philosophical questions include: Is it possible to know anything and to prove it? What is most real? Philosophers also pose more practical and concrete questions such as: Is there a best way to live? Is it better to be just or unjust? Do humans have free will?

History The study of the past as it is described in written documents.

History is the past as it is described in written documents, and the study thereof. Events occurring before written records are considered prehistory. "History" is an umbrella term that relates to past events as well as the memory, discovery, collection, organization, presentation, and interpretation of information about these events. Scholars who write about history are called historians.

Humboldt University of Berlin university in Berlin, Germany

Humboldt University of Berlin is a university in the central borough of Mitte in Berlin, Germany. It was established by Frederick William III on the initiative of Wilhelm von Humboldt, Johann Gottlieb Fichte and Friedrich Ernst Daniel Schleiermacher as the University of Berlin in 1809, and opened in 1810, making it the oldest of Berlin's four universities. From 1810 until its closure in 1945, it was named Friedrich Wilhelm University. During the Cold War the university found itself in East Berlin and was de facto split in two when the Free University of Berlin opened in West Berlin. The university received its current name in honour of Alexander and Wilhelm von Humboldt in 1949.

Career

In 1885, he became a Privatdozent at the University of Berlin, officially lecturing in philosophy but also in ethics, logic, pessimism, art, psychology and sociology. [11] His lectures were not only popular inside the university, but attracted the intellectual elite of Berlin as well. Although his applications for vacant chairs at German universities were supported by Max Weber, Simmel remained an academic outsider. However, with the support of an inheritance from his guardian, he was able to pursue his scholarly interests for many years without needing a salaried position. [12]

Simmel had a hard time gaining acceptance in the academic community despite the support of well known associates, such as Max Weber, Rainer Maria Rilke, Stefan George and Edmund Husserl. This was partly because he was seen as a Jew during an era of anti-Semitism, but also simply because his articles were written for a general audience rather than academic sociologists. This led to dismissive judgements from other professionals. Simmel nevertheless continued his intellectual and academic work, as well as taking part in artistic circles.

Only in 1901, was he elevated to the rank of extraordinary professor (full professor, but without a chair; see the German section at Professor). At that time he was well known throughout Europe and America and was seen as a man of great eminence. [ citation needed ]

In 1909 Simmel, together with Ferdinand Tönnies and Max Weber, and others, was a co-founder of the German Society for Sociology, [12] serving as a member of its first executive body. [13]

In 1914, Simmel received an ordinary professorship with chair, at the then German University of Strassburg, [11] but did not feel at home there. Because World War I broke out, all academic activities and lectures were halted and lecture halls were converted to military hospitals. In 1915 he applied without success for a chair at the University of Heidelberg. [14]

Prior to World War I, Simmel had not been very interested in contemporary history, but rather in looking at the interactions, art and philosophy of his time. However, after its start, he was interested in its unfolding. Yet, he seems to give conflicting opinions of events, being a supporter in "Germany's inner transformation", more objective in "the idea of Europe" and a critic in "The crisis of culture". [ dubious ] Eventually, Simmel grew tired of the war, especially in the year of his death.

Personal life

In 1890, Georg married Gertrud Kinel, a philosopher who published under the pseudonym Marie-Luise Enckendorf, and under her own name. They lived a sheltered and bourgeois life, their home becoming a venue for cultivated gatherings in the tradition of the salon. [15] They had one son, Hans Eugen Simmel, who became a medical doctor. [16] Georg and Gertrud's granddaughter was the psychologist Marianne Simmel. Simmel also had a secret affair with his assistant Gertrud Kantorowicz, who bore him a daughter in 1907, though this fact was hidden until after Simmel's death. [17]

In 1917, Simmel stopped reading the newspapers and withdrew to the Black Forest to finish his book. [7] Shortly before the end of the war in 1918, he died from liver cancer in Strasbourg. [15]

Theory

Levels of concern

There are four basic levels of concern in Simmel’s work. First are his assumptions about the psychological workings of social life. Second is his interest in the sociological workings of interpersonal relationships. Third is his work on the structure of and changes in the Zeitgeist, the social and cultural “spirit” of his times. He also adopted the principle of emergence, which is the idea that higher levels emerge from the lower levels. Finally, he dealt with his views in the nature and inevitable fate of humanity. His most microscopic work dealt with forms and the interaction that takes place with different types of people. The forms include subordination, superordination, exchange, conflict and sociability. [18] :158–88

Dialectical thinking

A dialectical approach is multicausal, multidirectional, integrates facts and value, rejects the idea that there are hard and fast dividing lines between social phenomena, focuses on social relations, looks not only at the present but also at the past and future, and is deeply concerned with both conflicts and contradictions. Simmel’s sociology was concerned with relationships—especially interaction—and was known as a “methodological relationist”. This approach is based on the idea that interactions exist between everything. [19] Overall, he was mostly interested in dualisms, conflicts, and contradictions in whatever realm of the social world he happened to be working on. [18]

Individual consciousness

Simmel focused on forms of association and paid little attention to individual consciousness. Simmel believed in the creative consciousness and this belief can be found in diverse forms of interaction, the ability of actors to create social structures and the disastrous effects those structures had on the creativity of individuals. Simmel also believed that social and cultural structures come to have a life of their own. [18]

Sociability

Simmel refers to "all the forms of association by which a mere sum of separate individuals are made into a 'society,'" which he describes as a, "higher unity," composed of individuals. [18] :157 He was especially fascinated, it seems, by the, "impulse to sociability in man". [18] :157 He described it as "associations...[through which] the solitariness of the individuals is resolved into togetherness, a union with others," a process he describes by which, "the impulse to sociability distils, as it were, out of the realities of social life the pure essence of association," and "through which a unity is made," which he also refers to as, "the free-playing, interacting interdependence of individuals." [18] :158

He defines sociability as, "the play-form of association," [18] :158 driven by, "amicability, breeding, cordiality and attractiveness of all kinds." [18] :158 In order for this free association to occur, he says, "the personalities must not emphasize themselves too individually...with too much abandon and aggressiveness." [18] :158 He also describes, "this world of sociability...a democracy of equals...without friction," so long as people blend together in a spirit of fun and affection to, "bring about among themselves a pure interaction free of any disturbing material accent." [18] :159

Simmel describes idealized interactions when he says that, "the vitality of real individuals, in their sensitivities and attractions, in the fullness of their impulses and convictions...is but a symbol of life, as it shows itself in the flow of a lightly amusing play," [18] :162 or when he adds: "a symbolic play, in whose aesthetic charm all the finest and most highly sublimated dynamics of social existence and its riches are gathered." [18] :163

Social geometry

Dyad and triad

A dyad is a two-person group; a triad is a three-person group. In a dyad a person is able to retain their individuality. There is no other person to shift the balance of the group thereby allowing those within the dyad to maintain their individuality. In the triad group there is a possibility of a dyad forming within the triad thereby threatening the remaining individual's independence and causing them to become the subordinate of the group. This seems to be an essential part of society which becomes a structure. Unfortunately as the group (structure) becomes increasingly greater the individual becomes separated and grows more alone, isolated and segmented. Simmel's view was somewhat ambiguous with respect to group size. On one hand he believed that the bigger the group the better for the individual. In a larger group it would be harder to exert control on the individual, but on the other hand with a large group there is a possibility of the individual becoming distant and impersonal. Therefore, in an effort for the individual to cope with the larger group they must become a part of a smaller group such as the family. [18]

Distance

The value of something is determined by the distance from its actor. In "The Stranger", Simmel discusses how if a person is too close to the actor they are not considered a stranger, but if they are too far they would no longer be a part of a group. The particular distance from a group allows a person to have objective relationships with different group members. [18]

Views

On the metropolis

One of Simmel's most notable essays is The Metropolis and Mental Life ("Die Großstädte und das Geistesleben") from 1903, which was originally given as one of a series of lectures on all aspects of city life by experts in various fields, ranging from science and religion to art. The series was conducted alongside the Dresden cities exhibition of 1903. Simmel was originally asked to lecture on the role of intellectual (or scholarly) life in the big city, but he effectively reversed the topic in order to analyze the effects of the big city on the mind of the individual. As a result, when the lectures were published as essays in a book, to fill the gap, the series editor himself had to supply an essay on the original topic.[ citation needed ]

The Metropolis and Mental Life was not particularly well received during Simmel's lifetime. The organizers of the exhibition over-emphasized its negative comments about city life, because Simmel also pointed out positive transformations. During the 1920s the essay was influential on the thinking of Robert E. Park and other American sociologists at the University of Chicago who collectively became known as the "Chicago School". It gained wider circulation in the 1950s when it was translated into English and published as part of Kurt Wolff's edited collection, The Sociology of Georg Simmel. It now appears regularly on the reading lists of courses in urban studies and architecture history. However, it is important to note that the notion of the blasé is actually not the central or final point of the essay, but is part of a description of a sequence of states in an irreversible transformation of the mind. In other words, Simmel does not quite say that the big city has an overall negative effect on the mind or the self, even as he suggests that it undergoes permanent changes. It is perhaps this ambiguity that gave the essay a lasting place in the discourse on the metropolis.[ citation needed ]

The deepest problems of modern life flow from the attempt of the individual to maintain the independence and individuality of his existence against the sovereign powers of society, against the weight of the historical heritage and the external culture and technique of life. The antagonism represents the most modern form of the conflict which primitive man must carry on with nature for his own bodily existence. The eighteenth century may have called for liberation from all the ties which grew up historically in politics, in religion, in morality and in economics in order to permit the original natural virtue of man, which is equal in everyone, to develop without inhibition; the nineteenth century may have sought to promote, in addition to man's freedom, his individuality (which is connected with the division of labor) and his achievements which make him unique and indispensable but which at the same time make him so much the more dependent on the complementary activity of others; Nietzsche may have seen the relentless struggle of the individual as the prerequisite for his full development, while socialism found the same thing in the suppression of all competition – but in each of these the same fundamental motive was at work, namely the resistance of the individual to being levelled, swallowed up in the social-technological mechanism.

Georg Simmel The Metropolis and Mental Life 1903, [20]

The Philosophy of Money

In this major work, Simmel saw money as a component of life which helped us understand the totality of life. [18]

Simmel believed people created value by making objects, then separating themselves from that object and then trying to overcome that distance. He found that things which were too close were not considered valuable and things which were too far for people to get were also not considered valuable. Considered in determining value was the scarcity, time, sacrifice, and difficulties involved in getting the object. [18]

For Simmel, city life led to a division of labor and increased financialization. As financial transactions increase, some emphasis shifts to what the individual can do, instead of who the individual is. Financial matters in addition to emotions are in play. [18]

The Stranger

Simmel in 1914 Georg-Simmel-1914.jpg
Simmel in 1914

Simmel’s concept of distance comes into play where he identifies a stranger as a person that is far away and close at the same time.

The Stranger is close to us, insofar as we feel between him and ourselves common features of a national, social, occupational, or generally human, nature. He is far from us, insofar as these common features extend beyond him or us, and connect us only because they connect a great many people.

Georg Simmel The Stranger 1908, [21]

A stranger is far enough away that he is unknown but close enough that it is possible to get to know him. In a society there must be a stranger. If everyone is known then there is no person that is able to bring something new to everybody.

The stranger bears a certain objectivity that makes him a valuable member to the individual and society. People let down their inhibitions around him and confess openly without any fear. This is because there is a belief that the Stranger is not connected to anyone significant and therefore does not pose a threat to the confessor's life.[ citation needed ]

More generally, Simmel observes that because of their peculiar position in the group, strangers often carry out special tasks that the other members of the group are either incapable or unwilling to carry out. For example, especially in pre-modern societies, most strangers made a living from trade, which was often viewed as an unpleasant activity by "native" members of those societies. In some societies, they were also employed as arbitrators and judges, because they were expected to treat rival factions in society with an impartial attitude. [22]

Objectivity may also be defined as freedom: the objective individual is bound by no commitments which could prejudice his perception, understanding, and evaluation of the given.

Georg Simmel The Stranger 1908, [21]

On one hand the stranger's opinion does not really matter because of his lack of connection to society, but on the other the stranger’s opinion does matter, because of his lack of connection to society. He holds a certain objectivity that allows him to be unbiased and decide freely without fear. He is simply able to see, think, and decide without being influenced by the opinion of others.[ citation needed ]

On secrecy

According to Simmel, in small groups, secrets are less needed because everyone seems to be more similar. In larger groups secrets are needed as a result of their heterogeneity. In secret societies, groups are held together by the need to maintain the secret, a condition that also causes tension because the society relies on its sense of secrecy and exclusion. [23] For Simmel, secrecy exists even in relationships as intimate as marriage.[ citation needed ]In revealing all, marriage becomes dull and boring and loses all excitement. Simmel saw a general thread in the importance of secrets and the strategic use of ignorance: To be social beings who are able to cope successfully with their social environment, people need clearly defined realms of unknowns for themselves. [24] Furthermore, sharing a common secret produces a strong "we feeling." The modern world depends on honesty and therefore a lie can be considered more devastating than it ever has been before.[ citation needed ] Money allows a level of secrecy that has never been attainable before, because money allows for “invisible” transactions, due to the fact that money is now an integral part of human values and beliefs. It is possible to buy silence. [18]

On flirtation

In his multi-layered essay, published in 1923, Simmel discusses flirtation as a generalized type of social interaction. According to Simmel, "to define flirtation as simply a 'passion for pleasing' is to confuse the means to an end with the desire for this end." The distinctiveness of the flirt lies in the fact that she awakens delight and desire by means of a unique antithesis and synthesis: through the alternation of accommodation and denial. In the behavior of the flirt, the man feels the proximity and interpenetration of the ability and inability to acquire something. This is in essence the "price." A sidelong glance with the head half-turned is characteristic of flirtation in its most banal guise. [25]

On fashion

In the eyes of Simmel, fashion is a form of social relationship that allows those who wish to conform to the demands of a group to do so. It also allows some to be individualistic by deviating from the norm. There are many social roles in fashion and both objective culture and individual culture can have an influence on people. [19] In the initial stage everyone adopts what is fashionable and those that deviate from the fashion inevitably adopt a whole new view of what they consider fashion. Ritzer wrote,

Simmel argued that not only does following what is in fashion involve dualities so does the effort on the part of some people to be of fashion. Unfashionable people view those who follow a fashion as being imitators and themselves as mavericks, but Simmel argued that the latter are simply engaging in an inverse form of imitation.

George Ritzer, Georg Simmel 2008, [18] :163

This means that those who are trying to be different or "unique," are not, because in trying to be different they become a part of a new group that has labeled themselves different or "unique". [18]

Works

Simmel´s major monographic works include, in chronological order:

Other works

See also

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References

  1. Nicolas de Warren, Andrea Staiti (eds.), New Approaches to Neo-Kantianism, Cambridge University Press, 2015, p. 196.
  2. Georg Simmel (1919), Philosophische Kultur, Alfred Kröner Verlag, Leipzig.
  3. 1 2 Levine, Donald (ed) (1971)Simmel: On individuality and social forms. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, p. 6, ISBN   0226757765.
  4. Wellman, Barry. (1988). "Structural Analysis: From Method and Metaphor to Theory and Substance." pp. 1961 in Social Structures: A Network Approach, Barry Wellman and S. D. Berkowitz (eds.). Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, ISBN   0521286875.
  5. Freeman, Linton (2004) The Development of Social Network Analysis. Vancouver: Empirical Press, ISBN   1594577145.
  6. Outhwaite, William. 1988. Habermas: Key Contemporary Thinkers 2nd Edition (2009), p.5 ( ISBN   9780745643281)
  7. 1 2 Simmel, Georg and Wolff, Kurt H. (1950) The Sociology of Georg Simmel. Glencoe, Ill.: Free Press.
  8. Helle, Horst J. (2009). "Introduction to the translation." Sociology: inquiries into the construction of social forms, Volume 1. Leiden, The Netherlands: Koninklijke Brill NV. p. 12
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  10. 1 2 "Biografie" ‹See Tfd› (in German). Section: "Studien und Ehe" (university studies and marriage). Georg Simmel Gesellschaft. simmel-gesellschaft.de. Retrieved 17 January 2018.
  11. 1 2 "Georg Simmel: German Sociologist". Encyclopaedia Britannica. Retrieved 19 April 2019.
  12. 1 2 Palmisano, Joseph M. (2001). "Georg Simmel". World of Sociology. Detroit: Gale, 2001. Retrieved via Biography in Context database, 17 January 2018.
  13. Glatzer, Wolfgang. "Deutsche Gesellschaft für Soziologie: Die akademische soziologische Vereinigung seit 1909" ‹See Tfd› (in German). Deutsche Gesellschaft für Soziologie. soziologie.de. Retrieved 17 January 2018.
  14. Goodstein, Elizabeth S. (2017) "Georg Simmel and the Disciplinary Imaginary". Stanford: Stanford University Press, ISBN   1503600742.
  15. 1 2 Coser, Lewis A (1977). Masters of Sociological Thought: Ideas in Historical and Social Context.
  16. "Biografie Georg Simmel". 50 Klassiker der Soziologie. Retrieved 21 September 2017.
  17. Lerner, Robert E. (2011). "The Secret Germany of Gertrud Kantorowicz". In Melissa Lane; Martin Ruehl (eds.). A Poet's Reich: Politics and Culture in the George Circle. Camden House. pp. 56–77. ISBN   978-1-57113-462-2.
  18. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 George Ritzer (2007). Modern Sociological Theory (7th ed.). New York: McGraw–Hill. ISBN   978-0073404103.
  19. 1 2 "Georg Simmel: Work". socio.ch. Retrieved 5 May 2018.
  20. Simmel, Georg (1971) "The Metropolis and Mental Life", p. 324 in Donald N. Levine (ed) Simmel: On individuality and social forms, Chicago University Press, ISBN   0226757765.
  21. 1 2 Simmel, Georg (1976) The Stranger The Sociology of Georg Simmel' New York: Free Press.
  22. Karakayali, Nedim (2006). "The Uses of the Stranger: Circulation, Arbitration, Secrecy, and Dirt". Sociological Theory. 24 (4): 312–330. doi:10.1111/j.1467-9558.2006.00293.x. hdl:11693/23657.
  23. Simmel, Georg (1906). "The Sociology of Secrecy and of Secret Societies". American Journal of Sociology. 11 (4): 441–498. doi:10.1086/211418.
  24. Gross, Matthias (2012). "'Objective Culture' and the Development of Nonknowledge: Georg Simmel and the Reverse Side of Knowing". Cultural Sociology. 6 (4): 422–437. doi:10.1177/1749975512445431.
  25. Simmel, G., 1984, Women, Sexuality & Love.

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Further reading