George Maniakes

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Maniakes conquering Edessa. The seizure of Edessa in Syria by the Byzantine army and the Arabic counterattack from the Chronicle of John Skylitzes.jpg
Maniakes conquering Edessa.

George Maniakes (Greek : Γεώργιος Μανιάκης, transliterated as Georgios Maniaces, Maniakis, or Maniaches, Italian : Giorgio Maniace; died 1043) was a prominent general of the Byzantine Empire during the 11th century. He was the catepan of Italy in 1042. He is known as Gyrgir in Scandinavian sagas. He is popularly said to have been extremely tall and well built, almost a giant. [1]

Biography

Maniakes was a Greek [2] [3] general of the Byzantine Empire who first became prominent during a campaign in 1030–1031, when the Byzantine Empire was defeated at Aleppo but went on to capture Edessa from the Arabs. His greatest achievement was the partial reconquest of Sicily from the Arabs beginning in 1038. Here, he was assisted by the Varangian Guard, which was at that time led by Harald Hardrada, who later became king of Norway. [4] There were also Norman mercenaries with him, under William de Hauteville, who won his nickname Iron Arm by defeating the emir of Syracuse in single combat. However, he soon ostracised his admiral, Stephen, whose wife was the sister of John the Eunuch, the highest ranking man at court, and, by publicly humiliating the leader of the Lombard contingent, Arduin, he caused them to desert, along with the Normans and Norsemen. In response, he was recalled by the emperor Michael IV, also brother-in-law of Stephen. Although the Arabs soon took the island back, Maniakes' successes there later inspired the Normans to invade Sicily themselves.

The Byzantines under George Maniakes land at Sicily and defeat the Arabs The Byzantines under Georgios Maniakes land at Sicily and defeat the Arabs.jpg
The Byzantines under George Maniakes land at Sicily and defeat the Arabs
Maniakes is brought to Constantinople seated on a donkey The captive Maniakes is brought to Constantinople.jpg
Maniakes is brought to Constantinople seated on a donkey

Maniakes' accomplishments in Sicily were largely ignored by the Emperor, and he revolted against Constantine IX in 1042, though he had been appointed catepan of Italy. The individual particularly responsible for antagonizing Maniakes into revolt was one Romanus Sclerus. Sclerus, like Maniakes, was one of the immensely wealthy landowners who owned large areas of Anatolia – his estates neighboured those of Maniakes and the two were rumoured to have attacked each other during a squabble over land. Sclerus owed his influence over the emperor to his famously charming sister Sclerina, who, in most areas was a highly positive influence on Constantine. Finding himself in a position of power, Sclerus used it to poison Constantine against Maniakes – ransacking the latter's house and even seducing his wife, using the charm his family were famed for. Maniakes' response, when faced with Sclerus demanding that he hand command of the empire's forces in Apulia over to him, was to brutally torture the latter to death, after sealing his eyes, ears, nose and mouth with excrement. [5] Maniakes was then proclaimed emperor by his troops (including the Varangians) and marched towards Constantinople. In 1043 his army clashed with troops loyal to Constantine near Thessalonika, and though initially successful, Maniakes was killed during the melee after receiving a fatal wound (according to Psellus' account). Constantine's extravagant punishment of the surviving rebels was to parade them in the Hippodrome, seated backwards on donkeys. With his death, the rebellion ceased. In Sicily, the town of Maniace and the Syracusan fortress of Castello Maniace are both named after him.

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Pardos was the catepan of Italy briefly in 1042 following the short term of George Maniakes.

Basil III Theodorokanos or Theodorocanus was the Byzantine Catepan of Italy from February to the Spring of 1043. He was a patrician and a former companion in arms of George Maniakes when he was appointed to go to Apulia and Calabria and put down the revolts of Maniakes and of Argyrus in 1042. In February 1043, he landed at Bari. Argyrus and his Normans tried to surround Otranto, but the catepan's fleet blocked them. Maniakes, however, debarked for Dyrrhachium with his army. Argyrus eventually made peace with the Greeks and Theodorokanos was replaced by Eustathios Palatinos. Subsequently, he commanded the Byzantine fleet against the Rus' raid in July 1043.

Norman conquest of southern Italy Historical event in the European Middle Ages

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Battle of Montemaggiore

The Battle of Montemaggiore was fought on 4 May 1041, on the river Ofanto near Cannae in Byzantine Italy, between Lombard-Norman rebel forces and the Byzantine Empire. The Norman William Iron Arm led the offence, which was part of a greater revolt, against Michael Dokeianos, the Byzantine Catepan of Italy. Suffering heavy losses in the battle, the Byzantines were eventually defeated, and the remaining forces retreated to Bari. Dokeianos was replaced and transferred to Sicily as a result of the battle. The victory provided the Normans with increasing amounts of resources, as well as a renewed surge of knights joining the rebellion.

References

  1. Byzantino-Nordica 2004: Papers Presented at the International Symposium of Byzantine Studies Held on 7-11 May 2004 in Tartu, Estonia. Morgenstern Society. 2005. ISBN   9949112664.
  2. Wolf, Kenneth Baxter (2016-11-11). Making History: The Normans and Their Historians in Eleventh-Century Italy. University of Pennsylvania Press. pp. 94–95. ISBN   978-1-5128-0901-5.
  3. Kleinhenz, Christopher (2004). Medieval Italy : an encyclopedia. New York: Routledge. ISBN   978-1-135-94880-1. OCLC   62243072.
  4. Oldfield, Paul (2014-04-30). Sanctity and Pilgrimage in Medieval Southern Italy, 1000-1200. Cambridge University Press. p. 117. ISBN   978-1-107-00028-5.
  5. Bradbury, Jim. (2004) Routledge Companion to Medieval Warfare. Routledge, p. 65
Preceded by Catepan of Italy
1042
Succeeded by