George Pickett

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George Pickett
GeorgePickett.jpeg
General Pickett
Birth nameGeorge Edward Pickett
BornJanuary 16, 1825 [1]
Richmond, Virginia
DiedJuly 30, 1875(1875-07-30) (aged 50)
Norfolk, Virginia
Place of burial
Hollywood Cemetery, Richmond, Virginia
AllegianceFlag of the United States (1846-1847).svg  United States of America
Flag of the Confederate States of America (1865).svg  Confederate States of America
Service/branchFlag of the United States Army.svg  United States Army
Battle flag of the Confederate States of America.svg  Confederate States Army
Years of service1846–61 (United States Army)
1861–65 (Confederate States Army)
Rank Union army cpt rank insignia.jpg Captain (USA)
Confederate States of America General-collar.svg Major General (CSA)
Commands heldPickett's Division, First Corps, Army of Northern Virginia
Battles/wars Mexican–American War

Pig War
American Civil War

Relations Henry Heth (cousin)
Signature George Pickett signature.jpg

George Edward Pickett (January 16, [1] 1825 – July 30, 1875) was a career United States Army officer who became a major general in the Confederate States Army during the American Civil War. He is best remembered for leading Pickett's Charge, the futile and bloody Confederate offensive on the third day of the Battle of Gettysburg that bears his name.

United States Army Land warfare branch of the United States Armed Forces

The United States Army (USA) is the land warfare service branch of the United States Armed Forces. It is one of the seven uniformed services of the United States, and is designated as the Army of the United States in the United States Constitution. As the oldest and most senior branch of the U.S. military in order of precedence, the modern U.S. Army has its roots in the Continental Army, which was formed to fight the American Revolutionary War (1775–1783)—before the United States of America was established as a country. After the Revolutionary War, the Congress of the Confederation created the United States Army on 3 June 1784 to replace the disbanded Continental Army. The United States Army considers itself descended from the Continental Army, and dates its institutional inception from the origin of that armed force in 1775.

Confederate States Army Southern army in American Civil War

The Confederate States Army was the military land force of the Confederate States of America during the American Civil War (1861–1865), fighting against the United States forces. On February 28, 1861, the Provisional Confederate Congress established a provisional volunteer army and gave control over military operations and authority for mustering state forces and volunteers to the newly chosen Confederate president, Jefferson Davis. Davis was a graduate of the U.S. Military Academy, and colonel of a volunteer regiment during the Mexican–American War. He had also been a United States Senator from Mississippi and U.S. Secretary of War under President Franklin Pierce. On March 1, 1861, on behalf of the Confederate government, Davis assumed control of the military situation at Charleston, South Carolina, where South Carolina state militia besieged Fort Sumter in Charleston harbor, held by a small U.S. Army garrison. By March 1861, the Provisional Confederate Congress expanded the provisional forces and established a more permanent Confederate States Army.

American Civil War Internal war in the U.S. over slavery

The American Civil War was a civil war fought in the United States from 1861 to 1865, between the North and the South. The Civil War began primarily as a result of the long-standing controversy over the enslavement of black people. War broke out in April 1861 when secessionist forces attacked Fort Sumter in South Carolina shortly after Abraham Lincoln had been inaugurated as the President of the United States. The loyalists of the Union in the North, which also included some geographically western and southern states, proclaimed support for the Constitution. They faced secessionists of the Confederate States in the South, who advocated for states' rights in order to uphold slavery.

Contents

Pickett graduated last out of 59 cadets in the United States Military Academy class of 1846. He served as a second lieutenant in the United States Army during the Mexican–American War and is noted for his service in the Battle of Chapultepec in September 1847. After this, he served in the Washington Territory and eventually reached the rank of captain. Pickett participated in the Pig War of 1859. Near the beginning of the American Civil War, he commissioned in the Confederate States Army, and he attained the rank of brigadier general in January 1862. He commanded a brigade that saw heavy action during the Peninsula Campaign of 1862. Pickett was wounded at the Battle of Gaines's Mill on June 27.

United States Military Academy U.S. Armys federal service academy in West Point, New York

The United States Military Academy (USMA), also known as West Point, Army, Army West Point, The Academy, or simply The Point, is a four-year federal service academy in West Point, New York. It was originally established as a fort that sits on strategic high ground overlooking the Hudson River with a scenic view, 50 miles (80 km) north of New York City. It is one of the five U.S. service academies.

Mexican–American War Armed conflict between the United States of America and Mexico from 1846 to 1848

The Mexican–American War, also known in the United States as the Mexican War and in Mexico as the Intervención Estadounidense en México, was an armed conflict between the United States and Mexico from 1846 to 1848. It followed in the wake of the 1845 U.S. annexation of Texas, which was not formally recognized by the Mexican government, who disputed the Treaties of Velasco signed by Mexican caudillo President/General Antonio López de Santa Anna after the Texas Revolution a decade earlier. In 1845, newly elected U.S. President James K. Polk, who saw the annexation of Texas as the first step towards a further expansion of the United States, sent troops to the disputed area and a diplomatic mission to Mexico. After Mexican forces attacked U.S. forces, the United States Congress declared war.

Battle of Chapultepec battle of the Mexican–American War

The Battle of Chapultepec in September 1847 was an assault by American forces on the Mexican forces holding Chapultepec in Mexico City. The castle, sitting atop a 200-foot (60 m) tall hill, was an important position for the defense of the city. For the Battle for Mexico City of which the Battle of Chapultepec is a part, Gen Scott's US Army totaled 7,200 men, and Gen Santa Anna's Mexican Army totaled about 15,000. The Battle of Chapultepec saw about 2,000 US troops attack 880 Mexican troops and take Chapultepec in a 60–90 minute battle.

He did not return to command until September, following the Battle of Antietam, when he was given command of a division in the Right Wing of the Army of Northern Virginia, in the command of Major General James Longstreet, which became the I Corps that December. His division was lightly engaged at the Battle of Fredericksburg and, along with most of Longstreet's Corps, missed the Battle of Chancellorsville while participating in the Suffolk Campaign in 1863. During the Gettysburg Campaign, his division was, much to Pickett's frustration, the last to arrive on the field. However, it was one of three divisions under the command of General Longstreet to participate in a disastrous assault on Union positions on July 3, the final day of the battle. The attack has been given the name "Pickett's Charge". In February 1864, Pickett ordered 22 North Carolinians in Union uniform hanged as deserters, after a failed assault on New Berne. Brigadier General John Peck sent Pickett a note telling him the men were US soldiers and should be treated as prisoners of war. Pickett thanked him for giving him the names, as he now knew who he was hanging. His military career came to an inglorious end when his division was overwhelmed and defeated at the Battle of Five Forks.

Battle of Antietam Major battle of the American Civil War

The Battle of Antietam, also known as the Battle of Sharpsburg, particularly in the Southern United States, was a battle of the American Civil War, fought on September 17, 1862, between Confederate General Robert E. Lee's Army of Northern Virginia and Union General George B. McClellan's Army of the Potomac, near Sharpsburg, Maryland and Antietam Creek. Part of the Maryland Campaign, it was the first field army–level engagement in the Eastern Theater of the American Civil War to take place on Union soil. It was the bloodiest day in United States history, with a combined tally of 22,717 dead, wounded, or missing.

Army of Northern Virginia field army of the Confederate States Army

The Army of Northern Virginia was the primary military force of the Confederate States of America in the Eastern Theater of the American Civil War. It was also the primary command structure of the Department of Northern Virginia. It was most often arrayed against the Union Army of the Potomac.

James Longstreet Confederate Army general

James Longstreet was one of the foremost Confederate generals of the American Civil War and the principal subordinate to General Robert E. Lee, who called him his "Old War Horse". He served under Lee as a corps commander for most of the famous battles fought by the Army of Northern Virginia in the Eastern Theater, and briefly with Braxton Bragg in the Army of Tennessee in the Western Theater.

Following the war, Pickett feared prosecution for his execution of deserters and temporarily fled to Canada. An old Army friend, Ulysses S. Grant, interceded on his behalf, and he returned to Virginia in 1866. He could not rejoin the Army, so he tried his hand at farming, then selling insurance. He died at age 50 in July 1875 from an "abscess of the liver". [2]

Ulysses S. Grant 18th president of the United States

Ulysses S. Grant was an American soldier and politician who served as the 18th president of the United States from 1869 to 1877. Before his presidency, Grant led the Union Army in winning the American Civil War. As president, Grant worked with the Radical Republicans in the Reconstruction of the Union while having to deal with corruption in his administration.

Early life

George Edward Pickett was born in his grandfather's shop in Richmond, Virginia, on January 16, 1825 and raised on his family's plantation at Turkey Island. He was the first of the eight children of Robert and Mary Pickett, [3] a prominent family of Old Virginia of Huguenot origins. He was the cousin of future Confederate general Henry Heth. [4] [5]

Richmond, Virginia Capital of Virginia

Richmond is the capital city of the Commonwealth of Virginia. It is the center of the Richmond Metropolitan Statistical Area (MSA) and the Greater Richmond Region. Richmond was incorporated in 1742 and has been an independent city since 1871.

Huguenots Religious group composed of Calvinists from France

Huguenots were a religious group of French Protestants.

Henry Heth Confederate Army general

Henry Heth was a career United States Army officer who became a Confederate general in the American Civil War.

For a time in the 1840's Pickett lived and served as a law clerk for his uncle Andrew Johnston in Quincy, Illinois. [6] He went to Springfield, Illinois, to study law, but at the age of 17 he was appointed to the United States Military Academy. Legend has it that Pickett's appointment was secured for him by Abraham Lincoln, but this is largely believed to be a story circulated by his widow following his death.[ citation needed ] Lincoln, as an Illinois state legislator, could not nominate candidates, although he did give the young man advice after he was accepted. [7] Pickett was actually appointed by Illinois Congressman John T. Stuart, a friend of Pickett's uncle and a law partner of Lincoln. [8] [9]

Springfield, Illinois State capital and city in Illinois, United States

Springfield is the capital of the U.S. state of Illinois and the county seat of Sangamon County. The city's population was 116,250 at the 2010 U.S. Census, which makes it the state's sixth most-populous city, the second largest outside of the Chicago metropolitan area, and the largest in central Illinois. As of 2018, the city's population was estimated to have decreased to 114,694, with just over 211,700 residents living in the Springfield Metropolitan Statistical Area, which includes Sangamon County and the adjacent Menard County.

Abraham Lincoln 16th President of the United States

Abraham Lincoln was an American statesman and lawyer who served as the 16th president of the United States from March 1861 until his assassination in April 1865. Lincoln led the nation through the American Civil War, its bloodiest war and its greatest moral, constitutional, and political crisis. He preserved the Union, abolished slavery, strengthened the federal government, and modernized the U.S. economy.

Pickett was popular as a cadet at West Point. He was mischievous and a player of pranks, "a man of ability, but belonging to a cadet set that appeared to have no ambition for class standing and wanted to do only enough study to secure their graduation." [10] At a time when often a third of the class left before graduation, Pickett persisted, working off his demerits and doing enough in his studies to graduate, ranking last out of the 59 surviving students in the Class of 1846. [11] It is a position held with some backhanded distinction, referred to today as the "goat", both for its stubbornness and tenacity. [12] Ordinarily, such a showing would be a ticket to an obscure posting and a dead-end career, but Pickett, like George Armstrong Custer a generation later, had the fortune to graduate just as a war broke out, resulting in a sudden need for many junior army officers. Pickett's cousin Henry Heth graduated last in the Class of 1847. [13]

United States Army career

Pickett was commissioned a brevet second lieutenant in the 8th Infantry Regiment. He soon gained national recognition in the Mexican–American War when he carried the American colors over the parapet during the Battle of Chapultepec in September 1847. Wounded at the base of the wall, Pickett's friend and colleague Lieutenant James Longstreet handed him the colors. Pickett carried the flag over the wall and fought his way to the roof of the palace, unfurling it over the fortress and announcing its surrender. [14] He received a brevet promotion to captain following this action. [15]

In 1849, while serving on the Texas frontier after the war, he was promoted to first lieutenant and then to captain in the 9th Infantry Regiment in 1855. [4] In 1853, Pickett challenged a fellow junior officer, future Union general Winfield Scott Hancock, to a duel; (they had met only briefly when Hancock was passing through Texas). Hancock declined the duel, a response not unlikely as dueling had fallen out of favor at the time. [16]

In January 1851, Pickett married Sally Harrison Minge, the daughter of Dr. John Minge of Virginia, the great-great-grandniece of President William Henry Harrison, and the great-great-granddaughter of Benjamin Harrison V, a signer of the United States Declaration of Independence. Sally died during childbirth that November, at Fort Gates, Texas. [17]

Pickett next served in the Washington Territory. In 1856 he commanded the construction of Fort Bellingham on Bellingham Bay, in what is today the city of Bellingham, Washington. He also built a frame home that year which still stands; Pickett House is the oldest house in Bellingham and the oldest house on its original foundation in the Pacific Northwest. [18] While posted to Fort Bellingham, Pickett married a Native American woman of the Haida tribe, Morning Mist, who gave birth to a son, James Tilton Pickett (1857–1889); Morning Mist died a few months later. [18] "Jimmy" Pickett made a name for himself as a newspaper artist, before dying of tuberculosis at the age of 32 near Portland, Oregon. [19]

In 1859 Pickett was dispatched in command of Company D, 9th US Infantry, to garrison San Juan Island in response to discord that had arisen there between American farmers and the Hudson's Bay Company. [20] The confrontation, known as "the Pig War (1859)", was instigated when American farmer Lyman Cutler shot and killed a pig that had repeatedly broken into his garden. The pig belonged to the Hudson's Bay Company, and though Cutler was prepared to pay a fair price for the pig, the Company was not satisfied, insisting he be brought before the British magistrate, thus initiating the territorial dispute that came to be known as the Pig War. In response to the U.S. forces, the British sent a force of three warships and 1000 men. The British commander demanded that Pickett and his men leave. Pickett declined, and the British officer returned to his frigate, threatening to land his own men. Pickett with his 68 men appeared to be fully prepared to oppose a British landing, ordering them into a line of battle near the beach. "Don't be afraid of their big guns," he told his men, "We'll make a Bunker Hill of it." [21] Pickett's presence and determination prevented the landing, the British being under orders to avoid armed conflict with United States forces, if possible. [20] Pickett had set up camp and his battery of cannon near the Hudson's Bay Company's Belle Vue Sheep Farm, and directly under the cannons of the British warship. Having this error pointed out to him, he moved the camp and battery a few miles north to high ground, to a spot overlooking Griffin Bay and the Strait of Juan de Fuca. After initial tensions passed the crisis was averted, both sides being unwilling to go to war over a pig. President James Buchanan dispatched Brevet Lieutenant General Winfield Scott to negotiate a settlement between the parties. [22]

There is also some controversy that Pickett and General William S. Harney, per General Granville O. Haller, maneuvered behind the scenes to provoke a war between the United States and Britain, to distract the North, allowing the South to seek independence or, as General George B. McClellan said, to unite the North and South. [23]

Civil War

Early assignments

On April 19, after the firing on Battle of Fort Sumter and in response to President Lincoln's call for 75,000 volunteers to suppress the rebellion, Virginia joined three more Southern states in seceding from the Union. [24] Native son Pickett sailed from San Juan Island to Bellingham, Washington to resign his commission and was told by his commander that he had to resign it in Washington, D.C. To accomplish this he sailed to Fort Steilacoom, south of Tacoma, Washington and caught transport aboard a mail steamer to the Isthmus of Panama, trekked 40 miles overland to Colon, caught another ship to Richmond, Virginia to obtain a commission in the Army of Northern Virginia, and then to Washington, D.C. to turn in his resignation. Arriving after the First Battle of Bull Run, he resigned his commission in the U.S. Army on June 25, 1861; he had been holding a commission as a major in the Confederate States Army Artillery since March 16. [4] Within a month he was appointed colonel in command of the Rappahannock Line of the Department of Fredericksburg, Virginia, under the command of Major General Theophilus H. Holmes. Holmes's influence obtained a commission for Pickett as a brigadier general, dated January 14, 1862. [4] [25]

Confederate Major General George E. Pickett GeorgePickettearlyphoto.jpg
Confederate Major General George E. Pickett

Pickett made a colorful general. He rode a sleek black charger named "Old Black," and wore a small blue kepi-style cap, with buffed gloves over the sleeves of an immaculately tailored uniform that had a double row of gold buttons on the coat, and shiny gold spurs on his highly polished boots. He held an elegant riding crop whether mounted or walking. His moustache drooped gracefully beyond the corners of his mouth and then turned upward at the ends. His hair was the talk of the Army: "long ringlets flowed loosely over his shoulders, trimmed and highly perfumed, his beard likewise was curling and giving up the scent of Araby." [26]

Pickett's first combat command was during the Peninsula Campaign, leading a brigade that was nicknamed the Gamecocks (the brigade would eventually be led by Richard B. Garnett in Pickett's Charge). Pickett led his brigade ably in the battles of Williamsburg and Seven Pines, earning commendations from his superiors. At Gaines's Mill on June 27 he was shot off his horse while leading his brigade in its first assault. [27] Pickett continued to move forward with his men for a while, leading his horse on foot. A second assault by Pickett's brigade, led by Colonel Eppa Hunton, along with the brigade led by Cadmus M. Wilcox, broke the Union line. Pickett feared that he had taken a mortal blow to his shoulder, but the wound was initially assessed by others as minor. [28] The shoulder wound turned out to be severe enough that, while not fatal, Pickett was out of action for the next three months, and his arm would remain stiff for at least a year. [29]

When Pickett returned to the Army in September 1862, following the Battle of Antietam, he was given command of a two-brigade division in the corps commanded by his old colleague from Mexico, Major General Longstreet. Pickett was promoted to major general on October 10. Shortly afterwards his division was upgraded to five brigades, commanded by Generals Garnett, James L. Kemper, Lewis Armistead, Montgomery Dent Corse and Micah Jenkins. The division was only lightly engaged at the Battle of Fredericksburg in December. [30] His division would not see serious combat until the Gettysburg Campaign the following summer.[ citation needed ]

Suffolk and courtship

Longstreet and two of his divisions—-those commanded by Pickett and John Bell Hood—-were detached from Lee's main army in April while participating in the Suffolk Campaign. They thus missed the Battle of Chancellorsville. The Suffolk Campaign was minor and inconclusive, while the Battle of Chancellorsville was an enormous Confederate victory. [31]

Before the Gettysburg Campaign, Pickett fell in love with a Virginia teenager, LaSalle "Sallie" Corbell (1843–1931), commuting back and forth from his duties in Suffolk to be with her. Although Sallie would later insist that she met him in 1852 (at age 9), she did not marry the 38-year-old widower until November 13, 1863. The couple had two children, George Edward Pickett, Jr. (born July 17, 1864) [32] and David Corbell Pickett (born 1865 or 1866). [33] David died in late 1873 or January 1874 [34] of measles. [35]

At Suffolk, Longstreet grew impatient with Pickett's frequent trips away from his division to see Sallie at her home in nearby Chuckatuck. Pickett then decided to ask for permission for the visits from Longstreet's chief of staff, Moxley Sorrel, who referred him to Longstreet. Instead of asking Longstreet, Pickett went without permission. [36] After the war, Sorrel commented, "I don't think his division benefitted by such carpet-knight doings in the field." [37]

Gettysburg and Pickett's Charge

Pickett's division arrived at the Battle of Gettysburg on the evening of the second day, July 2, 1863. It was reduced to 3 brigades present, Corse's still being detached in Virginia and Jenkins' transferred. It had been delayed by the assignment of guarding the Confederate lines of communication through Chambersburg, Pennsylvania. After two days of heavy fighting, General Robert E. Lee's Army of Northern Virginia, which had initially driven the Union Army of the Potomac to the high ground south of Gettysburg, had been unable to dislodge the Union soldiers from their position. [38] Lee's plan for July 3 called for a massive assault on the center of the Union lines on Cemetery Ridge, calculating that Meade had concentrated his forces to protect his flanks while leaving his center weak. Lee directed General Longstreet to assemble a force of three divisions for the attack—two divisions from the corps of Lieutenant General A. P. Hill, under the temporary command of J. Johnston Pettigrew and Major General Isaac R. Trimble, which had both seen action on July 1, and Pickett's fresh division from Longstreet's own corps. [39] The center was occupied by the Union II Corps, commanded by Major General Winfield Scott Hancock. [40] Longstreet was technically in command, not Pickett. Nevertheless, the attack became known as "Pickett's Charge". In addition, much of the mythology of the Charge arose from newspaper reports. As Pickett was the only major general from Virginia to participate in the charge, the Virginia newspapers both played up their native son's role and made the assault a more "glamorous" event. [41]

Following a two-hour artillery barrage meant to soften up the Union defenses, the three divisions stepped off across open fields almost a mile from Cemetery Ridge. Pickett inspired his men by shouting, "Up, Men, and to your posts! Let no man forget today that you are from Old Virginia." [42] Pickett's division, with the brigades of Brigadier Generals Armistead, Garnett, and Kemper, was on the right flank of the assault. It received punishing artillery fire, and then volleys of massed musket fire as it approached its objective. Armistead's brigade made the farthest progress through the Union lines. Armistead was mortally wounded, falling near "The Angle", at what is now termed the "High Water Mark of the Confederacy". Neither of the other two divisions made comparable progress across the fields; Armistead's success was not reinforced, and his men were quickly killed or captured. [40]

Thure de Thulstrup's Battle of Gettysburg, showing Pickett's Charge. Thure de Thulstrup - L. Prang and Co. - Battle of Gettysburg - Restoration by Adam Cuerden.jpg
Thure de Thulstrup's Battle of Gettysburg, showing Pickett's Charge.

Pickett's Charge was a bloodbath. While the Union suffered 1,500 casualties, the Confederates had over 6,000. Over 50% of the men sent across the fields were killed or wounded. [43] Pickett's division alone, out of about 5,500 men, lost 224 killed, 1,140 wounded, and 1,499 missing/captured. [44] Pickett's three brigade commanders and all thirteen of his regimental commanders were casualties. Kemper was wounded, Garnett killed, and Armistead mortally wounded. Trimble and Pettigrew were the most senior casualties of the entire Confederate assault, the former losing a leg and the latter wounded in the hand and later mortally wounded during the retreat to Virginia. Pickett has received some historical criticism for establishing his final position well to the rear of his troops. Thomas R. Friend, who served Pickett as a courier, defended Pickett by writing that he "went as far as any Major General, Commanding a division, ought to have gone, and farther." [45]

As soldiers straggled back to the Confederate lines along Seminary Ridge, Lee feared a Union counteroffensive and tried to rally his center, telling returning soldiers that the failure was "all my fault." Pickett was inconsolable. When Lee told Pickett to rally his division for the defense, Pickett allegedly replied, "General Lee, I have no division." [46] Pickett's official report for the battle has never been found. While it is rumored that Lee rejected it for its bitter negativity and demanded that it be rewritten, an updated version was never filed. [47]

North Carolina

After the Battle of Gettysburg, Pickett commanded the Department of Southern Virginia and North Carolina. In February, Pickett was ordered to capture New Bern, North Carolina from Federal forces. The subsequent Battle of New Bern resulted in a Confederate defeat. Following the battle, Pickett ordered the execution of 22 United States Army soldiers from North Carolina who were captured during the failed raid. [48] Confederates claimed they were merely executing deserters. [49] In fact many of the US soldiers put to death offered good evidence that they refused service in the Confederate States Army, serving only in the North Carolina home guard on the basis of refusing to take up arms against the United States. [50]

(After the war Pickett fled to Canada to escape an investigation into the executions, but he returned to the United States after being promised by General Grant, to public controversy, that he would not face prosecution. [50] )

Overland Campaign and Siege of Petersburg

Following the New Bern battle, Pickett served as a division commander in the Defenses of Richmond. After P. G. T. Beauregard bottled up Benjamin Butler in the Bermuda Hundred Campaign, Pickett's division was detached in support of Robert E. Lee's operation in the Overland Campaign, just before the Battle of Cold Harbor, in which Pickett's division occupied the center of the defensive line, a place in which the main Union attack did not occur. [51] His division participated in the Siege of Petersburg. [30]

Battle of Five Forks

General Pickett had received orders from Robert E. Lee to, with the Cavalry divisions of Major Generals William Henry Fitzhugh Lee and Thomas L. Rosser, hold the vital railroad crossing at Five Forks at all costs. On April 1, at the Battle of Five Forks, their troops were attacked by a combined force under Major General Philip Henry Sheridan, which consisted of the V Corps of the Army of the Potomac, commanded by Major General Gouverneur K. Warren, and the Cavalry Corps of the Army, commanded by Brigadier General Wesley Merritt. Pickett, W.H.L. Lee, and Rosser were located behind the lines of their troops at the time of the attack, enjoying a shad bake while failing to inform their subordinate officers of their location. Meanwhile, Warren's troops overwhelmed Pickett's left flank, and the Cavalry troops pinned the Confederates down elsewhere. By the time the Confederate commanders realized the catastrophe, it was too late to prevent the defeat. The result of the battle, as well as that of the Third Battle of Petersburg the following day, forced Lee to abandon his entrenchments at Petersburg, leading to the capture of Richmond and surrender of his army on April 9. [52]

Relief controversy

A controversy existed over whether or not Pickett was relieved of his command in the final days of the war. After the war, Lee's Chief of Staff, Lieutenant Colonel Walter H. Taylor, wrote that following the Battle of Sayler's Creek on April 6, 1865, he had issued orders for Lee relieving Major Generals Richard H. Anderson and Bushrod Johnson, whose forces had been lost in the battle and who thereby no longer had troops under their command. In fact, Anderson had returned to his home in South Carolina following the battle. In addition, Taylor recollected that he had issued an order relieving Pickett as well. Pickett's division was still intact, though reduced in number to about the size of a brigade. [53] No copies of these orders exist. Douglas Southall Freeman, a biographer of Lee, supported this assertion, writing in 1935 that at the same time Lee relieved Anderson of command, he took the same action regarding Pickett and Bushrod Johnson, but the order regarding Pickett apparently never reached him. As late as April 11, he signed himself, "Maj. Genl. Commdg." [54]

In contradiction to this assertion, in his 1870 book Pickett's Men Walter Harrison reprinted an order from Lieutenant Colonel Taylor to Pickett dated April 10, 1865, in which Taylor addressed Pickett as "Maj Gen G E Picket [ sic ], General Commanding" The order was a request for an account of the movements and actions of Pickett's Division from the time of the Battle of Five Forks on April 1 to the surrender at Appomattox on April 9. In the report Pickett submitted, he said:

The second day after the battle referred to (Five Forks) not being able to find General Anderson's headquarters, I reported to Lieut. Gen. Longstreet, and continued to receive orders from him until the army was paroled and disbursed." [55]

Pickett's official report to Taylor was signed "G.E. Pickett, Major-Gen., Commd'g." [56] This is the April 11 report mentioned by Freeman above. Thus in Pickett's official report to Taylor he speaks of commanding his men and interacting with his superior officer right up until the surrender at Appomattox. Taylor attempted to explain the apparent contradiction by telling Fitzhugh Lee that he addressed his request in the manner he did because Pickett was not dismissed from the Army, and for the period in question, Pickett was initially in command. [57] This explanation, however, leaves unanswered the question of how Taylor expected Pickett to answer for the period of time Pickett purportedly was not in command. The explanation does not explain Pickett's report which covered the entire period, nor the fact that Pickett signed the report as the acting commander, nor did it explain Longstreet's interactions with Pickett over this period of time. Furthermore, there is no record of Taylor requesting reports from any other officers dismissed from the service on the movements of their former troops, nor of his referring to such officers in a manner which would connote active command.[ citation needed ]

The medical officer of Pickett's division, Dr. M. G. Elzey, was with Pickett at the time of these events. When an elderly Colonel John S. Mosby raised this issue in 1911, Elzey wrote a letter to the Richmond Times-Dispatch in answer to Mosby:

I was General Pickett's personal medical advisor, and continued to be such until the time of his death. We rode together a greater part of the way during the retreat of our army from Petersburg to Appomattox. We escaped together from the battlefield at Sailor's Creek and were constantly together until we reached Appomattox. I repeat it, therefore, with all confidence, that I am a competent witness to the fact that he was never under arrest, but remained in command of his Division until the last scene at Appomattox.

M. G. Elzey [58]

In Longstreet's final report, he makes no mention of Pickett or his division. Nor does Longstreet mention any other officer being in charge of the unit, nor Pickett commanded the men remaining in his division and reported to Longstreet. [59] These men surrendered with Pickett at Appomattox. Regarding Pickett and his division, no source can be produced which asserts anything otherwise.[ citation needed ]

Appomattox

On April 9, Pickett commanded his remaining troops in the Battle of Appomattox Courthouse, forming up in the final battle line of the Army of Northern Virginia. He surrendered with Lee's army and was paroled at Appomattox Court House on April 12, 1865. [60]

A legend told by Pickett's widow stated that when the Union Army marched into Richmond, she received a surprise visitor. He acted graciously and inquired whether he had found the Pickett house. Abraham Lincoln himself, the story goes, had come to determine the fate of an old acquaintance before the wars, and Sallie, astonished, admitted she was his wife and held out her infant for the president to cradle. [61] Lincoln historian Gerald J. Prokopowicz has called this story a "fantasy". [62]

Postbellum life

Pickett's execution of 22 captured Union Army soldiers, from North Carolina at New Bern, was then under investigation. Pickett, fearing prosecution, fled with his wife and son to Canada. Testimony at the hearings, including that of wartime North Carolina Governor Zebulon Vance, alleged that at least some of the executed men had belonged to local militias and been unwillingly transferred to the regular Confederate army in "violation of their enlistment agreement," and thus should not have been treated as deserters and shot. [63] Pickett remained out of the country for a year until hearing that, at the recommendation of Ulysses S. Grant, the investigation had ended. Pickett returned to the United States with his family in 1866 to work as an insurance agent and farmer in Norfolk, Virginia. [9]

On June 23, 1874, House Resolution 3086, an "act to remove the political disabilities of George E. Pickett of Virginia", was passed by the U.S. Congress. Pickett was granted a full pardon, about a year before his death. [64]

Pickett lamented his men, lost in great number at Gettysburg. Late in his life, Colonel John S. Mosby, who had served under General J. E. B. Stuart, was present when Lee and Pickett met briefly after the war. He claimed their interaction was cold and reserved. Others present at the meeting disputed this, stating Lee only acted in his usual reserved and gentlemanly fashion. [65] Pickett, Mosby said, complained bitterly to him after this meeting that "That man destroyed my division." [46] Mosby allegedly replied, "Yes, but he made you immortal." Most historians find the encounter as Mosby interpreted it unlikely. Asked by reporters why Pickett's Charge failed, Pickett frequently replied, "I've always thought the Yankees had something to do with it." [66]

George E. Pickett died in Norfolk, Virginia, on July 30, 1875. [67] The cause of death was a liver abscess, although whether it was alcohol-related, amoebic or bacterial is not clear. [68] He was initially interred in Cedar Grove Cemetery in Norfolk. [69] His remains were disinterred on October 23 and he was buried in Hollywood Cemetery in Richmond, Virginia on October 24, 1875. More than 40,000 people lined the funeral route, while another 5,000 marched in the funeral procession. [70] A memorial to Pickett was erected over his grave site and dedicated on October 5, 1888. [71] The memorial was not, however, placed directly above Pickett's burial site, and the exact location of his remains is not clear. [72]

LaSalle Corbell Pickett died on March 22, 1931, having outlived her husband by more than 55 years. Initially, Hollywood Cemetery declined to allow her to be buried next to her husband. Pickett's grandson, Lieutenant George E. Pickett III, [73] threatened to have his grandfather disinterred and moved to Arlington National Cemetery where both grandparents could be buried side-by-side. Hollywood Cemetery quickly agreed to permit LaSalle's interment at Hollywood, [72] but this did not immediately occur for reasons which are not clear, and LaSalle was cremated and buried at Abbey Mausoleum in Arlington County, Virginia. Originally a mausoleum for the wealthy, it went bankrupt in 1968. The structure fell into disrepair, and it was vandalized many times and several graves desecrated. [74] In early 1998, the Military Order of the Stars and Bars and United Daughters of the Confederacy worked together to pay for LaSalle's disinterment and reburial in front of the George E. Pickett Memorial in Hollywood Cemetery. LaSalle Pickett was buried on Saturday, March 21, 1998. She was the first woman interred in the Confederate military burial section. [75]

Legacy

Pickett's grave site at Hollywood Cemetery Pickett's Grave.jpg
Pickett's grave site at Hollywood Cemetery

Decades after Pickett's death, his widow LaSalle (also known as "Sallie" and "Mother") became a well-known writer and speaker on "her Soldier," eventually leading to the creation of an idealized Pickett who was the perfect Southern gentleman and soldier. Much controversy attends LaSalle Pickett's lionizing of her husband. LaSalle was the author of Pickett and His Men, a history of her husband's military campaigns, which was published in 1899. [76] She published two other books in her deceased husband's name, The Heart of a Soldier, As Revealed in the Intimate Letters of Gen'l George E. Pickett (published in 1913) and Soldier of the South: General Pickett's War Letters to His Wife (1928). These two writings have been described as "unreliable works that were fictionalized by Pickett's wife." [77] As a result, General Pickett has become a figure partially obscured by "Lost Cause" mythology. [78]

Pickett today is widely perceived as being a tragic hero of sorts—a flamboyant officer who wanted to lead his troops into a glorious battle, but always missed the opportunity until the disastrous charge at Gettysburg. [79] Historian John C. Waugh wrote of Pickett, "An excellent brigade commander, he never proved he could handle a division." He quotes George B. McClellan, the Union general, as saying: "Perhaps there is no doubt that he was the best infantry soldier developed on either side during the Civil War." [80]

Pickett's grave is marked by a memorial in Hollywood Cemetery, which was placed there in 1888. [81] A monument to Pickett also stands in the American Camp on San Juan Island, Washington State, erected by the Washington University Historical Society on October 21, 1904. [82]

Fort Pickett in Blackstone, Virginia, is named in his honor. It was completed in 1942 and served as an active U.S. Army training facility in World War II and is currently occupied by the Virginia National Guard. [83]

Actor Stephen Lang portrayed Pickett in the 1993 film Gettysburg. Billy Campbell portrayed him in the 2003 prequel Gods and Generals . [84] In a 2003 interview, Lang commented that "for all of Pickett's flamboyance, there's something organically sad about him. Have you ever looked at any of the portraits of him? You can see it in his eyes-the sadness. He could be charming, but it was tinged with sadness." [85]

Pickett also appeared in two episodes of the 1985 mini-series North and South , depicting him as a cadet at West Point, at which time he was a friend of George Hazard and Orry Main, the two main fictional characters of the series. [86] [87]

See also

Notes

  1. 1 2 Military records cited by Eicher, p. 428, and Warner, p. 239, list January 28. The memorial that marks his gravesite in Hollywood Cemetery lists his birthday as January 25. The Pickett Society claims to have accessed the baptismal record from St. John's Church in Richmond; at the time of young Pickett's christening on March 10, 1826, his parents gave their son's date of birth as January 16.
  2. Vouri, Michael (2016). The Pig War. 164 S, Jackson, Seattle WA98104: Discover Your Northwest distributed by University of Washington. p. 307. ISBN   978-0-914019-62-6.
  3. Pickett Society
  4. 1 2 3 4 Eicher, p. 428.
  5. "Huguenot Society".
  6. Prokopowicz, G.J. (2009) Did Lincoln Own Slaves? : And Other Frequently Asked Questions About Abraham Lincoln. New York: Knopf Doubleday, p. 132
  7. Tagg, p. 237.
  8. Hess, p. 37.
  9. 1 2 "George Pickett".
  10. Memoirs of Brigadier General William Montgomery Gardner. Special Collections, USMA Archives. p. 8.
  11. Robbins p. 96
  12. Robbins p. xi Quote: The term goat connotes many things – stubbornness, persistence, but also mischievousness and playfulness. The goats were by and large charismatic, adventuresome, with a youthful bonhomie that generally made them very popular with their classmates.
  13. Rubin, Ben Fox (November 26, 2012). "At West Point, 'Goats' Are an Exclusive Bunch". The Wall Street Journal. Retrieved July 19, 2016.
  14. "Who is General George Edward Pickett?". United States Army. Retrieved June 28, 2016.
  15. "George Pickett (History Net)". History Net. Retrieved June 28, 2016.
  16. Tagg, p. 112.
  17. Gordon, Encyclopedia of the American Civil War, pp. 1518–19.
  18. 1 2 "George E. Pickett House". City of Bellingham. Archived from the original on April 14, 2011. Retrieved September 27, 2010.
  19. Gordon, General George E. Pickett in Life and Legend, pp. 169–70; Boltz, np.
  20. 1 2 "The San Juan Island National Historical Park – The Pig War". National Park Service. Retrieved February 24, 2016.
  21. Robbins, p. 177; Tagg, p. 237.
  22. Gordon, General George E. Pickett in Life and Legend, p. 60.
  23. Vouri, Michael (2016). The Pig War. 164 S, Jackson, Seattle WA98104: Discover Your Northwest distributed by University of Washington. pp. 69–72. ISBN   978-0-914019-62-6.
  24. Lankford, Nelson D. "Virginia Convention of 1861". Encyclopedia Virginia. Retrieved July 22, 2016.
  25. Vouri, Mike (2008). The Pig War. Charleston SC, Chicago IL: Arcadia. ISBN   978-0-7385-5840-0.
  26. Tagg, pp. 236–37.
  27. Robbins, p. 241.
  28. Tagg, p. 237; Carmichael, p. 29; Burton, pp. 128–29. Major John C. Haskell, a staff officer, encountered Pickett in a hollow, and wrote afterward that Pickett thought his wound was mortal and requested litter bearers. Haskell examined the wound, saw that it was slight, and rode off, satisfied that Pickett could take care of himself.
  29. Longacre, pp. 86–87; Gordon, Lesley J. "George E. Pickett (1825–1875)". Encyclopedia Virginia. Retrieved November 30, 2010.
  30. 1 2 "George E. Pickett". Civil War Trust. Retrieved February 24, 2016.
  31. Breiner, Thomas L. (September 16, 1999). "Pork Belly Politics or How Longstreet Brought Home the Bacon: James Longstreet and the Suffolk Campaign". Cincinnati Civil War Roundtable. Retrieved July 4, 2016.
  32. Selcer, p. 45.
  33. The exact date of David's birth is not clear. See: Gordon, p. 235.
  34. Although LaSalle Corbell Pickett gives the date of his death as April 1874, her memoirs are considered highly unreliable. A letter from George E. Pickett to his wife, dated January 1874, refers to David's "recent" death. See: Gordon, p. 235.
  35. Robbins, James S. Last in Their Class: Custer, Pickett, and the Goats of West Point. New York: Encounter Books, 2006, p. 399.
  36. Wert 1993, pp. 236–237
  37. Sorrel 1992, pp. 146–147
  38. "Pickett's Charge". Civil War Trust. Retrieved June 30, 2016.
  39. Davis, pp. 234–236
  40. 1 2 Pennypacker, Isaac R. "Pickett's Charge: A 1901 Account of the Civil War's Most Famous Charge". Civil War Trust. Archived from the original on March 13, 2018. Retrieved June 16, 2016.
  41. Kinsel, Amy J. (April 1998). "Kinsel on Reardon, 'Pickett's Charge in History and Memory'". Humanities and Social Sciences Online: H-Civ War. Retrieved July 1, 2016.
  42. Inscription on the monument for Pickett's Charge at Gettysburg National Park; Tagg, p. 239.
  43. Cheeks, Robert C. "Nothing But Glory Gained – Account of Pickett's Charge at Gettysburg". HistoryNet. Retrieved June 30, 2016.
  44. Pickett's Charge Archived 2010-03-26 at the Wayback Machine Civil War Trust. Retrieved May 10, 2016.
  45. Hess, p. 177; Gordon, General George E. Pickett in Life and Legend, p. 115.
  46. 1 2 Tagg, p. 240.
  47. Reardon, pp. 85, 159–60, 186.
  48. "George Pickett". The History Channel. Retrieved June 21, 2016.
  49. The Official Records of the War of the Rebellion, Series II, Volume VII, (1902).
  50. 1 2 An Account of the Assassination of Loyal Citizens of North Carolina by Rush C. Hawkins, 1897.
  51. Rhea, p. 111.
  52. Luebke, Peter. "Battle of Five Forks". Encyclopedia Virginia. Retrieved June 30, 2016.
  53. Warner, p. 240.
  54. Freeman, vol. 4, p. 112.
  55. Harrison p. 149
  56. Harrison, pp. 141–151.
  57. Marvel, p. 216.
  58. Letter to the Times-Dispatch, April 2, 1911
  59. Marvel, pp. 214–217
  60. Robbins, p. 292.
  61. Lankford, p. 242.
  62. Prokopowicz, p. 132.
  63. Current, Richard Nelson (1992). Lincoln's Loyalists: Union soldiers from the Confederacy. Lawrenceville, New Jersey: Princeton University Press. pp. 119–123. ISBN   978-1-55553-124-9.
  64. Pickett Society
  65. K.C. Stiles (March 25, 1911). "Letter to the Editor". Times-Dispatch.
  66. Boritt, p. 19.
  67. Brown, Fred R. History of the Ninth U.S. Infantry, 1799–1909. Chicago: R.R. Donnelley & Sons Co., 1909, p. 730.
  68. Gordon, Lesley J. General George E. Pickett in Life and Legend. Chapel Hill, N.C.: University of North Carolina Press, 1998, p. 236.
  69. Selcer, Richard F. "Faithfully and Forever Your Soldier": Gen. George E. Pickett, CSA. Gettysburg, Pa.:Farnsworth House Military Impressions, 1995, p. 54.
  70. "The Late Gen. Pickett." New York Times. October 25, 1875.
  71. Sedore, Timothy S. An Illustrated Guide to Virginia's Confederate Monuments. Carbondale, Ill.: Southern Illinois University Press, 2011, p. 161.
  72. 1 2 "Dead of Lost Cause May Get U.S. Shrine." Washington Post. March 30, 1931.
  73. Only George E. Pickett, Jr. survived into adulthood. He died at sea while returning from Manila, The Philippines, on April 18, 1911. See: Department of War. War Department Annual Reports, 1911. Vol. 3. Washington, D.C.: Government Printing Office, 1912, p. 218. Retrieved October 24, 2013.
  74. Scannell, Nancy. "Mausoleum for Sale." Washington Post. April 28, 1986; Hong, Peter Y. "Vandalism in Va. Mausoleum Said to Indicate Satanism." Washington Post. June 23, 1994; Kunkle, Fredrick. "Giving Up Its Ghosts." Washington Post. January 27, 2001.
  75. "General's Wife Buried in Confederate Cemetery." Tuscaloosa News. March 21, 1998. Retrieved October 24, 2013.
  76. Gordon, Lesley J. "LaSalle Corbell Pickett (1843–1931)" Virginia Encyclopedia. October 27, 2015. Web. Retrieved March 7, 2016.
  77. Eicher, p. 429.
  78. "Book Review: General George E. Pickett in Life and Legend". UNC Press. Archived from the original on February 24, 2013. Retrieved June 30, 2016.
  79. "The Fame of Pickett's Charge". Science Views. Retrieved June 23, 2016.
  80. Waugh, p. 507. The McClellan quote is from remarks he wrote for Pickett's funeral, as reported by LaSalle Pickett in her hagiographic The Heart of a Soldier.
  81. "Pickett Monument Undergoing Restoration Work". Virginia Division: United Daughters of the Confederacy. Retrieved June 23, 2016.
  82. "In Perpetuity: U.S. Army Quartermaster Museum". George Pickett Society. February 5, 2010. Retrieved June 22, 2016.
  83. "Fort Pickett". Virginia National Guard. Retrieved June 20, 2016.
  84. Sloane, Judy; Campbell, Billy (February 14, 2013). "Billy Campbell Takes on Lincoln". Front Row Features. Retrieved June 20, 2016.
  85. Largent, Kimberly J. (January 2003). "An Interview with Stephen Lang: Bringing Stonewall Jackson to Life". Ohio State University. Retrieved October 10, 2017.
  86. North and South Book 1 Episode 1 Retrieved June 30, 2016.
  87. North and South Book 1 Episode 2 Retrieved June 30, 2016.

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References

Further reading