George Blake

Last updated

George Blake
George Blake spy.jpg
Birth nameGeorge Behar
Born(1922-11-11)11 November 1922
Rotterdam, Netherlands
Died26 December 2020(2020-12-26) (aged 98)
Moscow, Russia
AllegianceFlag of the United Kingdom.svg  United Kingdom
Flag of the Soviet Union (1936-1955).svg  Soviet Union
Flag of Russia (1991-1993).svg  Russia
Service/branch Naval Ensign of the United Kingdom.svg Naval Intelligence Division
MI6
MGB
Emblema KGB.svg KGB
Flag of Foreign Intelligence Service.svg SVR
Rank Polkovnik
Alma mater Downing College, Cambridge

George Blake ( Behar; 11 November 1922 – 26 December 2020) was a spy with Britain's Secret Intelligence Service (MI6) and worked as a double agent for the Soviet Union. He became a communist and decided to work for the MGB while a prisoner during the Korean War. Discovered in 1961 and sentenced to 42 years in prison, he escaped from Wormwood Scrubs prison in west London in 1966 and fled to the Soviet Union. He was not one of the Cambridge Five spies, although he associated with Donald Maclean and Kim Philby after reaching the Soviet Union. [1]

Contents

Early life

Blake with his mother upon his return to the UK in 1953 George Blake with mother.jpg
Blake with his mother upon his return to the UK in 1953

George Blake was born George Behar in Rotterdam, the Netherlands in 1922. [2] He was the son of a Protestant Dutch mother, Catherine (nee Beijderwellen), [3] and an Egyptian father of Sephardi Jewish origin who was a naturalised British subject. [4] [5] He was named George after George V of the United Kingdom. [6] His father, Albert Behar, served in the British Army during the First World War. While Albert received the Meritorious Service Medal, he embellished his war service when recounting it to his wife and children, and concealed his Jewish background until his death. [7] The Behars lived a comfortable existence in the Netherlands until Albert's death in 1936. The thirteen-year-old Behar was sent to live with a wealthy aunt in Egypt, [8] where he continued his education at the English School in Cairo. He later attended Downing College, Cambridge, to study Russian. [9]

While in Cairo, he was close to his cousin Henri Curiel, who was later to become a leader of the Communist Democratic Movement for National Liberation in Egypt. In 1991, Blake said that his encounter with Curiel, who was a decade older and already a Marxist, shaped his views in later life. [10]

When the Second World War broke out, Behar was back in the Netherlands. In 1940, Germany invaded and quickly defeated the Dutch military. Behar was interned but released because he was only 17, and joined the Dutch resistance as a courier. [11] In 1942, he escaped from the Netherlands and travelled to Britain via Spain and Gibraltar, reaching London in January 1943. [11] There, he was reunited with his mother and his sisters, who had fled at the start of the war. In 1943, his mother decided to change the family name from Behar to Blake. [12]

Espionage activities

After he reached Britain, Blake joined the Royal Navy as a sub-lieutenant before being recruited by the Secret Intelligence Service (MI6) in 1944. For the rest of the war, Blake was employed in the Dutch Section. [13] He intended to marry an MI6 secretary, Iris Peake, but her family prevented the marriage because of Blake's Jewish background and the relationship ended. [14] In 1946, he was posted to Hamburg and put in charge of the interrogation of German U-boat captains. In 1947, the Navy sent Blake to study languages, including Russian, at Downing College, Cambridge, where his fellow students included the future foreign policy analyst Michael MccGwire. [15] [16] He was posted thereafter to the British legation in Seoul, South Korea, under Vyvyan Holt, arriving on 6 November 1948. Under cover as a vice-consul, Blake's mission was to gather intelligence on Communist North Korea, Communist China, and the Soviet Far East. [17]

The Korean War broke out on 25 June 1950, and Seoul was quickly captured by the advancing Korean People's Army of the North. After British forces joined the United Nations Command defending the South, Blake and the other British diplomats were taken prisoner. As the tide of the war turned, Blake and the others were taken north, first to Pyongyang and then to the Yalu River. After seeing the bombing of North Korea, and after reading the works of Karl Marx and others during his three-year detention, he became a communist. [18]

At a secret meeting arranged with his guards, he volunteered to work for the Soviet Union's spy service, the MGB. [19] In an interview, Blake was once asked: "Is there one incident that triggered your decision to effectively change sides?" Blake responded:

It was the relentless bombing of small Korean villages by enormous American Flying Fortresses. (He was probably referencing B-29/B-50 Superfortresses as B-17's played no role there.} Women and children and old people, because the young men were in the army. We might have been victims ourselves. It made me feel ashamed of belonging to these overpowering, technically superior countries fighting against what seemed to me defenceless people. I felt I was on the wrong side ... that it would be better for humanity if the Communist system prevailed, that it would put an end to war. [10]

However, in his first ever interview in 1990 with Tom Bower for 'The Confession', a BBC TV documentary, Blake said that he had been tempted towards communism during his Russian course in Cambridge while serving with MI6, and had been finally convinced while reading Karl Marx's Das Kapital during his imprisonment in North Korea. [20]

Blake after returning from Korea in 1953 George Blake 1953.jpg
Blake after returning from Korea in 1953

Following his release in 1953, Blake returned to Britain as a hero, landing at RAF Abingdon. [21] In October 1954, he married MI6 secretary Gillian Allan in St Mark's Church (North Audley Street) in London. [22] In 1955, he was sent by MI6 to work as a case officer in Berlin, where his task was to recruit Soviet officers as double agents. But he also informed his KGB contacts of the details of British and American operations, including Operation Gold, in which a tunnel into East Berlin was used to tap telephone lines used by the Soviet military. In order to protect Blake from exposure, the Soviet decided not to "discover" the tunnel until it had been in operation for nearly a year. [23] [8] According to the author of a 2019 book about the operation, the Soviets "value[d] Blake so much, they fear[ed] his exposure more than they fear[ed] a breach of their secrets". [24]

In the course of nine years, Blake is said to have betrayed details of some forty MI6 agents to the KGB, destroying most of MI6's operations in Eastern Europe, although this remains unsubstantiated. [25] Blake later said of this: "I don't know what I handed over because it was so much." [26] In the same TV interview, Blake claimed to have betrayed 500 British agents. [27] In 1959 Blake became aware of a Central Intelligence Agency mole inside GRU, and was possibly instrumental in exposing P. S. Popov, who was executed in 1960. [28]

Although Blake's espionage during the Cold War is famous and has regularly been pored over, it has been in a less detailed way than the Cambridge Five spy ring, because "Blake was never part of this [elite] class-ridden inner circle", according to an article by The Guardian after Blake's death. "Born in Rotterdam to a Dutch mother and an Egyptian Jewish father [he] was never considered one of them." [29]

Discovery and conviction

In 1961, Blake fell under suspicion after revelations by Polish defector Michael Goleniewski and others. He was arrested when he arrived in London after being summoned from Lebanon, where he had been enrolled at the Middle East Centre for Arabic Studies (MECAS). [14] Three days into his interrogation, [8] Blake denied he was tortured or blackmailed by the North Koreans. Without thinking about what he was saying, he stated that he had switched sides voluntarily. He then gave his MI6 interrogators a full confession. [30]

The maximum sentence for any one offence under section 1 of the Official Secrets Act 1911 is 14 years, but his activities were divided into five time periods charged as five offences and, in May 1961 after an in camera trial at the Old Bailey, he was sentenced to the maximum term of 14 years consecutively on each of three counts of spying for a potential enemy and 14 years concurrently on both the two remaining counts—a total of 42 years imprisonment—by the Lord Chief Justice, Lord Parker of Waddington. This sentence was reported by newspapers to represent one year for each of the agents who were killed when he betrayed them, although this is dubious. [25] It was the longest non-life sentence ever handed down by a British court. [11]

Escape from prison

HM Prison Wormwood Scrubs in west London, from which Blake escaped in 1966 Main gate to the HM Prison Wormwood Scrubs in spring 2013 (1).JPG
HM Prison Wormwood Scrubs in west London, from which Blake escaped in 1966

Five years into his imprisonment in Wormwood Scrubs, Blake escaped with the help of three men he had met in jail, namely Sean Bourke and two anti-nuclear campaigners, Michael Randle and Pat Pottle. The escape was masterminded by Bourke, who first approached Randle only for financial help with the escape. Randle became more involved and suggested they bring Pottle in on the plan as well, as he had suggested springing Blake to Randle in 1962 when they were both still in prison. Their motives for helping Blake to escape were their belief that the 42-year sentence was "inhuman" and because of a personal liking of Blake. [31] Several sources also state that the plan was financed by film director Tony Richardson. [32] [33] [34]

Bourke had smuggled a walkie-talkie to Blake to communicate with him while in jail. On 22 October 1966, Blake broke a window at the end of the corridor where his cell was located. Then between 6 and 7 p.m., while most of the other inmates and guards were at the weekly film showing, Blake climbed through the window, slid down a porch and made his way to the perimeter wall. There, Bourke, who had been released from the jail earlier, threw a rope ladder over the wall. Blake then used it to climb over the wall and they drove off to a safe house. During the escape, Blake fractured his wrist jumping from the perimeter wall, but apart from that it all went according to plan. [11]

After the escape, it became apparent that the safe house was not suitable, as it was a bedsit that was cleaned by the landlady once a week. Blake then spent several days moving between Randle and Pottle's friends' houses, including that of Rev. John Papworth in Earls Court. [35] Subsequently, Blake and Bourke moved in with Pottle, staying with him while preparing to get out of the country. They smuggled Blake across the English Channel in a camper van, [36] then drove across northern Europe and through West Germany to the Helmstedt–Marienborn border crossing. [8] Having safely crossed the border without incident, Blake met his handlers in East Germany and completed his escape to the Soviet Union. [14]

Pottle and Randel were not prosecuted until 1991. Their defence was a claim of moral justification for aiding Blake, whose 42 year sentence they considered to be excessively long and "inhuman". [37] Neither was convicted after a trial by jury. [38] Bourke was not prosecuted for his role since the Republic of Ireland refused to extradite him to the United Kingdom to face charges that were political in nature. [39]

Moscow

In November 1966, his wife Gillian, with whom he had three children, began divorce proceedings against him, and in March 1967 Mr Justice Orr granted a decree nisi in Blake's absence, on the grounds that the conviction of a spouse for treason can amount to cruelty or constructive desertion. Custody of their three sons, Anthony, James, and Patrick, was awarded to Gillian. This caused Blake a good deal of grief, though he knew that Gillian would have struggled to settle into life in the Soviet Union. [40]

In 1990, Blake published the autobiography No Other Choice. [41] The book's British publisher had paid him about £60,000 before the government intervened to stop him profiting from sales. (Eventually, the amount seized by the government totalled £90,000.) [42] He later filed a complaint charging the British government with a human rights violation for taking nine years to decide on his case, and was awarded £5,000 in compensation by the European Court of Human Rights. [43] In 1991, Blake testified by video recording when Randle and Pottle were put on trial for aiding his escape. They were acquitted. [44] In an interview with NBC News in 1991, Blake said he regretted the deaths of the agents he had betrayed. [45]

In a 1992 interview for the programme As It Happens , aired by Canada's CBC Radio, Blake praised the general concept of Communism. He said that he had offered his services to the Soviet Union because he viewed Communism as "a great experiment of mankind, to create a more just society, to create, in fact, the kingdom of God in this world". During this discussion, he denied responsibility for the deaths of any British agents, having been assured by the Soviets that none were executed based on the intelligence that he had provided, and stating that he believes they didn't lie. [46] However, according to NPR, "Blake gave up the identities of hundreds of British spies, some of whom were executed." [47]

Blake later married again in the Soviet Union in 1968 to Ida Mikhailovna Kareyeva with whom he had one child. He also reconciled with his other children. [8] In late 2007, Blake was awarded the Order of Friendship on his 85th birthday by Vladimir Putin. [48] Blake's later book, Transparent Walls (2006), was reported by the daily Vzglyad ("The View"). Sergei Lebedev, the then director of the Foreign Intelligence Service (SVR) of the Russian Federation, wrote in the book's foreword that despite the book's being devoted to the past, it is about the present as well. He also wrote that Blake, the 85-year-old colonel of foreign intelligence, "still takes an active role in the affairs of the secret service". [49]

In 2012, he celebrated his 90th birthday, still living in Moscow on a KGB pension. His eyesight was failing and he described himself as "virtually blind". He remained a committed Marxist–Leninist. [50] Blake denied being a traitor, insisting that he had never felt British: "To betray, you first have to belong. I never belonged." [51]

Five years later, Blake remained committed to Russia and to communism. [52] In a November 2017 statement, he claimed that its spies now have "the difficult and critical mission" of saving the world "in a situation when the danger of nuclear war and the resulting self-destruction of humankind again have been put on the agenda by irresponsible politicians. It's a true battle between good and evil." [53] [54]

Death

Blake died on 26 December 2020, aged 98, in Moscow. [55] [56] The RIA Novosti news agency first reported Blake's death, citing Russia's SVR foreign intelligence agency. "We received some bitter news—the legendary George Blake passed away," it said. [57] Russian President Vladimir Putin, himself an ex-KGB agent, expressed his "deep condolences" to Blake's family and friends. In a message published on the Kremlin website, the Russian leader noted Blake's "invaluable contribution to ensuring strategic parity and maintaining peace on the planet." [58] Putin also said of Blake, "Colonel Blake was a brilliant professional of special vitality and courage." [59]

Blake was buried with military honours at Moscow's Troyekurovskoye Cemetery. [60]

In culture

The play Cell Mates (1995) by Simon Gray is about Blake and Sean Bourke. The original production starred Stephen Fry as Blake and Rik Mayall as Bourke. The production was thrown into turmoil when Fry walked out following a bad review. [56] [61] Alfred Hitchcock planned to make a film, The Short Night , based on Blake, but died before doing so. [62] In 2015, BBC Storyville made a documentary about Blake at the age of 92, which included interviews with Blake. The film was titled Storyville: Masterspy of Moscow – George Blake. [8] In 2021 the BBC radio play Breaking Blake by Barnaby Kay was broadcast. It covers his escape from prison and his flight to a Czechoslovakian border post with East Germany in a camper van's hidden compartment. [63]

George Blake appears as a character in Ian McEwan’s novel The Innocent.

See also

Related Research Articles

Kim Philby British intelligence officer and KGB double agent for the Soviet Union

Harold Adrian Russell "Kim" Philby was a British intelligence officer and a double agent for the Soviet Union. In 1963 he was revealed to be a member of the Cambridge Five, a spy ring which passed information to the Soviet Union during World War II and in the early stages of the Cold War. Of the five, Philby is believed to have been most successful in providing secret information to the Soviets.

Aldrich Ames Central Intelligence Agency counter-intelligence officer and analyst

Aldrich Hazen "Rick" Ames is a former Central Intelligence Agency (CIA) officer turned KGB double agent, who was convicted of espionage in 1994. He is serving a life sentence, without the possibility of parole, in the Federal Correctional Institution in Terre Haute, Indiana, United States. Ames was formerly a 31-year CIA counterintelligence officer who committed espionage against the U.S. by spying for the Soviet Union and Russia. At the time of his arrest, Ames had compromised more highly classified CIA assets than any other officer in history until Robert Hanssen's arrest seven years later in 2001.

Cambridge Five British ring of spies for the Soviet Union

The Cambridge Spy Ring was a ring of spies in the United Kingdom that passed information to the Soviet Union during World War II and was active from the 1930s until at least into the early 1950s. None of the known members were ever prosecuted for spying. The number and membership of the ring emerged slowly, from the 1950s onwards. The general public first became aware of the conspiracy after the sudden flight of Donald Maclean and Guy Burgess to the Soviet Union in 1951. Suspicion immediately fell on Harold "Kim" Philby, who eventually fled the country in 1963. Following Philby's flight, British intelligence obtained confessions from Anthony Blunt and then John Cairncross, who have come to be seen as the last two of a group of five. Their involvement was kept secret for many years: until 1979 for Blunt, and 1990 for Cairncross. The moniker Cambridge Four evolved to become the Cambridge Five after Cairncross was added.

John Cairncross British intelligence officer and spy for the Soviet Union

John Cairncross was a British civil servant who became an intelligence officer and spy during the Second World War. As a Soviet double agent, he passed to the Soviet Union the raw Tunny decryptions that influenced the Battle of Kursk. He was alleged to be the fifth member of the Cambridge Five. He was also notable as a translator, literary scholar and writer of non-fiction.

Oleg Gordievsky Former colonel of the KGB

Oleg Antonovich Gordievsky, CMG is a former colonel of the KGB who became KGB resident-designate (rezident) and bureau chief in London, and was a double agent, providing information to the British Secret Intelligence Service (MI6) from 1974 to 1985. After being recalled to Moscow under suspicion, he was exfiltrated from the USSR in July 1985 under a plan code-named Operation Pimlico. The USSR subsequently sentenced him to death in absentia.

Anthony Blunt British art historian and Soviet spy

Anthony Frederick Blunt, styled Sir Anthony Blunt KCVO from 1956 to November 1979, was a leading British art historian who in 1964, after being offered immunity from prosecution, confessed to having been a spy for the Soviet Union.

<i>Tinker Tailor Soldier Spy</i> Spy novel by John le Carré

Tinker Tailor Soldier Spy is a 1974 spy novel by British author John le Carré. It follows the endeavours of taciturn, aging spymaster George Smiley to uncover a Soviet mole in the British Secret Intelligence Service. The novel has received critical acclaim for its complex social commentary—and, at the time, relevance, following the defection of Kim Philby. The novel has been adapted into both a television series and a film, and remains a staple of the spy fiction genre.

Oleg Penkovsky British spy in the USSR (1919–1963)

Oleg Vladimirovich Penkovsky, codenamed HERO, was a Soviet military intelligence (GRU) colonel during the late 1950s and early 1960s. Penkovsky informed the United Kingdom about the Soviet emplacement of missiles in Cuba, which provided both the UK and the US with the precise knowledge necessary to address rapidly developing military tensions with the Soviet Union.

Oleg Danilovich Kalugin is a former KGB general. He was during a time head of KGB political operations in the United States and later a critic of the agency. After being convicted of spying for the West in absentia during a trial in Moscow, he remained in the US and was sworn in as a citizen on 4 August 2003.

Janet Chisholm, born Janet Anne Deane, was a British MI6 agent during the Cold War.

Sir Roger Henry Hollis was a British journalist and intelligence officer who served with MI5 from 1938 to 1965. He was Director General of MI5 from 1956 to 1965.

John Papworth was an English clergyman, writer and activist against big public and private organizations and for small communities and enterprises.

Benedict Richard Pierce Macintyre is a British author, historian, reviewer and columnist for The Times newspaper. His columns range from current affairs to historical controversies.

The Middle East Centre for Arab Studies (MECAS) was an Arabic language college created by the British Army during World War II in Jerusalem, and relocated afterwards as a civilian institution to Lebanon near Beirut where it functioned between 1947–1978.

Pyotr Semyonovich Popov - was a major in the Soviet military intelligence apparatus (GRU). He was the first GRU officer to offer his services to the Central Intelligence Agency after World War II. Between 1953 and 1958, he provided the United States government with large amounts of information concerning military capabilities and espionage operations. He was codenamed ATTIC, for most of his time with the CIA, and his case officer was George Kisevalter.

Patrick Pottle, a long-time anti-war campaigner, was a founding member of the Committee of 100, an anti-nuclear direct action group which broke away from the Campaign for Nuclear Disarmament (CND). He was born in Maida Vale, north London. His mother was from an Irish Catholic family: his father was a Protestant trades union official.

Sean Aloyisious Bourke (1934–1982) from Limerick, became internationally famous when he aided in the prison escape of the British spy George Blake in October 1966. Blake had been convicted in 1961 of spying for the Soviet Union. After the escape, Blake eventually made his way to Moscow; Bourke did too, but eventually returned to Ireland.

Michael Randle English peace campaigner

Michael Randle is an English peace campaigner and researcher known for his involvement in nonviolent direct action in Britain and also for his role in helping the Soviet spy George Blake escape from a British prison.

The Secret Intelligence Service (SIS), commonly known as MI6, is the foreign intelligence service of the United Kingdom, tasked mainly with the covert overseas collection and analysis of human intelligence in support of the UK's national security. SIS is one of the British intelligence agencies and the Chief of the Secret Intelligence Service ("C") is directly accountable to the Foreign Secretary.

References

  1. Hermiston 2013, pp. 324–328.
  2. "The Spy, The Enigma | History Today". www.historytoday.com. Retrieved 6 May 2021.
  3. "George Blake obituary". The Guardian. 26 December 2020. Retrieved 28 December 2020.
  4. RED FILES: Secret Victories of the KGB – George Blake Interview Archived 26 December 2020 at the Wayback Machine . Pbs.org. Retrieved on 15 July 2018.
  5. Blake 1990, p. 26.
  6. Hermiston 2013, pp. 18–44, 47.
  7. Hermiston 2013, pp. 2–5.
  8. 1 2 3 4 5 6 Storyville – Masterspy of Moscow – George Blake, archived from the original on 26 December 2020, retrieved 8 November 2017
  9. Boyle, Andrew (27 July 1989). "His Little Game". London Review of Books. p. 8. ISSN   0260-9592. Archived from the original on 26 December 2020. Retrieved 12 November 2019.
  10. 1 2 Irvine, Ian (1 October 2006). "George Blake: I spy a British traitor". The Independent . London. Archived from the original on 26 December 2020. Retrieved 19 March 2012.
  11. 1 2 3 4 "George Blake obituary". BBC. 26 December 2020. Archived from the original on 26 December 2020. Retrieved 26 December 2020.
  12. "George Blake obituary". The Telegraph. 26 December 2020. Retrieved 26 December 2020.
  13. Hermiston 2013, pp. 46–57.
  14. 1 2 3 "George Blake obituary". Guardian. 26 December 2020. Archived from the original on 26 December 2020. Retrieved 26 December 2020.
  15. Phillip Knightley, "Double agent sentenced to 42 years for doing untold damage in the Cold War" Archived 26 December 2020 at the Wayback Machine , The Daily Telegraph (27 September 2006). Retrieved 3 October 2018.
  16. Downing College Alumni Association Newsletter 2015–16 – Obituaries (PDF) (Report). Downing College Alumni Association. 2016. p. 90. Archived (PDF) from the original on 26 December 2020. Retrieved 3 October 2018.
  17. Hermiston 2013, pp. 80, 84–85.
  18. McFadden, Robert D (26 December 2020). "George Blake, British Spy Who Betrayed the West, Dies at 98". New York Times. Archived from the original on 26 December 2020. Retrieved 26 December 2020.
  19. Hermiston 2013, pp. 126, 129–134.
  20. "The Confession", BBC TV 3 October 1990
  21. Turner, John Frayn (2012). Traitor: British Double Agents 1930–80. Osprey Publishing. p. 109. ISBN   978-1780967295.
  22. Blake 1990, p. 165.
  23. "Betrayal in Berlin: The True Story of the Cold War's Most Audacious Espionage Operation". Washington Independent Review. 18 November 2019. Retrieved 31 December 2020.
  24. "Cold War Double Spy George Blake Dies At 98". NPR. 28 December 2020. Retrieved 31 December 2020.
  25. 1 2 Hermiston, pp. 252–253.
  26. "George Blake – The Confession". BBC Radio 4. 3 August 2009.
  27. "The Confession" BBC TV 3 October 1990
  28. William Hood. Mole (New York: Ballantine, 1983), pp. 246–247.
  29. "George Blake exemplified the desolation, waste and treachery of the cold war". The Guardian. 27 December 2020. Retrieved 1 January 2021. never belonged to Kim Philby’s elite traitors’ club
  30. Hermiston 2013, pp. 228–229.
  31. Obituary John Quine Archived 26 December 2020 at the Wayback Machine . Daily Telegraph (12 June 2013).
  32. "George Blake obituary". The Guardian. 26 December 2020. Retrieved 28 December 2020.
  33. "Cold War 'superspy' George Blake, who escaped from a UK jail and became a Russian hero, dies at 98". Indepenent.ie. 26 December 2020. Retrieved 28 December 2020. On the night of October 25, 1966, the trio (financed by Oscar-winning movie director Tony Richardson)
  34. "Spy helped to trap notorious Soviet agent". Indepenent.ie. 13 June 2013. Retrieved 28 December 2020. lake was sprung from the Scrubs by a group of fellow prisoners, all Left-wing activists and anti-nuclear protesters financed by the film director Tony Richardson)
  35. "Priest admits hosting George Blake after 1966 prison escape". Irish Times. 17 March 1997. Retrieved 29 December 2020.
  36. Rusbridger, James (1991). The Intelligence game: The Illusions and Delusions of International Espionage. London: I.B. Tauris. p.  52. ISBN   1-85043-338-0. OCLC   59990814.
  37. "Pat Pottle Anti-war campaigner who helped spring Soviet spy George Blake from jail". The Guardian. 3 October 2000. Retrieved 28 December 2020. insisted that their action was morally justified, and, ignoring a clear direction from the judge to convict, the jury unanimously acquitted them.)
  38. "Activists who helped free British double agent found innocent". UPI. 3 July 1991. Retrieved 29 December 2020. )
  39. Root, Neil (11 October 2011). Twentieth-Century Spies. ISBN   9780857653314.
  40. Hermiston 2013, p. 237.
  41. Blake 1990.
  42. "George Blake obituary". The Times. 26 December 2020. Retrieved 29 December 2020.
  43. "1966: Double-agent breaks out of jail". BBC News . 22 October 1966. Archived from the original on 7 March 2008. Retrieved 19 March 2012.
  44. Hermiston 2013, pp. 332–333, 339.
  45. "George Blake, British Spy Who Betrayed the West, Dies at 98". New York Times. 26 December 2020. Archived from the original on 26 December 2020. Retrieved 26 December 2020.
  46. "George Blake, notorious British double-agent for the Soviets, dies at 98". CBC Radio. 29 December 2020. Retrieved 30 December 2020. The spy spoke with former As It Happens host Michael Enright in 1992 about betrayal
  47. "British Double Agent George Blake Honored At His Moscow Funeral As A Russian Hero". NPR.org. 2020. Retrieved 31 December 2020.
  48. Halpin, Tony (14 November 2007). "Vladimir Putin honours traitor George Blake with tit-for-tat birthday medal". The Times. Archived from the original on 17 May 2008.
  49. "Top secret: A century of British espionage". The Independent . 23 October 2011. Retrieved 26 December 2020.
  50. "Double agent George Blake celebrates 90th birthday". BBC News. 12 November 2012. Archived from the original on 26 December 2020. Retrieved 12 November 2012.
  51. "George Blake obituary". The Guardian. 26 December 2020. Retrieved 28 December 2020.
  52. 'Russian spies must save the world', urges former British double agent and defector George Blake Archived 26 December 2020 at the Wayback Machine . The Daily Telegraph (10 November 2017). Retrieved on 15 July 2018.
  53. Isachenkov, Vladimir (10 November 2017) Ex-British double agent says Russian spies must save world [ permanent dead link ]. Associated Press
  54. "George Blake: Russian spies must save world from nuclear hell". www.theguardian.com.
  55. Heritage, Timothy; Ivanova, Polina (26 December 2020). "George Blake was last in line of Cold War spies who betrayed Britain". Reuters . Archived from the original on 26 December 2020. Retrieved 26 December 2020.
  56. 1 2 "George Blake: Soviet Cold War spy and former MI6 officer dies in Russia". BBC News. 26 December 2020. Archived from the original on 26 December 2020. Retrieved 26 December 2020.
  57. Former British agent and Soviet spy George Blake dies in Russia Archived 26 December 2020 at the Wayback Machine , East London & West Essex Guardian Series, 26 December 2020.
  58. Condolences on the passing of George Blake Archived 26 December 2020 at the Wayback Machine , President of Russia, 26 December 2020.
  59. Rahim, Zamira; Ilyushina, Mary; Iddiols, Robert. "Infamous British-Soviet double agent George Blake dies in Moscow". CNN . Retrieved 26 December 2020.
  60. "George Blake, British spy and Soviet double agent, buried in Russia with honours". National Post. 30 December 2020. Retrieved 1 January 2021. Britain says Blake exposed the identities of hundreds of Western agents across Eastern Europe in the 1950s, some of whom were executed as a result of his treason
  61. Hill, Amelia (21 September 2012). "Stephen Fry returns to London stage 17 years after abandoning Cell Mates". The Guardian. Retrieved 26 December 2020.
  62. Hermiston 2013, p. 12.
  63. "Drama - Breaking Blake - BBC Sounds". www.bbc.co.uk. Retrieved 20 January 2021.

Sources

Further reading