George Nugent-Temple-Grenville, 1st Marquess of Buckingham

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The Most Honourable
The Marquess of Buckingham
KG KP PC
1stMarquessOfBuckingham.jpg
Secretary of State for Foreign Affairs
In office
19 December 1783 23 December 1783
Prime Minister William Pitt
Preceded by Charles James Fox
Succeeded by Marquess of Carmarthen
Lord Lieutenant of Ireland
In office
27 October 1787 24 October 1789
Prime Minister William Pitt
Preceded by The Duke of Rutland
Succeeded by The Earl of Westmorland
Personal details
Alma mater Christ Church, Oxford

George Nugent-Temple-Grenville, 1st Marquess of Buckingham, KG, KP, PC (17 June 1753 – 11 February 1813), known as The 3rd Earl Temple between 1779 and 1784, was a British statesman.

Privy Council of the United Kingdom Formal body of advisers to the sovereign in the United Kingdom

Her Majesty's Most Honourable Privy Council, usually known simply as the Privy Council of the United Kingdom or just the Privy Council, is a formal body of advisers to the Sovereign of the United Kingdom. Its membership mainly comprises senior politicians who are current or former members of either the House of Commons or the House of Lords.

Contents

Background and early life

Grenville was the eldest son of George Grenville, Prime Minister of Great Britain, and his wife Elizabeth Wyndham, daughter of Sir William Wyndham, 3rd Baronet and was born on 17 June 1753. He was the nephew of Richard Grenville-Temple, 2nd Earl Temple, and the elder brother of Thomas Grenville and of William Grenville, 1st Baron Grenville, also Prime Minister of Great Britain. In 1764, he was appointed a Teller of the Exchequer. He was educated at Eton College from 1764 to 1770 and matriculated at Christ Church, Oxford in 1770. He succeeded his father on 13 November 1770. In 1774 he undertook a Grand Tour through Italy and Austria. In 1775, he married the Hon. Mary Nugent, daughter of the 1st Viscount Clare (later the 1st Earl Nugent). [1]

George Grenville Prime Minister of Great Britain

George Grenville was a British Whig statesman who rose to the position of Prime Minister of Great Britain. Grenville was born into an influential political family and first entered Parliament in 1741 as an MP for Buckingham. He emerged as one of Cobham's Cubs, a group of young members of Parliament associated with Lord Cobham.

Sir William Wyndham, 3rd Baronet politician, died 1740

Sir William Wyndham, 3rd Baronet, of Orchard Wyndham in Somerset, was an English Tory statesman, who served as Secretary at War in 1712 and Chancellor of the Exchequer in 1713 during the reign of the last Stuart monarch, Queen Anne (1702–1714). He was a Jacobite leader firmly opposed to the Hanoverian succession and was leader of the Tory opposition in the House of Commons during the reign of King George I (1714–1727) and during the early years of King George II (1727–1760).

Richard Grenville-Temple, 2nd Earl Temple 18th-century British politician and first Lord of the Admiralty

Richard Grenville-Temple, 2nd Earl Temple, was a British politician. He is best known for his association with his brother-in-law William Pitt who he served with in government during Britain's participation in the Seven Years War between 1756 and 1761. He resigned along with Pitt in protest at the cabinet's failure to declare war on Spain.

Political career

Statue sculpted by Edward Smyth in 1783, showing Buckingham in the robes of a Knight of the Order of St Patrick Dublin St. Patrick's Cathedral North Aisle Statue of George Grenville Nugent Temple 2012 09 26.jpg
Statue sculpted by Edward Smyth in 1783, showing Buckingham in the robes of a Knight of the Order of St Patrick
Shield of arms of George Nugent-Temple-Grenville, 1st Marquess of Buckingham, KG, KP, PC - Vert, on a cross argent five torteaux (for Grenville) Coat of arms of George Nugent-Temple-Grenville, 1st Marquess of Buckingham, KG, KP, PC.png
Shield of arms of George Nugent-Temple-Grenville, 1st Marquess of Buckingham, KG, KP, PC - Vert, on a cross argent five torteaux (for Grenville)

Grenville was returned as Member of Parliament for Buckinghamshire at the 1774 general election. In the House of Commons he emerged as a sharp critic of the American policy of Lord North. In September 1779, he succeeded his uncle as Earl Temple and moved to the House of Lords. [1]

Buckinghamshire is a former United Kingdom Parliamentary constituency. It was a constituency of the House of Commons of the Parliament of England then of the Parliament of Great Britain from 1707 to 1800 and of the Parliament of the United Kingdom from 1801 to 1885.

Frederick North, Lord North Prime Minister of Great Britain from 1770 to 1782

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Grenville also took the additional family names Nugent and Temple by Royal Warrant issued on 4 December [3] making the compound family name Nugent-Temple-Grenville. In 1782, Lord Temple was appointed Lord Lieutenant of Buckinghamshire and in July 1782, he became a member of the Privy Council and Lord Lieutenant of Ireland in the Ministry of Lord Shelburne. He was instrumental in the enactment of the Renunciation Act of 1783, which supplemented the legislative independence granted to Ireland in 1782. As Lord Lieutenant of Ireland, and by Royal Warrant, he created the Order of St Patrick in February 1783, with himself as the first Grand Master. He left Ireland in 1783 and again turned his attention to English politics. He enjoyed the confidence of King George III, and having opposed Fox's East India Bill, he was authorised by the King to say that "whoever voted for the India Bill was not only not his friend, but would be considered by him as an enemy", a message which ensured the defeat of the Bill. He was appointed a Secretary of State when the younger Pitt (his father's sister's son) formed his ministry in December 1783, but resigned only three days later.

There has been a Lord Lieutenant of Buckinghamshire almost continuously since the position was created by King Henry VIII in 1535. The only exception to this was the English Civil War and English Interregnum between 1643 and 1660 when there was no king to support the Lieutenancy. The following list consists of all known holders of the position: earlier records have been lost and so a complete list is not possible. Since 1702, all Lord Lieutenants have also been Custos Rotulorum of Buckinghamshire.

Lord Lieutenant of Ireland title of the chief governor of Ireland from the Williamite Wars of 1690 till the Partition of Ireland in 1922

Lord Lieutenant of Ireland was the title of the chief governor of Ireland from the Williamite Wars of 1690 till the Partition of Ireland in 1922. This spanned the Kingdom of Ireland (1541–1800) and the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland (1801–1922). The office, under its various names, was often more generally known as the viceroy, and his wife was known as the vicereine. The government of Ireland in practice was usually in the hands of the Lord Deputy up to the 17th century, and later of the Chief Secretary for Ireland. Although in the Middle Ages some Lords Deputy were Irish noblemen, only men from Great Britain, usually peers, were appointed to the office of Lord Lieutenant.

William Petty, 2nd Earl of Shelburne British Prime Minister

William Petty, 1st Marquess of Lansdowne,, known as The Earl of Shelburne between 1761 and 1784, by which title he is generally known to history, was an Irish-born British Whig statesman who was the first Home Secretary in 1782 and then Prime Minister in 1782–83 during the final months of the American War of Independence. He succeeded in securing peace with America and this feat remains his most notable legacy. He was also well known as a collector of antiquities and works of art.

In December 1784, Lord Temple was created Marquess of Buckingham. In November 1787, he was again appointed Lord Lieutenant of Ireland, this time under Pitt, but his second tenure of this office proved less successful than the first. Grattan denounced him for extravagance; the Irish Houses of Parliament censured him for refusing to transmit to England an address calling upon the Prince of Wales to assume the regency; and he could only maintain his position by resorting to bribery on a large scale. When his father-in-law died in 1788, Lord Buckingham succeeded him as 2nd Earl Nugent. However, since he already held the higher rank of Marquess, he was never known by this title. Having become very unpopular, he resigned his office in September 1789.

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A marquess is a nobleman of high hereditary rank in various European peerages and in those of some of their former colonies. The term is also used to translate equivalent Asian styles, as in Imperial China and Imperial Japan.

Later years

Lord Buckingham subsequently took very little part in politics, although he spoke in favour of the Act of Union of 1800. His wife died in 1812 and he died on 11 February 1813 at his residence, Stowe in Buckinghamshire. He was buried at his ancestral Wotton. He left two sons: The 1st Duke of Buckingham and Chandos and The 2nd Baron Nugent.

Stowe, Buckinghamshire civil parish and former village in Buckinghamshire, England

Stowe is a civil parish and former village about 2 miles (3 km) northwest of Buckingham in the Aylesbury Vale district of Buckinghamshire, England. The parish includes the hamlets of Boycott, Dadford and Lamport.

Wotton Underwood village in the United Kingdom

Wotton Underwood is a village and civil parish in the Aylesbury Vale District of Buckinghamshire, about 7 miles (11 km) north of Thame in neighbouring Oxfordshire.

Richard Temple-Nugent-Brydges-Chandos-Grenville, 1st Duke of Buckingham and Chandos British politician

Richard Temple-Nugent-Brydges-Chandos-Grenville, 1st Duke of Buckingham and Chandos, styled Earl Temple from 1784 to 1813 and known as The Marquess of Buckingham from 1813 to 1822, was a British landowner and politician.

Styles from birth to death

See also

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References

  1. 1 2 "GRENVILLE, George (1753-1813)". History of Parliament Online. Retrieved 9 October 2017.
  2. Casey, Christine (2005). The Buildings of Ireland: Dublin. New Haven: Yale University Press. p. 622. ISBN   978-0-300-10923-8.
  3. "No. 12036". The London Gazette . 30 November 1779. p. 1.
Parliament of Great Britain
Preceded by
Richard Lowndes
The Earl Verney
Member of Parliament for Buckinghamshire
1774–1779
With: The Earl Verney
Succeeded by
The Earl Verney
Thomas Grenville
Political offices
Preceded by
The Earl of Macclesfield
Teller of the Exchequer
1763–1813
Succeeded by
Spencer Perceval
Preceded by
The Duke of Portland
Lord Lieutenant of Ireland
1782–1783
Succeeded by
The Earl of Northington
Preceded by
Charles James Fox
Foreign Secretary
1783
Succeeded by
The Marquess of Carmarthen
Preceded by
Lord North
Home Secretary
1783
Succeeded by
The Lord Sydney
Preceded by
The Duke of Portland
Leader of the House of Lords
1783
Succeeded by
The Lord Sydney
Preceded by
The Duke of Rutland
Lord Lieutenant of Ireland
1787–1789
Succeeded by
The Earl of Westmorland
Honorary titles
Preceded by
The Earl of Chesterfield
Lord Lieutenant of Buckinghamshire
1782–1813
Succeeded by
The Marquess of Buckingham
Peerage of Great Britain
New creation Marquess of Buckingham
1784–1813
Succeeded by
Richard Grenville
Preceded by
Richard Grenville-Temple
Earl Temple
1779–1813
Peerage of Ireland
Preceded by
Robert Nugent
Earl Nugent
1788–1813
Succeeded by
Richard Grenville