Georg von Hertling

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Georg von Hertling
Georg von Hertling portrait (cropped).jpg
Chancellor of the German Empire
In office
1 November 1917 30 September 1918
Monarch Wilhelm II
Preceded by Georg Michaelis
Succeeded by Maximilian von Baden
18th Minister President of Prussia
In office
2 December 1917 3 October 1918
Monarch Wilhelm II
Preceded by Georg Michaelis
Succeeded by Maximilian von Baden
26th Minister President of the Kingdom of Bavaria
In office
9 February 1912 3 October 1917
Monarch Otto
Ludwig III
Preceded by Clemens von Podewils-Dürniz
Succeeded by Otto Ritter von Dandl
Personal details
Born
Georg Friedrich Freiherr von Hertling

(1843-08-31)31 August 1843
Darmstadt, Grand Duchy of Hesse, German Confederation
Died4 January 1919(1919-01-04) (aged 75)
Ruhpolding, People's State of Bavaria, Weimar Republic
Political party Centre
Spouse(s)Anna Freiin von Biegeleben (1845–1919)
ChildrenMaria Gisberta
Karl
Agnes Maria Franziska
Anna Maria Franziska

Georg Friedrich Karl Freiherr [1] (From 1914, Graf [2] ) von Hertling (31 August 1843 – 4 January 1919) was a German politician who served as the Minister-President of Bavaria 1912–1917 and then as Minister-President of Prussia and Chancellor of the German Empire from 1917 to 1918. He was the first party politician to hold the office.

Kingdom of Bavaria kingdom in Central Europe between 1806–1918, from January 1871 part of the German Empire

The Kingdom of Bavaria was a German state that succeeded the former Electorate of Bavaria in 1805 and continued to exist until 1918. The Bavarian Elector Maximilian IV Joseph of the House of Wittelsbach became the first King of Bavaria in 1805 as Maximilian I Joseph. The crown would go on being held by the Wittelsbachs until the kingdom came to an end in 1918. Most of Bavaria's present-day borders were established after 1814 with the Treaty of Paris, in which Bavaria ceded Tyrol and Vorarlberg to the Austrian Empire while receiving Aschaffenburg and Würzburg. With the unification of Germany into the German Empire in 1871, the kingdom became a federal state of the new Empire and was second in size, power, and wealth only to the leading state, the Kingdom of Prussia. In 1918, Bavaria became a republic, and the kingdom was thus succeeded by the current Free State of Bavaria.

A politician is a person active in party politics, or a person holding or seeking office in government. Politicians propose, support and create laws or policies that govern the land and, by extension, its people. Broadly speaking, a "politician" can be anyone who seeks to achieve political power in any bureaucratic institution.

Contents

Biography

Hertling became professor of philosophy at the University of Munich and published books on Aristotle (1871) and on Albertus Magnus (1880). From 1875 to 1890, and again from 1893 to 1912, he was a member of the Reichstag, and from 1909 to 1912 he led the Centre (Catholic) Party faction in the Reichstag. In 1891, the Regent of Bavaria made him a life member of the upper house of the Bavarian Landtag. [3]

Aristotle philosopher in ancient Greece

Aristotle was a philosopher during the Classical period in Ancient Greece, the founder of the Lyceum and the Peripatetic school of philosophy and Aristotelian tradition. Along with his teacher Plato, he is considered the "Father of Western Philosophy". His writings cover many subjects – including physics, biology, zoology, metaphysics, logic, ethics, aesthetics, poetry, theatre, music, rhetoric, psychology, linguistics, economics, politics and government. Aristotle provided a complex synthesis of the various philosophies existing prior to him, and it was above all from his teachings that the West inherited its intellectual lexicon, as well as problems and methods of inquiry. As a result, his philosophy has exerted a unique influence on almost every form of knowledge in the West and it continues to be a subject of contemporary philosophical discussion.

Albertus Magnus Dominican friar

Albertus Magnus, O.P., also known as Saint Albert the Great and Albert of Cologne, was a German Catholic Dominican friar and bishop. Later canonised as a Catholic saint, he was known during his lifetime as Doctor universalis and Doctor expertus and, late in his life, the sobriquet Magnus was appended to his name. Scholars such as James A. Weisheipl and Joachim R. Söder have referred to him as the greatest German philosopher and theologian of the Middle Ages. The Catholic Church distinguishes him as one of the 36 Doctors of the Church.

Reichstag (German Empire) parliament of Germany from 1871 to 1918

The Reichstag was the Parliament of Germany from 1871 to 1918. Legislation was shared between the Reichstag and the Bundesrat, which was the Imperial Council of the reigning princes of the German States.

As leader of the largest party in the Bavarian Landtag, in 1912 Hertling was appointed Bavarian Minister-President and Minister for Foreign Affairs by Luitpold, Prince Regent of Bavaria. He was the first minister-president ever appointed who governed on the basis of a majority in the Landtag. King Ludwig III later elevated him to the rank of Count. [3] Following the outbreak of World War I, Hertling supported the policy of Chancellor Theobald von Bethmann Hollweg but declined to become his successor in 1917. After the fall of Georg Michaelis in November of that year, however, he accepted appointment as German Chancellor and Minister-President of Prussia. He was the first politician to hold either post; his predecessors had either been career civil servants or military men.

Luitpold, Prince Regent of Bavaria Ruler of Bavaria

Luitpold, Prince Regent of Bavaria, was the de facto ruler of Bavaria from 1886 to 1912, due to the incapacity of his nephews, King Ludwig II for three days and King Otto for 26 years.

Ludwig III of Bavaria King of Bavaria

Ludwig III was the last King of Bavaria, reigning from 1913 to 1918.

World War I 1914–1918 global war originating in Europe

World War I, also known as the First World War or the Great War, was a global war originating in Europe that lasted from 28 July 1914 to 11 November 1918. Contemporaneously described as "the war to end all wars", it led to the mobilisation of more than 70 million military personnel, including 60 million Europeans, making it one of the largest wars in history. It is also one of the deadliest conflicts in history, with an estimated nine million combatants and seven million civilian deaths as a direct result of the war, while resulting genocides and the 1918 influenza pandemic caused another 50 to 100 million deaths worldwide.

Hertling was a staunch conservative who believed in total victory for Germany. Given his age and his conservatism, he was not equipped to overcome the influence of the military high command, led by Paul von Hindenburg and Erich Ludendorff. Like Michaelis before him, he was increasingly seen as a puppet of Hindenburg and Ludendorff, who constituted a virtual military dictatorship in the last year of the war. Hertling presided over the last stage of the collapse of the German home front. When it became apparent that he was unable to manage the crisis, he was forced to resign in favour of Prince Maximilian of Baden.

Paul von Hindenburg Prussian-German field marshal, statesman, and president of Germany

Paul Ludwig Hans Anton von Beneckendorff und von Hindenburg, known generally as Paul von Hindenburg, was a German Generalfeldmarschall and statesman who commanded the Imperial German Army during the second half of World War I before later being elected President of the Weimar Republic in 1925. He played a key role in the Nazi "Seizure of Power" in January 1933 when, under pressure from advisers, he appointed Adolf Hitler chancellor of a "Government of National Concentration", even though the Nazis were a minority in both the cabinet and the Reichstag.

Erich Ludendorff German Army officer and later Nazi leader in Adolf Hitlers Beer Hall Putsch

Erich Friedrich Wilhelm Ludendorff was a German general, the victor of the Battle of Liège and the Battle of Tannenberg. From August 1916, his appointment as Quartermaster general made him the leader of the German war efforts during World War I. The failure of Germany's great Spring Offensive in 1918 in its quest for total victory was his great strategic failure and he was forced out in October 1918.

Prince Maximilian of Baden German chancellor

Maximilian, Margrave of Baden, also known as Max von Baden, was a German prince and politician. He was heir presumptive to the grand ducal throne of Baden, and in October and November 1918 briefly served as Chancellor of the German Empire. He sued for peace on Germany's behalf at the end of World War I based on U.S. President Woodrow Wilson's Fourteen Points, which included immediately transforming the government into a parliamentary system, by handing over the title of Chancellor to SPD Chairman Friedrich Ebert and unilaterally proclaiming the abdication of Emperor Wilhelm II. Both events took place on 9 November 1918, the beginning of the Weimar Republic.

He founded the important German Catholic fraternity Askania-Burgundia and was a member of K.St.V. Arminia at Bonn. His great-granddaughter is actress Gila von Weitershausen.

Baroness Gila von Weitershausen is a German actress. Born in Trebnitz, Lower Silesia, Germany into an aristocratic family, she has three brothers and two sisters and is the great-granddaughter of Georg Graf von Hertling.

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Georg Michaelis German civil servant and chancellor

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Franz Xaver Joseph Ignaz Freiherrvon Hertling was a Bavarian lieutenant general and War Minister from December 12, 1836 until November 11, 1838.

Hertling is a surname. Notable people with the surname include:

Johann Friedrich Maximilian Joseph Freiherrvon Hertling was a Bavarian Lieutenant General and Acting War Minister from January 28 until June 9, 1839. He was the brother of Franz Xaver von Hertling.

Carl Grafvon Horn was a Bavarian Colonel General and War Minister from April 4, 1905 to February 16, 1912. He was born in Würzburg and died in Munich. Before he became minister, he was Lieutenant General and divisional commander in Regensburg, where the Hornstraße is named in honor of him.

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References

  1. Regarding personal names: Freiherr is a former title (translated as Baron ). In Germany since 1919, it forms part of family names. The feminine forms are Freifrau and Freiin .
  2. Regarding personal names: Until 1919, Graf was a title, translated as Count , not a first or middle name. The female form is Gräfin. In Germany since 1919, it forms part of family names.
  3. 1 2 Wikisource-logo.svg Chisholm, Hugh, ed. (1922). "Hertling, Georg, Count von"  . Encyclopædia Britannica (12th ed.). London & New York.

Commons-logo.svg Media related to Georg von Hertling at Wikimedia Commons

Political offices
Preceded by
Clemens von Podewils-Dürniz
Prime Minister of Bavaria
1912 – 1917
Succeeded by
Otto Ritter von Dandl
Preceded by
Georg Michaelis
Chancellor of Germany
1917 – 1918
Succeeded by
Prince Maximilian of Baden
Prime Minister of Prussia
1917 – 1918