George Anson, 1st Baron Anson

Last updated

The Lord Anson

PC, FRS, RN
1stLordAnson.jpg
Portrait of Lord Anson by Thomas Hudson
First Lord of the Admiralty
In office
1757–1762
Prime Minister The Duke of Newcastle
The Earl of Bute
Preceded by The Earl of Winchilsea and Nottingham
Succeeded by The Earl of Halifax
In office
1751–1756
Prime Minister Henry Pelham
The Duke of Newcastle
Preceded by The Earl of Sandwich
Succeeded by The Earl Temple
Personal details
Born23 April 1697 [1]
Staffordshire, England
Died6 June 1762(1762-06-06) (aged 65)
Moor Park, Hertfordshire, England
Military service
AllegianceUnion flag 1606 (Kings Colors).svg  Kingdom of Great Britain
Branch/serviceNaval Ensign of Great Britain (1707-1800).svg  Royal Navy
Years of service1711–1762
Rank Admiral of the Fleet
Commands HMS Weazel
HMS Scarborough
HMS Garland
HMS Diamond
HMS Squirrel
HMS Centurion
Battles/wars War of the Spanish Succession
War of the Quadruple Alliance
War of Jenkins' Ear
War of the Austrian Succession
Seven Years' War

Admiral of the Fleet George Anson, 1st Baron Anson, PC , FRS (23 April 1697 – 6 June 1762) was a Royal Navy officer. Anson served as a junior officer during the War of the Spanish Succession and then saw active service against Spain at the Battle of Cape Passaro during the War of the Quadruple Alliance. He then undertook a circumnavigation of the globe during the War of Jenkins' Ear. Anson commanded the fleet that defeated the French Admiral de la Jonquière at the First Battle of Cape Finisterre during the War of the Austrian Succession.

Admiral of the Fleet (Royal Navy) highest rank of the British Royal Navy

Admiral of the Fleet is a five-star naval officer rank and the highest rank of the Royal Navy formally established in 1688. The five-star NATO rank code is OF-10, equivalent to a field marshal in the British Army or a marshal of the Royal Air Force. Other than honorary appointments no new admirals of the fleet have been named since 1995.

Privy Council of the United Kingdom Formal body of advisers to the sovereign in the United Kingdom

Her Majesty's Most Honourable Privy Council, usually known simply as the Privy Council of the United Kingdom or just the Privy Council, is a formal body of advisers to the Sovereign of the United Kingdom. Its membership mainly comprises senior politicians who are current or former members of either the House of Commons or the House of Lords.

Fellow of the Royal Society Elected Fellow of the Royal Society, including Honorary, Foreign and Royal Fellows

Fellowship of the Royal Society is an award granted to individuals that the Royal Society of London judges to have made a 'substantial contribution to the improvement of natural knowledge, including mathematics, engineering science and medical science'.

Contents

Anson went on to be First Lord of the Admiralty during the Seven Years' War. Among his reforms were the removal of corrupt defence contractors, improved medical care, submitting a revision of the Articles of War to Parliament to tighten discipline throughout the Navy, uniforms for commissioned officers, the transfer of the Marines from Army to Navy authority, and a system for rating ships according to their number of guns.

First Lord of the Admiralty political head of the Royal Navy

The First Lord of the Admiralty, or formally the Office of the First Lord of the Admiralty, was the political head of the Royal Navy who was the government's senior adviser on all naval affairs and responsible for the direction and control of Admiralty Department as well as general administration of the Naval Service of the United Kingdom, that encompassed the Royal Navy, the Royal Marines and other services. It was one of the earliest known permanent government posts. Apart from being the political head of the Royal Navy the post holder simultaneously held the title of the President of the Board of Commissioners for Exercising the Office of Lord High Admiral. The office of First Lord of the Admiralty existed from 1628 until it was abolished when the Admiralty, Air Ministry, Ministry of Defence and War Office were all merged to form the new Ministry of Defence in 1964.

Seven Years War Global conflict between 1756 and 1763

The Seven Years' War was a global conflict fought between 1756 and 1763. It involved every European great power of the time and spanned five continents, affecting Europe, the Americas, West Africa, India, and the Philippines. The conflict split Europe into two coalitions, led by the Kingdom of Great Britain on one side and the Kingdom of France, the Russian Empire, the Kingdom of Spain, and the Swedish Empire on the other. Meanwhile, in India, some regional polities within the increasingly fragmented Mughal Empire, with the support of the French, tried to crush a British attempt to conquer Bengal. The war's extent has led some historians to describe it as World War Zero, similar in scale to other world wars.

Military uniform

A military uniform is a standardised dress worn by members of the armed forces and paramilitaries of various nations.

Family and early career

Anson was the son of William Anson of Shugborough in Staffordshire and Isabella Carrier, [2] whose brother-in-law was the Earl of Macclesfield and Lord Chancellor, a relationship that proved very useful to the future admiral. [1] He was born on 23 April 1697, [1] [4] at Shugborough Manor. [3] In February 1712, amid the War of the Spanish Succession, Anson entered the navy at the age of 15. [3] He served as a volunteer aboard the fourth-rate HMS Ruby, before transferring to the third-rate HMS Monmouth. [5]

Staffordshire County of England

Staffordshire is a landlocked county in the West Midlands of England. It borders with Cheshire to the northwest, Derbyshire and Leicestershire to the east, Warwickshire to the southeast, West Midlands and Worcestershire to the south, and Shropshire to the west.

Thomas Parker, 1st Earl of Macclesfield English Whig politician

Thomas Parker, 1st Earl of Macclesfield, was an English Whig politician.

Lord Chancellor senior and important functionary in the government of the United Kingdom

The Lord Chancellor, formally the Lord High Chancellor of Great Britain, is the highest ranking among those Great Officers of State which are appointed regularly in the United Kingdom, nominally outranking even the Prime Minister. The Lord Chancellor is outranked only by the Lord High Steward, another Great Officer of State, who is appointed only for the day of coronations. The Lord Chancellor is appointed by the Sovereign on the advice of the Prime Minister. Prior to the Union there were separate Lord Chancellors for England and Wales, for Scotland and for Ireland.

Promoted to lieutenant on 17 March 1716, he was assigned to the fourth-rate HMS Hampshire in service as part of a Baltic Sea fleet commanded by Admiral John Norris. [6] Anson transferred to the aging fourth-rate HMS Montagu in March 1718, and saw active service against Spain at the Battle of Cape Passaro in August 1718 during the War of the Quadruple Alliance. [7] He then transferred to the second-rate HMS Barfleur, flagship of Admiral George Byng, in October 1719. [6]

A lieutenant is the junior most commissioned officer in the armed forces, fire services, police and other organizations of many nations.

HMS Hampshire was a 50-gun fourth rate ship of the line of the Royal Navy, launched on 3 March 1698 at Nelson Dock, Rotherhithe.

Baltic Sea A sea in Northern Europe bounded by the Scandinavian Peninsula, the mainland of Europe, and the Danish islands

The Baltic Sea is a marginal sea of the Atlantic Ocean, enclosed by Denmark, Estonia, Finland, Latvia, Lithuania, Sweden, northeast Germany, Poland, Russia and the North and Central European Plain.

Anson was promoted to commander in June 1722 and given command of the small 8-gun HMS Weazel. Anson's orders were to suppress smuggling between Britain and Holland, a task he swiftly and effectively performed. [7] In recognition of his efforts he was promoted to the rank of post-captain in February 1723 and given command of the 32-gun sixth-rate HMS Scarborough with orders to escort British merchant convoys from the Carolinas. [7] (The Ansonborough district of Charleston, South Carolina, still commemorates his time there.) [3]

Commander is a common naval and air force officer rank. Commander is also used as a rank or title in other formal organisations, including several police forces.

Smuggling illegal movement of goods or people

Smuggling is the illegal transportation of objects, substances, information or people, such as out of a house or buildings, into a prison, or across an international border, in violation of applicable laws or other regulations.

Post-captain is an obsolete alternative form of the rank of captain in the Royal Navy.

He transferred to the command of the sixth-rate HMS Garland, still on the Carolinas station, in July 1728, then to the command of the fifth-rate HMS Diamond in the Channel Fleet in 1730, and to the command of the sixth-rate HMS Squirrel back on the Carolinas station in 1731. [6] He was given command of the 60-gun third-rate HMS Centurion in the West Africa Squadron in 1737 and, having been promoted to commodore with his broad pennant in HMS Centurion, he took command of a squadron sent to attack Spanish possessions in South America at the outset of the War of Jenkins' Ear. [8]

Channel Fleet strait

The Channel Fleet and originally known as the Channel Squadron was the Royal Navy formation of warships that defended the waters of the English Channel from 1854 to 1909 and 1914 to 1915.

Third-rate type of ship of the line

In the rating system of the British Royal Navy, a third rate was a ship of the line which from the 1720s mounted between 64 and 80 guns, typically built with two gun decks. Years of experience proved that the third rate ships embodied the best compromise between sailing ability, firepower, and cost. So, while first rates and second rates were both larger and more powerful, the third-rate ships were in a real sense the optimal configuration.

HMS <i>Centurion</i> (1732)

HMS Centurion was a 60-gun fourth rate ship of the line of the Royal Navy, built at Portsmouth Dockyard and launched on 6 January 1732. At the time of Centurion's construction, the 1719 Establishment dictated the dimensions of almost every ship being built. Owing to concerns over the relative sizes of British ships compared to their continental rivals, Centurion was ordered to be built 1 ft (0.3 m) wider across the beam than the Establishment prescribed. HMS Rippon was similarly built to non-Establishment dimensions at the same time.

Voyage around the world

George Anson's capture of the Manila galleon by Samuel Scott. Samuel Scott 1.jpg
George Anson's capture of the Manila galleon by Samuel Scott.

After setting off later than planned, Anson's squadron encountered successive disasters. [1] Two of his vessels, the fifth-rate HMS Pearl and the fourth-rate HMS Severn, failed to round Cape Horn and returned home. Meanwhile, the sixth-rate HMS Wager was wrecked off the coast of Chile, [1] where the crew subsequently mutinied. The lateness of the season forced him to round the Horn in very stormy weather, and the navigating instruments of the time did not allow for exact observations. [1]

By the time Anson reached the Juan Fernández Islands in June 1741, only three of his six ships remained (HMS Centurion, the fourth-rate HMS Gloucester and the sloop HMS Tryal), while the strength of his crews had fallen from 961 to 335. [1] In the absence of any effective Spanish force on the coast, he was able to harass the enemy and to sack the small port city of Paita in Peru in November 1741. [1] The steady decrease of his crews by scurvy and the worn-out state of his remaining consorts compelled him to collect all the remaining survivors in Centurion. [9] [1] He rested at the island of Tinian, and then made his way to Macao in November 1742. [8]

After considerable difficulties with the Chinese, he sailed again with his one remaining vessel to cruise in search of one of the Manila galleons that conducted the trade between Mexico and the Chinese merchants in the Philippines, [1] where he captured the Nuestra Señora de Covadonga [1] with 1,313,843 pieces of eight [8] on board, which he had encountered off Cape Espiritu Santo on 20 June 1743. The charts captured with the ship added many islands (and phantom islands) to the British knowledge of the Pacific, including the Anson Archipelago. [10] [11]

Anson took his prize back to Macao, sold her cargo to the Chinese, kept the specie, and sailed for England. Passing a French fleet then patrolling the Channel by means of a thick fog, [3] he reached via the Cape of Good Hope on 15 June 1744. [1] The prize money earned from the capture of the galleon made Anson a rich man for life [1] and bought him considerable political influence. [8] He initially refused promotion to rear-admiral of the blue, [3] however, out of anger that the admiralty refused to sanction a captain's commission he had given one of his officers. [1]

Senior command and the Admiralty

Anson's victory at the First Battle of Cape Finisterre in May 1747 during the War of the Austrian Succession Battle of Cape Finisterre, 1747.jpg
Anson's victory at the First Battle of Cape Finisterre in May 1747 during the War of the Austrian Succession
Portrait of George Anson by Joshua Reynolds, 1755 George Anson, 1st Baron Anson by Sir Joshua Reynolds.jpg
Portrait of George Anson by Joshua Reynolds, 1755

Anson was elected Member of Parliament for Hedon in Yorkshire in 1744. He joined the Board of Admiralty led by the Duke of Bedford in December 1744. [12] Promoted to rear-admiral of the white [1] on 23 April 1745 [13] and to vice-admiral of the blue [3] in July 1745, he took command of the Western Squadron, with his flag in the third-rate HMS Yarmouth, in July 1746. [8]

"Sir, you have vanquished the Invincible and Glory follows with you." [14]

Admiral de la Jonquière [3]

Anson commanded the fleet that defeated the Marquis de la Jonquière at the First Battle of Cape Finisterre in May 1747 during the War of the Austrian Succession. His force captured the entire French squadron: four ships of the line, two frigates, and six merchantmen [15] The treasure amounted to £300,000. [16] He was elevated to the peerage as Lord Anson, Baron of Soberton, in the County of Southampton on 11 June 1747. [17] In 1748, the memoir of Anson's circumnavigation—Voyage Round the World in the Years MDCCXL, I, II, III, IV [18] —was published, having been edited from his notes and Richard Walter's journals by Benjamin Robins. [3] It was a vast popular and commercial success. [3] He was promoted to admiral of the blue on 12 May 1748 [3] and became Vice-Admiral of Great Britain on 4 July 1749. [19] He was advanced to Senior Naval Lord on the Admiralty Board in November 1749. [20]

Moor Park, Anson's home in Hertfordshire Moor Park Mansion.jpg
Moor Park, Anson's home in Hertfordshire
Anson's memorial at St Michael and All Angels' Church in Colwich, Staffordshire. Colwich, Staffordshire - St Michael and All Angels Church - Admiral Lord Anson memorial.JPG
Anson's memorial at St Michael and All Angels' Church in Colwich, Staffordshire.

Anson became First Lord of the Admiralty in the Broad Bottom Ministry in June 1751 and continued to serve during the first Newcastle ministry. [12] Among his reforms were the removal of corrupt defence contractors, improved medical care, submitting a revision of the Articles of War to Parliament so tightening discipline throughout the Navy, uniforms for commissioned officers, the transfer of the Marines from Army to Navy authority and a system for rating ships according to their number of guns. [15]

Anson oversaw the Navy for much of the Seven Years' War, and established a permanent squadron at Devonport which could patrol the western approaches to both Britain and France. He was particularly concerned at the prospect of a French invasion of the British Isles [21] which led him to keep a large force in the English Channel. In 1756 he was criticised for not sending enough ships with Admiral Byng to relieve Minorca because he wanted to protect Britain from a threatened invasion, only to see Byng fail to save Minorca while no invasion attempt materialised. He left the Admiralty when the Newcastle ministry fell in November 1756 and then served again as First Lord when the Pitt–Newcastle ministry was created in June 1757. [22]

In July 1758, after Edward Hawke had decided to strike his flag and return to port over a misunderstanding at which he took offence, Anson hoisted his own flag in the first-rate HMS Royal George and took over command of the Western Squadron again. [15] Anson oversaw Britain's naval response to a more serious French invasion attempt in 1759. He instituted a close blockade of the French coast, which proved crippling to the French economy and ensured no invasion fleet could slip out undetected. The British victories at the Battle of Lagos in August 1759 and the Battle of Quiberon Bay in November 1759 destroyed any realistic hope of a major invasion of the British Isles. [23]

As well as securing home defense, Anson co-ordinated with William Pitt a series of British attacks on French colonies around the globe. By 1760 the British had captured Canada, Senegal and Guadeloupe from the French, and followed it up by capturing Belle Île and Dominica in 1761. In 1762 the entry of Spain into the war offered further chances for British expeditions. Anson was the architect of a plan to seize Manila in the Philippines and, using the idea and plans of Admiral Sir Charles Knowles [24] to capture Havana. Anson had been concerned that the combined strength of the French and Spanish navies would overpower Britain, but he still threw himself into the task of directing these expeditions. The British also captured Martinique and Grenada in the French West Indies. [25] Anson was promoted to Admiral of the Fleet on 30 July 1761. [26] His last service was to convey Queen Charlotte to England. [3]

He died at Moor Park in Hertfordshire on 6 June 1762 and was buried at St Michael and All Angels Church in Colwich, Staffordshire. [15] Places named after him include Anson County, North Carolina [27] and Anson, Maine. [28] Eight warships of the Royal Navy have also been named after him. [29]

Family

In April 1748, Anson married Lady Elizabeth Yorke, daughter of Philip Yorke, 1st Earl of Hardwicke; they had no children. [15]

See also

Related Research Articles

Richard Howe, 1st Earl Howe Royal Navy Admiral of the Fleet

Admiral of the Fleet Richard Howe, 1st Earl Howe, was a British naval officer. After serving throughout the War of the Austrian Succession, he gained a reputation for his role in amphibious operations against the French coast as part of Britain's policy of naval descents during the Seven Years' War. He also took part, as a naval captain, in the decisive British naval victory at the Battle of Quiberon Bay in November 1759.

Edward Boscawen Royal Navy admiral

Admiral Edward Boscawen, PC was an Admiral in the Royal Navy and Member of Parliament for the borough of Truro, Cornwall. He is known principally for his various naval commands during the 18th century and the engagements that he won, including the Siege of Louisburg in 1758 and Battle of Lagos in 1759. He is also remembered as the officer who signed the warrant authorising the execution of Admiral John Byng in 1757, for failing to engage the enemy at the Battle of Minorca (1756). In his political role, he served as a Member of Parliament for Truro from 1742 until his death although due to almost constant naval employment he seems not to have been particularly active. He also served as one of the Lords Commissioners of the Admiralty on the Board of Admiralty from 1751 and as a member of the Privy Council from 1758 until his death in 1761.

Edward Hawke, 1st Baron Hawke 18th-century Royal Navy admiral

Admiral of the Fleet Edward Hawke, 1st Baron Hawke, KB, PC was a Royal Navy officer. As captain of the third-rate HMS Berwick he took part in the Battle of Toulon in February 1744 during the War of the Austrian Succession. He also captured six ships of a French squadron in the Bay of Biscay in the Second Battle of Cape Finisterre in October 1747.

George Rooke Royal Navy admiral

Admiral of the Fleet Sir George Rooke was an English naval officer. As a junior officer he saw action at the Battle of Solebay and again at the Battle of Schooneveld during the Third Anglo-Dutch War. As a captain, he conveyed Prince William of Orange to England and took part in the Battle of Bantry Bay during the Williamite War in Ireland.

Charles Saunders (Royal Navy officer) British politician

Admiral Sir Charles Saunders, KB was a Royal Navy officer. He commanded the fourth-rate HMS Gloucester and led her in action at the Second Battle of Cape Finisterre in October 1747 during the War of the Austrian Succession. After serving as Commander-in-Chief, Mediterranean Fleet, he was appointed Commander-in-Chief, English Channel in charge of the Western Squadron between October 1758 and May 1759). He took command of the fleet tasked with carrying James Wolfe to Quebec in January 1759 and consolidated the dead general's victory after the Battle of the Plains of Abraham in September 1759 by devoting great energy to keeping the British Army, now under the command of Colonel George Townshend, well supplied during the Seven Years' War. He later became Senior Naval Lord and then First Lord of the Admiralty.

James Gambier, 1st Baron Gambier Admiral of the Royal Navy and Governor of Newfoundland

Admiral of the Fleet James Gambier, 1st Baron Gambier, was a Royal Navy officer. After seeing action at the capture of Charleston during the American Revolutionary War, he saw action again, as captain of the third-rate HMS Defence, at the battle of the Glorious First of June in 1794, during the French Revolutionary Wars, gaining the distinction of commanding the first ship to break through the enemy line.

Sir George Cockburn, 10th Baronet British admiral and MP

Admiral of the Fleet Sir George Cockburn, 10th Baronet, was a Royal Navy officer. As a captain he was present at the Battle of Cape St Vincent in February 1797 during the French Revolutionary Wars and commanded the naval support at the reduction of Martinique in February 1809 during the Napoleonic Wars. He also directed the capture and Burning of Washington on 24 August 1814 as an advisor to Major General Robert Ross during the War of 1812. He went on to be First Naval Lord and in that capacity sought to improve the standards of gunnery in the fleet, forming a gunnery school at Portsmouth; later he ensured that the Navy had latest steam and screw technology and put emphasis of the ability to manage seamen without the need to resort to physical punishment.

John Norris (Royal Navy officer) British naval officer

Admiral of the Fleet Sir John Norris was a Royal Navy officer. After serving as a junior officer during the Nine Years' War and the Williamite War in Ireland, he was given command of a squadron sent to North America to protect British settlements on the banks of Hudson Bay in 1697. Although he developed a plan to recapture some territories in Newfoundland and Labrador taken by French forces the previous winter, he was prevented from implementing that plan when the local council overruled him.

George Byng, 1st Viscount Torrington 17th and 18th-century Royal Navy admiral

Admiral of the Fleet George Byng, 1st Viscount Torrington, of Southill Park in Bedfordshire, was a Royal Navy officer and statesman. While still a lieutenant, he delivered a letter from various captains to Prince William of Orange, who had just landed at Torbay, assuring the Prince of the captains' support; the Prince gave Byng a response which ultimately led to the Royal Navy switching allegiance to the Prince and the Glorious Revolution of November 1688.

Sir Peter Parker, 1st Baronet Royal Navy admiral

Admiral of the Fleet Sir Peter Parker, 1st Baronet was a Royal Navy officer. As a junior officer, he was deployed with a squadron under Admiral Edward Vernon to the West Indies at the start of the War of Jenkins' Ear. He saw action again at the Battle of Toulon during the War of the Austrian Succession. As captain of the fourth-rate HMS Bristol he took part in the Invasion of Guadeloupe during the Seven Years' War.

Sir Charles Pole, 1st Baronet British naval officer and colonial governor

Admiral of the Fleet Sir Charles Morice Pole, 1st Baronet GCB was a Royal Navy officer and colonial governor. As a junior officer he saw action at the Siege of Pondicherry in India during the American Revolutionary War. After taking command of the fifth-rate HMS Success he captured and then destroyed the Spanish frigate Santa Catalina in the Strait of Gibraltar in the action of 16 March 1782 later in that War.

Sir William Parker, 1st Baronet, of Shenstone Royal Navy admiral

Admiral of the Fleet Sir William Parker, 1st Baronet, GCB, was a Royal Navy officer. As a captain's servant he took part in the Battle of The Glorious First of June in June 1794 during the French Revolutionary Wars and, as a captain, he participated in the capture of the French ships Marengo and Belle Poule at the Action of 13 March 1806 during the Napoleonic Wars. He was detached on an independent command on the Tagus in September 1831 with a mission to protect British interests during the Portuguese Civil War. As Commander-in-chief of the East Indies and China Station, he provided naval support at various actions between 1841 and 1842 during the First Opium War. Appointed Commander-in-Chief, Mediterranean Fleet in February 1845, he was briefly First Naval Lord in the First Russell ministry from 13 July 1846 to 24 July 1846 but gave up the role due to ill health before returning to his command with the Mediterranean Fleet.

George Johnstone Hope Royal Navy admiral

Rear-Admiral Sir George Johnstone Hope, KCB was a British naval officer, who served with distinction in the Royal Navy throughout the French Revolutionary and Napoleonic Wars, including service at the Battle of Trafalgar. A close personal friend of Admiral Nelson, he received many honours following the battle, and later served as a Lord of the Admiralty.

Vice-Admiral Sir Peter Denis, 1st Baronet was an English naval officer and Member of Parliament.

Joshua Rowley English naval officer and fourth son of Admiral Sir William Rowley

Vice-Admiral Sir Joshua Rowley, 1st Baronet (1734–1790) was the fourth son of Admiral Sir William Rowley. Sir Joshua was from an ancient English family, originating in Staffordshire (England) and was born on 1 May 1734 in Dublin Rowley served with distinction in a number of battles throughout his career and was highly praised by his contemporaries. Unfortunately whilst his career was often active he did not have the opportunity to command any significant engagements and always followed rather than led. His achievements have therefore been eclipsed by his contemporaries such as Keppel, Hawke, Howe and Rodney. Rowley however remains one of the stalwart commanders of the wooden walls that kept Britain safe for so long.

Peircy Brett Royal Navy admiral

Admiral Sir Peircy Brett was a Royal Navy officer. As a junior officer he served on George Anson's voyage around the world and commanded the landing party which sacked and burned the town of Paita in November 1741. During the Jacobite rising Brett saw action on the 9 July 1745, when as captain of the fourth-rate HMS Lion he exchanged fire with the French ships Elizabeth and the Du Teillay: the Du Teillay at the time was carrying Charles Edward Stuart to Scotland with supplies and funds to support his cause. Brett also commanded the third-rate HMS Yarmouth at the First Battle of Cape Finisterre in May 1747 during the War of the Austrian Succession. He commanded HMS Cambridge on the North America and West Indies Station during the Seven Years' War and later became Senior Naval Lord. He was also a Member of Parliament, representing the constituency of Queenborough from 1754 until 1774.

Thomas Byam Martin British Royal Navy officer

Admiral of the Fleet Sir Thomas Byam Martin, was a Royal Navy officer. As captain of fifth-rate HMS Fisgard he took part in a duel with the French ship Immortalité and captured her at the Battle of Tory Island during the French Revolutionary Wars. Then while in command of the third-rate HMS Implacable in the Baltic Sea and attached to the Swedish Navy he took part in the capture the Russian ship Sewolod (Vsevolod) during the Napoleonic Wars.

William Rowley (Royal Navy officer) British Royal Navy officer

Admiral of the Fleet Sir William Rowley KB was a Royal Navy officer. He distinguished himself by his determination as commander of the vanguard at the Battle of Toulon in February 1744 during the War of the Austrian Succession. He went on to be Commander-in-Chief of the Mediterranean Fleet in August 1744 and successfully kept the Spanish and French fleets out of the Mediterranean area but was relieved of his command following criticism of his decision as presiding officer at a court-martial.

Lucius Curtis British Royal Navy admiral

Admiral of the Fleet Sir Lucius Curtis, 2nd Baronet, KCB, DL was a senior officer of the Royal Navy during the nineteenth century. The son of Sir Roger Curtis, 1st Baronet, Lord Howe's flag captain at the Glorious First of June, Lucius served during the Napoleonic Wars and was heavily involved in the Mauritius campaign of 1810. During this campaign, Curtis commanded the frigate HMS Magicienne with the blockade squadron under Josias Rowley and was still in command when the ship was destroyed at the Battle of Grand Port. Magicienne grounded on a coral reef early in the engagement and despite the best efforts of Curtis and his crew, the ship had to be abandoned, Curtis setting her on fire to prevent her subsequent capture.

References

  1. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 EB (1911).
  2. Cokayne, p. 173
  3. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 EB (1878).
  4. The 9th edition of the Encyclopædia Britannica gives the 22nd. [3]
  5. Anson 1912, p. 1
  6. 1 2 3 Heathcote, p. 11
  7. 1 2 3 Anson 1912, pp. 2-3
  8. 1 2 3 4 5 Heathcote, p. 12
  9. Price, Catherine (2017). "The Age of Scurvy". Distillations. 3 (2): 12–23. Retrieved April 17, 2018.
  10. Stommel, Henry (1984). Lost Islands: The Story of Islands That Have Vanished from Nautical Charts. Vancouver: University of British Columbia Press. pp. xvii, 105ff. ISBN   0-7748-0210-3.
  11. James Hingston Tuckey: Maritime Geography and Statistics. Black, Parry & Company, 1815
  12. 1 2 "Sainty, JC, Lord High Admiral and Commissioners of the Admiralty 1660-1870', Office-Holders in Modern Britain: Volume 4: Admiralty Officials 1660-1870 (1975), pp. 18-31" . Retrieved 2 May 2015.
  13. "No. 8426". The London Gazette . 23 April 1745. p. 2.
  14. French: Monsieur, vous avez vaincu l'Invincible, et la Gloire vous suit.
  15. 1 2 3 4 5 Heathcote, p. 13
  16. Household, H.W., ed. (1901), "Introduction", Anson's Voyage Round the World, the Text Reduced, London: Rivington's
  17. "No. 8648". The London Gazette . 9 June 1747. p. 2.
  18. Walter, Richard; Robins, Benjamin, eds. (1748), Voyage Round the World in the Years MDCCXL, I, II, III, IV by George Anson, Esq; Commander in Chief of a Squadron of His Majesty's Ships, sent upon an Expedition to the South-Seas, London: John and Paul Knapton for the author.
  19. "No. 8863". The London Gazette . 1 July 1749. p. 4.
  20. Rodger, p. 51-52
  21. Lambert p. 149
  22. Lambert pp. 143-45
  23. Anderson pp. 381-83
  24. Battle for Empire The very first world war 1756-63 by Tom Pocock. Michael O’Mara Books Ltd. 1998. pp.185, 199, 207.
  25. Corbett p. 209-27
  26. "No. 10126". The London Gazette . 28 July 1761. p. 2.
  27. Anson 1912, p. 3
  28. "Anson". Skowhegan Chamber of Commerce. Retrieved 2 May 2015.
  29. "HMS Anson". Royal Navy. Retrieved 20 July 2015.

Sources

Attribution

Further reading

Parliament of Great Britain
Preceded by
Earl of Mountrath
George Berkeley
Member of Parliament for Hedon
1744–1747
With: George Berkeley 1742–1746
Samuel Gumley 1746 – Feb 1747
Luke Robinson from Feb 1747
Succeeded by
Sir John Savile
Luke Robinson
Political offices
Preceded by
The Earl of Sandwich
First Lord of the Admiralty
1751–1756
Succeeded by
The Earl Temple
Preceded by
The Earl of Winchilsea and Nottingham
First Lord of the Admiralty
1757–1762
Succeeded by
The Earl of Halifax
Military offices
Preceded by
Lord Vere Beauclerk
Senior Naval Lord
1749–1751
Succeeded by
Sir William Rowley
Preceded by
Sir George Clinton
Admiral of the Fleet
1761–1762
Succeeded by
Sir William Rowley
Honorary titles
Preceded by
Sir John Norris
Vice-Admiral of Great Britain
1749–1762
Succeeded by
Henry Osborn
Peerage of Great Britain
New creation Baron Anson
1747–1762
Extinct