George Cave, 1st Viscount Cave

Last updated


The Viscount Cave

George Cave, 1st Viscount Cave in 1915.jpg
Lord High Chancellor of Great Britain
In office
24 October 1922 22 January 1924
Prime Minister Bonar Law
Stanley Baldwin
Preceded by The Viscount Birkenhead
Succeeded by The Viscount Haldane
In office
6 November 1924 28 March 1928
Prime Minister Stanley Baldwin
Preceded by The Viscount Haldane
Succeeded by The Lord Hailsham
Home Secretary
In office
11 December 1916 14 January 1919
Prime Minister David Lloyd George
Preceded by Herbert Samuel
Succeeded by Edward Shortt
Personal details
Born23 February 1856 (1856-02-23)
London
Died29 March 1928(1928-03-29) (aged 72)
St Anne's, Burnham-on-Sea, Somerset
Nationality British
Political party Conservative
Spouse(s)
Anne Mathews(m. 1885)
Alma mater St John's College, Oxford

George Cave, 1st Viscount Cave, GCMG , PC (23 February 1856 – 29 March 1928) was a British lawyer and Conservative politician. He was Home Secretary under David Lloyd George from 1916 to 1919 and served as Lord Chancellor from 1922 to 1924 and again from 1924 to 1928.

Contents

Background and education

Cave was born in London, the son of Thomas Cave, Member of Parliament for Barnstaple, and his wife Elizabeth, daughter of Jasper Shallcrass. He was educated at the Merchant Taylors' School, London and St John's College, Oxford. After being called to the bar in 1880, he practised as a barrister for a number of years, being made King's Counsel and recorder of Guildford in 1904.[ citation needed ]

Political career

Portrait of the Viscount Cave. 1stViscountCave.jpg
Portrait of the Viscount Cave.

In 1906 he was elected Conservative Member of Parliament for the Kingston Division of Surrey, was appointed Vice-Lieutenant of Surrey in 1907, [1] and a member of the Royal Commission on Land Purchase in 1908. Having served as standing Counsel to the University of Oxford for two years as well as Attorney General to the Prince of Wales, in 1915 Cave was appointed Solicitor General [2] and knighted. [3] The following year, he was made Home Secretary in Lloyd George's coalition government, a post he held for three years. As Home Secretary, he introduced the Representation of the People Act 1918 and he was very prominent in the debates in the House of Commons on the police strike of August 1918. [4]

In 1918, Sir George Cave was ennobled as Viscount Cave, of Richmond in the County of Surrey. [5] The following year, he became a Lord of Appeal, and chaired a number of commissions, including the Southern Rhodesian commission and the Munitions Enquiry Tribunal. In 1922, he became Lord Chancellor in Bonar Law's government, and again served in this capacity in Baldwin's first administration. He chaired the post war report that led to cuts to the minimum wages and regulation of collective bargaining, recommended by the Cave Committee in 1922. [6]

Having been appointed Knight Grand Cross of the Order of St Michael and St George (GCMG) in 1921, he was also elected Chancellor of the University of Oxford in 1925, defeating former Liberal Prime Minister H. H. Asquith. Asquith was deeply upset by the defeat, partly because he felt that Cave, an old friend, should not have stood against him. [7]

He has been described, perhaps too harshly, as the least distinguished Lord Chancellor in the first three decades of the twentieth century. [8]

Family

Lord Cave married Anne Estella Sarah Penfold Mathews, daughter of William Withey Mathews and sister of Sir Lloyd Mathews, in 1885. Lord and Lady Cave had three sons and one daughter, although all of them died in infancy. Their names were Ralph Wallas, Lloyd George, Honor E, and Matthew G. They are all buried at St. Mary's in Richmond. Cave died in March 1928, aged 72, at St Ann's, Burnham, Somerset, and was buried at Berrow in the same county. On the day of his death his resignation as Lord Chancellor had been accepted and it had been announced that he would be created an earl, and so his widow was created Countess Cave of Richmond, with remainder to heirs male of her body. [9] Having no children who lived to adulthood, the viscountcy became extinct on Lord Cave's death, as did the earldom when his widow died in 1938.

Coat of arms of George Cave, 1st Viscount Cave
Crest
A greyhound sejant Or pellettée, resting the dexter leg on a cross moline Gules.
Escutcheon
Or fretty Azure a cross moline within a bordure nebuly Gules on a chief of the last two greyhounds' heads erased of the first.
Motto
Cave Deus Videt (Beware God Sees) [10]

Related Research Articles

Rufus Isaacs, 1st Marquess of Reading British politician

Rufus Daniel Isaacs, 1st Marquess of Reading, was a British Liberal politician and judge, who served as Lord Chief Justice of England, Viceroy of India, and Foreign Secretary, the last Liberal to hold that post. The second practising Jew to be a member of the British cabinet, Isaacs was the first Jew to be Lord Chief Justice, and the first, and as yet only, British Jew to be raised to a marquessate.

John Baird, 1st Viscount Stonehaven Australian journalist, lawyer and politician

John Lawrence Baird of Urie, 1st Viscount Stonehaven, was a British politician who served as the eighth Governor-General of Australia, in office from 1925 to 1930. He had previously been a government minister under David Lloyd George, Bonar Law, and Stanley Baldwin.

Richard Haldane, 1st Viscount Haldane British politician

Richard Burdon Haldane, 1st Viscount Haldane, was an influential British Liberal Imperialist and later Labour politician, lawyer and philosopher. He was Secretary of State for War between 1905 and 1912 during which time the "Haldane Reforms" of the British Army were implemented. Raised to the peerage as Viscount Haldane in 1911, he was Lord Chancellor between 1912 and 1915, when he was forced to resign because of false allegations of German sympathies. He later joined the Labour Party and once again served as Lord Chancellor in 1924 in the first ever Labour administration. Apart from his legal and political careers, Haldane was also an influential writer on philosophy, in recognition of which he was elected a Fellow of the British Academy in 1914.

F. E. Smith, 1st Earl of Birkenhead British politician

Frederick Edwin Smith, 1st Earl of Birkenhead, known as F. E. Smith, was a British Conservative politician and barrister who attained high office in the early 20th century, in particular as Lord High Chancellor of Great Britain. He was a skilled orator, noted for his staunch opposition to Irish nationalism, his wit, pugnacious views, and hard living and drinking. He is perhaps best remembered today as Winston Churchill's greatest personal and political friend until Birkenhead's death aged 58 from pneumonia caused by cirrhosis of the liver.

Derick Heathcoat-Amory, 1st Viscount Amory politician and British Government Minister

Derick Heathcoat-Amory, 1st Viscount Amory,, was a British Conservative politician and member of the House of Lords.

Robert Reid, 1st Earl Loreburn British politician

Robert Threshie Reid, 1st Earl Loreburn, was a British lawyer, judge and radical Liberal politician. He served as Lord High Chancellor of Great Britain between 1905 and 1912.

Robert Finlay, 1st Viscount Finlay British politician

Robert Bannatyne Finlay, 1st Viscount Finlay,, known as Sir Robert Finlay from 1895 to 1916, was a British lawyer, doctor and politician who became Lord High Chancellor of Great Britain.

Edwin Montagu British politician

Edwin Samuel Montagu PC was a British Liberal politician who served as Secretary of State for India between 1917 and 1922. Montagu was a "radical" Liberal and the third practising Jew to serve in the British cabinet.

Walter Runciman, 1st Viscount Runciman of Doxford British politician

Walter Runciman, 1st Viscount Runciman of Doxford, was a prominent Liberal and later National Liberal politician in the United Kingdom. His 1938 diplomatic mission to Czechoslovakia was key to the enactment of the British policy of appeasement of Nazi Germany preceding the Second World War.

Philip Cunliffe-Lister, 1st Earl of Swinton politician

Philip Cunliffe-Lister, 1st Earl of Swinton,, known as Philip Lloyd-Greame until 1924 and as The Viscount Swinton between 1935 and 1955, was a prominent British Conservative politician from the 1920s until the 1950s.

J. C. C. Davidson British politician

John Colin Campbell Davidson, 1st Viscount Davidson,, known before his elevation to the peerage as J. C. C. Davidson, was a British civil servant and Conservative Party politician, best known for his close alliance with Stanley Baldwin. Initially a civil servant, Davidson was private secretary to Bonar Law between 1915 and 1920. After entering parliament in 1920, he served under Baldwin as Chancellor of the Duchy of Lancaster between 1923 and 1924 and as Parliamentary and Financial Secretary to the Admiralty between 1924 and 1926. From 1926 to 1930 he was Chairman of the Conservative Party. He was once again Chancellor of the Duchy of Lancaster between 1931 and 1937, firstly under Ramsay MacDonald and from 1935 onwards under Baldwin. On Baldwin's retirement in 1937, Davidson left the House of Commons and was ennobled as Viscount Davidson. Despite being only 48, he never took any further active part in politics. His wife Frances, Viscountess Davidson, succeeded him as MP for Hemel Hempstead. Lord Davidson died in London in 1970.

Herwald Ramsbotham, 1st Viscount Soulbury British politician

Herwald Ramsbotham, 1st Viscount Soulbury was a British Conservative politician. He served as a government minister between 1931 and 1941 and served as Governor-General of Ceylon between the years 1949 and 1954.

Edgar Vincent, 1st Viscount DAbernon British politician

Edgar Vincent, 1st Viscount D'Abernon, was a British politician, diplomat, art collector and author.

William Bridgeman, 1st Viscount Bridgeman British politician and peer

William Clive Bridgeman, 1st Viscount Bridgeman, PC, JP, DL was a British Conservative politician and peer. He notably served as Home Secretary between 1922 and 1924.

Cecil Harmsworth, 1st Baron Harmsworth British politician

Cecil Bisshopp Harmsworth, 1st Baron Harmsworth LLD, was a British businessman and Liberal politician. He served as Under-Secretary of State for the Home Department in 1915 and as Under-Secretary of State for Foreign Affairs between 1919 and 1922.

Gordon Hewart, 1st Viscount Hewart British politician

Gordon Hewart, 1st Viscount Hewart, Kt PC was a politician and judge in the United Kingdom.

Alfred Emmott, 1st Baron Emmott, was a British businessman and Liberal Party politician.

Geoffrey Howard (British politician) British politician

Geoffrey William Algernon Howard JP was a British Liberal politician. He served as Vice-Chamberlain of the Household under H. H. Asquith between 1911 and 1915.

The 1925 University of Oxford election for the position of Chancellor was called upon the death of the incumbent Chancellor, George Curzon, 1st Marquess Curzon of Kedleston on 20 March 1925.

Herbert Gladstone, 1st Viscount Gladstone British politician

Herbert John Gladstone, 1st Viscount Gladstone, was a British Liberal statesman. The youngest son of William Ewart Gladstone, he was Home Secretary from 1905 to 1910 and Governor-General of the Union of South Africa from 1910 to 1914.

References

  1. "No. 27989". The London Gazette . 25 January 1907. p. 570.
  2. "No. 29360". The London Gazette . 9 November 1915. p. 11043.
  3. "No. 29390". The London Gazette . 3 December 1915. p. 12054.
  4. Wikisource-logo.svg Chisholm, Hugh, ed. (1922). "Cave, George Cave, 1st Viscount"  . Encyclopædia Britannica (12th ed.). London & New York.
  5. "No. 31013". The London Gazette . 15 November 1918. p. 13492.
  6. Cave Committee, Report to the Ministry of Labour of the Committee Appointed to Enquire into the Working and Effects of the Trade Board Acts (1922) Cmd 1645
  7. Jenkins, Roy Asquith Collins, 1964, p.511
  8. Jenkins p.511
  9. "No. 33383". The London Gazette . 11 May 1928. p. 3332.
  10. Debrett's Peerage. 1921.

Further reading

Parliament of the United Kingdom
Preceded by
Sir Thomas Skewes-Cox
Member of Parliament for Kingston
19061918
Succeeded by
John Gordon Drummond Campbell
Legal offices
Preceded by
Sir F.E. Smith
Solicitor General
1915–1916
Succeeded by
Sir Gordon Hewart
Political offices
Preceded by
Herbert Samuel
Home Secretary
1916–1919
Succeeded by
Edward Shortt
Preceded by
The Viscount Birkenhead
Lord High Chancellor of Great Britain
1922–1924
Succeeded by
The Viscount Haldane
Preceded by
The Viscount Haldane
Lord High Chancellor of Great Britain
1924–1928
Succeeded by
The Lord Hailsham
Academic offices
Preceded by
Marquess Curzon of Kedleston
Chancellor of the University of Oxford
1925–1928
Succeeded by
Viscount Grey of Fallodon
Peerage of the United Kingdom
New creation Viscount Cave
1918–1928
Extinct