George Preca

Last updated
Saint
George Preca
Dun Gorg Preca.jpg
Priest
Born(1880-02-12)12 February 1880
Valletta, Crown Colony of Malta
Died26 July 1962(1962-07-26) (aged 82)
Santa Venera, Crown Colony of Malta
Venerated in Catholic Church
Beatified 9 May 2001, Floriana, Malta by Pope John Paul II
Canonized 3 June 2007, Saint Peter's Square, Vatican City by Pope Benedict XVI
Feast 9 May
Attributes Priest's attire
Patronage

George Preca (in Maltese : Ġorġ Preca) (12 February 1880 – 26 July 1962) was a Maltese Catholic priest and the founder of the Society of Christian Doctrine as well as a Third Order Carmelite. He is known as "Dun Ġorġ" in Maltese and Pope John Paul II dubbed him "Malta’s second father in faith". [1] He assumed the religious name of "Franco" after becoming a Secular Carmelite. He was a popular figure among some groups, and his pastoral care and religious teaching earned recognition. However, his activities raised suspicions of heresy from senior clergy. He was ordered to close down his teaching centres for a time while they could be investigated; they were subsequently re-opened. [2]

Maltese language Semitic language spoken mostly in Malta

Maltese is the national language of Malta and a co-official language of the country alongside English, while also serving as an official language of the European Union, the only Semitic language so distinguished. Maltese is descended from Siculo-Arabic, the extinct variety of Arabic that developed in Sicily and was later introduced to Malta, between the end of the ninth century and the end of the twelfth century.

The Maltese are a nation and an ethnic group native to Malta who speak the Maltese language. Malta is an island in the middle of the Mediterranean Sea. Included within the ethnic group defined by the Maltese people are the Gozitans who inhabit Malta's sister island, Gozo.

Catholic Church Largest Christian church, led by the Bishop of Rome

The Catholic Church, also known as the Roman Catholic Church, is the largest Christian church, with approximately 1.3 billion baptised Catholics worldwide as of 2017. As the world's oldest and largest continuously functioning international institution, it has played a prominent role in the history and development of Western civilisation. The church is headed by the Bishop of Rome, known as the pope. Its central administration, the Holy See, is in the Vatican City, an enclave within the city of Rome in Italy.

Contents

His activism earned him praise and in 1952, Pope Pius XII nominated him as a Papal Secret Chamberlain and awarded the rank of Monsignor. [2]

Pope Pius XII 260th Pope of the Catholic Church

Pope Pius XII, born Eugenio Maria Giuseppe Giovanni Pacelli, was head of the Catholic Church and sovereign of the Vatican City State from 2 March 1939 to his death. Before his election to the papacy, he served as secretary of the Department of Extraordinary Ecclesiastical Affairs, papal nuncio to Germany, and Cardinal Secretary of State, in which capacity he worked to conclude treaties with European and Latin American nations, most notably the Reichskonkordat with Nazi Germany.

Monsignor Honorific form of address for certain Catholic clergy

Monsignor is an honorific form of address for some members of the clergy, usually of the Roman Catholic Church, including bishops, honorary prelates and canons. "Monsignor" is a form of address, not an appointment: properly speaking, one cannot be "made a monsignor" or be "the monsignor of a parish". The title or form of address is associated with certain papal awards, which Pope Paul VI reduced to three classes: those of Protonotary Apostolic, Honorary Prelate, and Chaplain of His Holiness.

In 1957 he composed five new mysteries for the Rosary for his followers which he had referred to as the "Mysteries of Light" [3] . He was canonized as a saint by the Catholic Church in 2007.

Rosary Roman Catholic sacramental and Marian devotion to prayer

The Holy Rosary, also known as the Dominican Rosary, refers to a form of prayer psalter used in the Catholic Church and to the string of knots or beads used to count the component prayers. When used for the prayer, the word is usually capitalized, as is customary for other names of prayers, such as "the Lord's Prayer", and "the Hail Mary"; when referring to the beads, it is written with a lower-case initial letter.

Canonization Act by which churches declare that a person who has died was a saint

Canonization is the act by which a Christian church declares that a person who has died was a saint, upon which declaration the person is included in the list of recognized saints, called the "canon". Originally, a person was recognized as a saint without any formal process. Later, different processes were developed, such as those used today in the Roman Catholic Church, the Eastern Orthodox Church, Oriental Orthodox Church and the Anglican Communion.

Life

George Preca was born in Valletta on 12 February 1880 [4] as the seventh of nine children of Vincent and Nathalie Ceravolo Preca. [5] His father was both a merchant and a health inspector. [6] He received his baptism on 17 February 1880 in the Church of Our Lady of Porto Salvo. [7] Preca was a frail child due to a range of illnesses he had and in 1885 almost drowned in the harbor though boatmen rescued him. [8]

Baptism Christian rite of admission and adoption, almost invariably with the use of water

Baptism is a Christian rite of admission and adoption, almost invariably with the use of water, into Christianity. The synoptic gospels recount that John the Baptist baptised Jesus. Baptism is considered a sacrament in most churches, and as an ordinance in others. Baptism is also called christening, although some reserve the word "christening" for the baptism of infants. It has also given its name to the Baptist churches and denominations.

Basilica of St Dominic, Valletta Church in Valletta, Malta

The Basilica of St Dominic or also known as the Basilica of Our Lady of Safe Haven and St Dominic is one of the three parish churches of Valletta, Malta. It is administered by the Dominican Order whose convent is located behind the church.

In 1886, the family relocated to Ħamrun. He received both his First Communion at some stage in his childhood and then his Confirmation on 2 August 1888 in the parish church of Saint Cajetan from Bishop Anton Maria Buhagiar[ citation needed ].

First Communion Christian Eucharistic sacrament, typically occurs between the ages of seven and thirteen

First Communion is a ceremony in some Christian traditions during which a person first receives the Eucharist. It is most common in the Latin Church tradition of the Catholic Church, as well as in many parts of the Lutheran Church and Anglican Communion. In churches that celebrate First Communion, it typically occurs between the ages of seven and thirteen, often acting as a rite of passage.

In 1897, while walking along the Maglio Gardens in Floriana, Preca met one of his professors, Father Ercole Mompalao, who encouraged his religious vocation. Preca first studied at the state-owned school on the island before he commenced his studies for the priesthood; he had studied Latin and English but also studied Italian and received a prize in handwriting. [6] Shortly before his ordination, Preca was diagnosed with acute pulmonary tuberculosis and given a poor prognosis. He attributed his recovery to the intercession of Saint Joseph, patron of the dying, however the illness left him with a damaged left lung. [9]

Floriana Local council in South Eastern Region, Malta

Floriana, also known by its title Borgo Vilhena, is a fortified town in the South Eastern Region area of Malta, just outside the capital city Valletta. It has a population of 2,205 as of March 2014. Floriana is the birthplace of many famous Maltese, amongst which the composer of the national anthem, 'L-Innu Malti', Robert Samut; former Bishop of Malta Dun Mauro Caruana, the poets Oliver Friggieri & Maria Grech Ganado, the writer and politician Herbert Ganado and Swedish Idol winner Kevin Borg.

Latin Indo-European language of the Italic family

Latin is a classical language belonging to the Italic branch of the Indo-European languages. The Latin alphabet is derived from the Etruscan and Greek alphabets and ultimately from the Phoenician alphabet.

English language West Germanic language

English is a West Germanic language that was first spoken in early medieval England and eventually became a global lingua franca. It is named after the Angles, one of the Germanic tribes that migrated to the area of Great Britain that later took their name, as England. Both names derive from Anglia, a peninsula in the Baltic Sea. The language is closely related to Frisian and Low Saxon, and its vocabulary has been significantly influenced by other Germanic languages, particularly Norse, and to a greater extent by Latin and French.

On 8 April 1905 his confessor Aloysius Galea died and Preca would often recount that not long after Galea seemingly appeared to him and encouraged his call to the priesthood. In his studies he began to write a rule in Latin for use in a planned religious movement for permanent deacons that he wished to establish but this desire subsided over time though the idea remained much on Preca's mind but he altered the idea after being ordained. Preca received his ordination to the priesthood alongside thirteen others on 22 December 1906 from Bishop Pietro Pace and he celebrated his first Mass on 25 December - Christmas - at the Saint Cajetan parish church in Ħamrun. [4] He was appointed assistant priest at St. Gaetano, and immediately devoted himself to teaching the youth. [8]

M.U.S.E.U.M.

He began to teach the Catholic catechism along the waterfront to people, including labourers, and began to gather male catechists including Ewgenju Borg around him. [7] In February 1907 he arranged a spiritual conference at the Ta' Nuzzo church; later meetings were held at 6 Fra Diegu Street. This led to the founding of a new religious movement on 7 March 1907 at Ħamrun at the first meeting of the Society of Christian Doctrine (known locally as M.U.S.E.U.M.). [10]

Senior clergy began to suspect that the rapid growth and popularity of Preca's movement could have heretical implications, especially as it involved so many of the low skilled and uneducated. The Vicar General, Mgr Salvatore Grech, issued an order in 1909 that all the "MUSEUM centres" should be closed. A protest by other parish priests led to the order being rescinded. Nevertheless, the new society continued to receive a lot of criticism in the press, and in 1916, Bishop Maurus Caruana opened a formal enquiry. This cleared the movement of any negative behaviours and paved the way in due course for ecclesiastical recognition of the Society of Christian Doctrine on 12 April 1932.

It was at the height of the crisis that Preca claimed to have received a powerful religious experience in 1910 one morning as he passed the Marsa Cross - triggered by a child aged twelve pushing a cart with a bag of manure who had shouted: "Lend me a hand!". Preca helped him and as he placed his hands on the cart he felt profound spiritual calmness and understood that he had experienced a revelation as the boy symbolized Christ and the wagon, the work of evangelizing. [8]

Preca became a Third Order Carmelite after being admitted on 21 July 1918 and having made his profession on 26 September 1919 with the new religious name of "Franco". In the parishes, Preca established Nativity plays at Christmas time; a custom maintained to this day in almost all the parishes of Malta. [8]

In the 1950s Fr Preca himself sent six members of the Society to Australia to serve the Maltese who had emigrated to Melbourne. [10] As of 2016, there were 1,200 members serving in six countries.

Despite the contested use of either Italian or English, Preca taught and wrote in Maltese, the language of the common people, so that everyone could understand. He wrote about 150 booklets, pamphlets and leaflets. [10] To publish and spread his works, he obtained a printing press and founded in the 1920’s what would become “Veritas Press”, one of the main Catholic publishing companies in Malta.

Throughout his pastoral mission he was a popular preacher and sought-after confessor. [6] Preca was named as a Monsignor after Pope Pius XII - on 2 October 1952 - named him a Privy Chamberlain much to his mortification and he held this title until the pope died in 1958. He never wore the vestments that the title entailed, nor did he ever claim the official document from the archbishop's office. [2]

Preca died in the evening of 26 July 1962. His funeral on 28 July was one of the largest funerals ever held in Malta and Bishop Emanuel Galea presided over it at the Saint Cajetan church. [6]

Mysteries of Light

In 1957 Preca wrote five mysteries which he called the "Mysteries of Light" which he said had been inspired by John 8:12: "The light of the world". [11]

These were:

Veneration

Statue at Monte Kristo Estates in Hal Farrug in Luqa. Statue of Saint George Preca at Montekristo Estates, Hal Farrug, Luqa.jpeg
Statue at Monte Kristo Estates in Hal Farrug in Luqa.

Venerable

The cause towards canonization by the Catholic Church formally opened on 13 March 1975 under Pope Paul VI when Preca was given the title "Servant of God" after the Congregation for the Causes of Saints issued its official "nihil obstat". Mikiel Gonzi (the Archbishop of Malta) subsequently issued the decree on 24 June 1975 that would pave the path for a full diocesan investigation to begin. The process opening in Malta on 25 February 1976 and continued for over a decade until its solemn closure on 23 June 1988 under Joseph Mercieca. The Congregation validated the process in Rome on 19 June 1992 and the postulator later submitted the Positio for assessment in 1998. A congress of six theologians first approved the cause on 16 March 1999 while the members of the Congregation likewise voted in approval of the cause on 1 June 1999. The confirmation of Preca's model life of "heroic virtue" on 28 June 1999 allowed for Pope John Paul II to grant the title of Venerable [6] [12]

Beatification

However, for Preca to be beatified a miracle had to be obtained as a result of his intercession - or at least a healing that conventional science could not easily explain. One such miracle was investigated and it received validation from the Congregation on 21 November 1997 before a board of seven medical appointees approved it on 10 June 1999 as did six theologians on 22 October 1999 and then the Congregation on 11 January 2000. The Pope expressed his view on 27 January 2000 that this healing was indeed a miracle and beatified Preca on 9 May 2001 while on a visit to Malta, and referred to him on that visit as the "Second Apostle of Malta" (Saint Paul being the first). [6] The attributed miracle was a healing said to have occurred in February 1964 concerning Charles Zammit Endrich who suffered from a detached retina in his left eye. He was allegedly healed after Endrich placed one of Preca's personal belongings under his pillow. His personal doctor Ċensu Tabone (later the President of Malta) was present. [12]

Sainthood

For Preca to become a saint then another miracle was required. A suitable candidate was found in the alleged healing of an infant, Eric Catania (b. 2002), who suffered from mironodular infantile cirrhosis with acute liver decompensation in addition to ascites and cholestasis and hypocoagulation. [12] The baby was transferred to King's College Hospital, the world's largest and most expert paediatric liver centre. [13] The planned treatment would have been a liver transplant, but doctors were concerned of the risk of organ rejection. The baby's parents were said to have put a glove used during Preca's exhumation on the infant and he seemingly recovered to the point the doctors said an operation was not needed at all. The report Congregation validation on 17 December 2004 in Rome and then the approval of the Vatican medical board on 23 February 2006. The theologians approved this as well on 30 October 2006 as did the Congregation on 9 January 2007. Pope Benedict XVI approved the "miracle" on 22 February 2007 as being a result of Preca's direct intercession, and Preca was canonized on 3 June 2007 in Saint Peter's Square after having formalized the date for the celebration at a consistory on 23 February 2007 at 11:00am. The canonization cemented Preca as the second Maltese saint (Saint Publius being the first) and in his remarks the pope called Preca "a friend of Jesus". [14]

A statue of Preca was unveiled at the church of Saint Cajetan parish in Ħamrun, Malta, during a solemn Mass that Archbishop Paul Cremona presided over on 17 December 2009.[ citation needed ] A statue was placed on the same spot where Preca used to take confessions. Beside the statue there is also his relic with a sample of his blood. The bronze statue is the work of sculptor Gianni Bonnici and was made in Caggiati in Parma.[ citation needed ]

A portrait bust commemorates Preca outside St. Patrick's Cathedral in East Melbourne, Australia. [15]

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References

  1. "Homily of John Paul II: Mass with Beatifications", 9 May 2001, Libreria Editrice Vaticana
  2. 1 2 3 "The First Maltese Saint: Dun Gorg Preca – A biography". Malta Independent. Retrieved 11 September 2018.Cite web requires |website= (help)
  3. Formosa, John. "Probable Origin of the Mysteries of Light". Catholic Planet. Retrieved 11 March 2016.Cite web requires |website= (help)
  4. 1 2 Bonavia, Carmel. "Remembering San Ġorġ Preca: a masterpiece of God’s wisdom", Times of Malta, July 22, 2012
  5. "San Gorg Preca (1880–1962)", John XXIII Peace Lab, Malta
  6. 1 2 3 4 5 6 Agasso, Domenico. "Saint George Preca". Santi e Beati. Retrieved 16 January 2017.Cite web requires |website= (help)
  7. 1 2 "Blessed George Preca", Vatican News Service
  8. 1 2 3 4 Dom Antoine Marie osb., "Saint George Preca", Abbey of Saint-Joseph de Clairval, August 10, 2016
  9. "Saint George Preca". Saints SQPN. 26 July 2016. Retrieved 16 January 2017.Cite web requires |website= (help)
  10. 1 2 3 "George Preca (1880-1962): Founder of the Society of Christian Doctrine", Archdiocese of Malta
  11. Formosa, John (2004). "Dun Gorg - San Gorg Preca". Museum San Giljan. Archived from the original on 29 July 2013.
  12. 1 2 3 "Gorg Preca is officially Malta's first Catholic Saint". MaltaStar. 23 February 2007. Archived from the original on 2007-02-27. Retrieved 9 April 2007.Cite uses deprecated parameter |deadurl= (help); Cite news requires |newspaper= (help)
  13. Petre, Jonathan and Caldwell, Simon. "Baby's 'miracle' recovery in British hospital to give Malta its first saint", The Telegraph, May 23, 2007
  14. Santaro, Nicholas J. (2011). Mary In Our Life: Atlas of the Names and Titles of Mary, The Mother of Jesus, and Their Place in Marian Devotion. iUniverse. p. 104. ISBN   9781462040223.
  15. "Father George Preca", Monuments Australia