George Long (scholar)

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George Long (November 4, 1800 – August 10, 1879) was an English classical scholar. [1]


George Long
George Long, Professor of Ancient Languages, University of Virginia.jpg
Born4 November 1800
Died10 August 1879
Academic background
Alma mater St John's College, Cambridge, Trinity College, Cambridge
Doctoral advisor Lord Macaulay
Academic work
Discipline Language, Linguistics, History and Law
Sub-discipline Latin, Greek, Civil Law, Jurisprudence, Roman law
Institutions University College London, Middle Temple, Brighton College, University of Virginia


Long was born at Poulton-le-Fylde, Lancashire, and educated at Macclesfield Grammar School, St John's College, Cambridge and later Trinity College, Cambridge. [2]

Poulton-le-Fylde human settlement in United Kingdom

Poulton-le-Fylde, commonly abbreviated to Poulton, is a market town in Lancashire, England, situated on the coastal plain called the Fylde. In the 2001 United Kingdom census, it had a population of 18,264. There is evidence of human habitation in the area from 12,000 years ago and several archaeological finds from Roman settlement in England have been found in the area. At the time of the Norman conquest Poulton was a small agricultural settlement in the hundred of Amounderness. The church of St Chad was recorded in 1094 when it was endowed to Lancaster Priory. By the post-Medieval period the town had become an important commercial centre for the region with weekly and triannual markets. Goods were imported and exported through two harbours on the River Wyre. In 1837, the town was described as the "metropolis of the Fylde", but its commercial importance waned from the mid-19th century with the development of the nearby coastal towns of Fleetwood and Blackpool.

St Johns College, Cambridge college of the University of Cambridge

St John's College is a constituent college of the University of Cambridge founded by the Tudor matriarch Lady Margaret Beaufort. In constitutional terms, the college is a charitable corporation established by a charter dated 9 April 1511. The aims of the college, as specified by its statutes, are the promotion of education, religion, learning and research. It is one of the larger Oxbridge colleges in terms of student numbers. For 2018, St. John’s was ranked 9th of 29 colleges in the Tompkins Table with over 30% of its students earning First-class honours.

Trinity College, Cambridge Constituent college of the University of Cambridge in England

Trinity College is a constituent college of the University of Cambridge in England. With around 600 undergraduates, 300 graduates, and over 180 fellows, it is the largest college in either of the Oxbridge universities by number of undergraduates. In terms of total student numbers, it is second only to Homerton College, Cambridge.

He was Craven university scholar in 1821 (bracketed with Lord Macaulay and Henry Maiden), wrangler and senior chancellor's medallist in 1822 and became a fellow of Trinity in 1823. [2] In 1824 he was elected professor of ancient languages in the new University of Virginia at Charlottesville, but after four years returned to England as the first professor of Greek at the newly founded University College in London. [3]

University of Virginia University in Charlottesville, Virginia, United States

The University of Virginia is a public research university in Charlottesville, Virginia. It was founded in 1819 by Declaration of Independence author Thomas Jefferson. It is the flagship university of Virginia and home to Jefferson's Academical Village, a UNESCO World Heritage Site. UVA is known for its historic foundations, student-run honor code, and secret societies.

Charlottesville, Virginia Independent city in Virginia, United States

Charlottesville, colloquially known as C'ville and officially named the City of Charlottesville, is an independent city in the Commonwealth of Virginia. It is the county seat of Albemarle County, which surrounds the city, though the two are separate legal entities. This means a resident will list Charlottesville as both their county and city on official paperwork. It is named after the British Queen consort Charlotte of Mecklenburg-Strelitz, who as the wife of George III was Virginia's last Queen. In 2018, an estimated 48,117 people lived within the city limits. The Bureau of Economic Analysis combines the City of Charlottesville with Albemarle County for statistical purposes, bringing its population to approximately 150,000. Charlottesville is the heart of the Charlottesville metropolitan area, which includes Albemarle, Buckingham, Fluvanna, Greene, and Nelson counties.

The Professorship in Greek was one of the original professorships of University College London (UCL) in 1828. The position was established at the same time as the Professorship in Latin. The inaugural lecture of the first incumbent was delivered on November 1, 1830. The teaching of classical Greek at the new University of London "challenged both the monopoly and the style of Oxbridge classics". Since the Second World War the chair has been occupied by a series of renowned scholars including T. B. L. Webster, Eric Handley, P. E. Easterling, Richard Janko, and Chris Carey. P. E. Easterling is the only woman to have held the position.

In 1842 he succeeded T. H. Key as Professor of Latin at University College; in 1846–1849 he was reader in jurisprudence and civil law in the Middle Temple, and finally (1849–1871) classical lecturer at Brighton College. Subsequently, he lived in retirement at Portfield, Chichester, in receipt (from 1873) of a Civil List pension of £100 a year obtained for him by Gladstone. [3]

Thomas Hewitt Key, FRS was an English classical scholar.

The Professorship in Latin at University College London (UCL) is one of the original professorships at UCL. Along with the Professorship in Greek, the chair dates back to the foundations of the university in the 1820s. The first holder was the Rev. John Williams, "but he resigned in June, 1828, in deference to the opposition of his ecclesiastical superiors to the secular character of the university". Williams was succeeded by T. Hewitt Key, who was a founder of University College School and served as Head Master as well as Professor. The chair, which is a full-time position, has been occupied by a series of distinguished scholars including J. R. Seeley, Robinson Ellis, A. E. Housman, H. E. Butler, Otto Skutsch, George Goold, and Malcolm Willcock.

Jurisprudence theoretical study of law, by philosophers and social scientists

Jurisprudence or legal theory is the theoretical study of law. Scholars of jurisprudence seek to explain the nature of law in its most general form and provide a deeper understanding of legal reasoning, legal systems, legal institutions, and the role of law in society.

He was one of the founders (1830), and for twenty years an officer, of the Royal Geographical Society; an active member of the Society for the Diffusion of Useful Knowledge, for which he edited the quarterly Journal of Education (1831–1835) as well as many of its text-books; the editor (at first with Charles Knight, afterwards alone) of the Penny Cyclopaedia and of Knight's Political Dictionary; and a member of the Society for Central Education instituted in London in 1837. [3]

Royal Geographical Society British learned society

The Royal Geographical Society (RGS) is the United Kingdom's learned society and professional body for geography, founded in 1830 for the advancement of geographical sciences. Today, it is the leading centre for geographers and geographical learning. The Society has over 16,500 members and its work reaches millions of people each year through publications, research groups and lectures.

The Society for the Diffusion of Useful Knowledge (SDUK), was founded in 1826, mainly at the instigation of Lord Brougham, with the object of publishing information to people who were unable to obtain formal teaching, or who preferred self-education. A Whiggish London organisation that published inexpensive texts intended to adapt scientific and similarly high-minded material for the rapidly expanding reading public, it was wound up in 1848.

Charles Knight (publisher) 18th/19th-century English publisher, editor, and author

Charles Knight was an English publisher, editor and author. He published and contributed to works such as The Penny Magazine, The Penny Cyclopaedia, and The English Cyclopaedia, and established the Local Government Chronicle.

He contributed the Roman law articles to Smith's Dictionary of Greek and Roman Antiquities, and wrote also for the companion dictionaries of Biography and Geography. He is remembered, however, mainly as the editor of the Bibliotheca Classica series—the first serious attempt to produce scholarly editions of classical texts with English commentaries—to which he contributed the edition of Cicero's orations (1851–1862). [3]

Roman law Legal system of Ancient Rome (c. 449 BC – AD 529)

Roman law is the legal system of ancient Rome, including the legal developments spanning over a thousand years of jurisprudence, from the Twelve Tables, to the Corpus Juris Civilis ordered by Eastern Roman Emperor Justinian I. Roman law forms the basic framework for civil law, the most widely used legal system today, and the terms are sometimes used synonymously. The historical importance of Roman law is reflected by the continued use of Latin legal terminology in many legal systems influenced by it, including common law.

Cicero 1st-century BC Roman lawyer, orator, philosopher and statesman

Marcus Tullius Cicero was a Roman statesman, orator, lawyer and philosopher, who served as consul in the year 63 BC. He came from a wealthy municipal family of the Roman equestrian order, and is considered one of Rome's greatest orators and prose stylists.


Among his other works are:

See HJ Matthews, in Memoriam, reprinted from the Brighton College Magazine, 1879.

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  1. "LONG, GEORGE (1800 - 1879)". The Encyclopaedia Britannica; A Dictionary of Arts, Sciences, Literature and General Information. XVI (L to LORD ADVOCATE) (11th ed.). Cambridge, England and New York: At the University Press. 1911. pp. 973–974. Retrieved 29 October 2019 via Internet Archive.
  2. 1 2 "Long, George (LN818G)". A Cambridge Alumni Database. University of Cambridge.
  3. 1 2 3 4 Chisholm 1911.
  4. The Thoughts of The Emperor M. Aurelius Antoninus. Translated by Long, George (2nd ed.). London: George Bell & Sons. 1880. Retrieved 30 October 2019 via Internet Archive.
  5. The Discourses of Epictetus and The Encheiridion and Fragments. Translated by Long, George. London: George Bell and Sons. 1877. Retrieved 30 October 2019 via Internet Archive.