|Born:||October 11, 1896|
Grafton, West Virginia, U.S.
|Died:||August 9, 1969 72) (aged|
Washington, D.C., U.S.
|Position(s)||Founder and owner|
|1925–1928||Washington Palace Five|
|1932–1969||Boston Braves / Redskins / Washington Redskins|
|Career highlights and awards|
George Preston Marshall (October 11, 1896 – August 9, 1969) was an American businessman best known for his ownership of the Washington Redskins, an American football franchise belonging to the National Football League (NFL). Marshall was awarded an NFL franchise in 1932. He was given the nucleus of the Newark Tornadoes, a then defunct NFL franchise which was sold back to the league in 1930,  and renamed the Boston Braves. The following year he renamed the team “Redskins” and relocated them to Washington, D.C. He was its controlling owner until his death in 1969. 
In 1963, he became one of the first 17 inductees into the Pro Football Hall of Fame, along Redskin great Sammy Baugh. Marshall, a supporter of racial segregation, was the last NFL owner to integrate African Americans onto a roster, only doing so in 1962 under pressure from the federal government, which threatened to block the use of D.C. Stadium, which they owned, unless he did. 
Marshall was born in Grafton, West Virginia, where his parents, Thomas Hildebrand ("Hill") Marshall and Blanche Preston Marshall, owned the local newspaper.  When he was a teenager, his family moved to Washington D.C. after his father bought a laundromat business there.  He briefly attended Randolph–Macon College before quitting school at age 18[ citation needed ]. He pursued acting and was an extra for a local theater but this pursuit was interrupted in 1918 when he was drafted into World War I, although he did not leave the country. He was discharged from the army in December 1918. Upon his father's death in 1919, he took over the 2-store laundromat business. In 1926, he financed the Washington Palace Five basketball team.  The team folded in 1928.
In 1932, he and three other partners were awarded an NFL franchise for Boston. The team was known as the Boston Braves, as it played on the same field as baseball's Boston Braves. After the team incurred a $46,000 loss in its first season, Marshall's partners sold their interests to him. 
In 1933, he moved the team from Braves Field to Fenway Park, which the team shared with the Boston Red Sox. He hired coach "Lone Star" William Henry Dietz, who claimed   to be part Sioux and changed the team name from the Braves to the Redskins. Marshall said that he chose the name so that the team could keep its Native American logos. 
In 1936, the team won the Eastern division and hosted the 1936 NFL Championship Game, which Marshall moved from Boston to the Polo Grounds in New York City. After a lack of support by fans despite winning the division title, he moved the team to Washington, D.C. for the 1937 season.  
At the time, college football was more popular than the NFL. Marshall saw the NFL as not just a sport but as a form of entertainment and incorporated elements of college football, including gala halftime shows, a marching band, and a fight song, "Hail to the Redskins".
To increase scoring, along with Chicago Bears owner George Halas, Marshall successfully suggested allowing a forward pass to be thrown from anywhere behind the line of scrimmage, rather than at a minimum of five yards behind the line. He also suggested moving the goal posts from the end line to the goal line, where they were in Canadian football, to encourage the kicking of field goals. This change remained in place for about four decades until NFL goal posts were returned to the end line in the mid-1970s as part of an effort to lessen the influence on the game of kicking specialists.
Marshall also pushed to standardize the schedule so that each team played the same number of games, the teams were split into divisions with the winners meeting in a championship game, and game gate receipts were split between the home team and the visitor using by either a 60–40 split or a guaranteed amount of money, whichever was larger. 
During the 1937 season, Marshall rented a train and brought 10,000 fans to New York City to watch the team play the New York Giants. 
In 1946, he sold the laundromat business, having grown it to 57 locations.
In the 1950s, Marshall was the first NFL owner to embrace television. He initiated the first network appearances for any NFL team and built a television network to broadcast Redskins games across the Southern United States. 
In 1960, Marshall opposed the addition of the Dallas Cowboys to the NFL, ending his team's stature as the only team south of the Mason–Dixon line. He only agreed to the addition after a rival acquired the rights to the fight song from the writer of the music and threatened to prohibit the team from playing it at games.
In November 1960, Marshall sold 25% of the team to Jack Kent Cooke for $350,000. Marshall was extremely frugal and did not let the team spend money on travel expenses and salaries. He once berated Pittsburgh Steelers owner Art Rooney for driving up salaries by signing University of Colorado star Byron White for $15,800, the highest contract in football in the late 1930s. One sportswriter referred to Marshall as "the last of the small-time spenders." 
In August 1962, he underwent surgery to correct a hernia. Later, he suffered a cerebral thrombosis. 
In 1963, soon after his induction to the Pro Football Hall of Fame, Marshall suffered a debilitating stroke that left him legally incompetent to manage his affairs. Three conservators were assigned to manage the football team: C. Leo DeOrsey, who owned 13% of the team and Edward Bennett Williams and Milton W. King, who each owned 5% of the team. Marshall's children sued to get control of the team but lost. 
In August 1969, Marshall died in his sleep at his home in Georgetown from hemiphlagia and a heart condition, compounded by diabetes and arteriosclerosis.   His funeral was held at the Washington National Cathedral with a huge crowd in attendance. Marshall is buried at the family plot in Indian Mound Cemetery in Romney, West Virginia. 
As a result of a "gentlemen's agreement" promoted by Marshall, NFL teams did not sign black players until 1946, when two teams broke the agreement. Marshall refused to do so, claiming that integrating the team would cause the team to lose fans in the Southern United States and his team was at the time the southernmost team in the NFL.   He said that "We'll start signing Negroes when the Harlem Globetrotters start signing whites." 
His refusal to integrate was routinely mocked by Shirley Povich, a columnist for The Washington Post , who called him "one of pro football’s greatest innovators, and its leading bigot."  Marshall unsuccessfully sued Povich for $200,000 after a critical article. 
Marshall downplayed the issue of integration, saying "I am surprised that with the world on the brink of another war they are worried about whether or not a Negro is going to play for the Redskins" and doubted that "the government had the right to tell the showman how to cast the play." Marshall had a long-running feud with Redskins shareholder Harry Wismer, who favored integration. 
In 1962, United States Secretary of the Interior Stewart Udall and Attorney General of the United States Robert F. Kennedy issued an ultimatum: unless Marshall signed a black player, the government would revoke the Redskins' 30-year lease on D.C. Stadium (later known as RFK Memorial Stadium). Udall and Kennedy were well within their rights to take this action, since D. C. Stadium had been funded by government money and was located on federal land.  As well, the Constitution vests Congress, and ipso facto the federal government, with ultimate authority over the capital.
Marshall selected Ernie Davis, Syracuse University's All-American running back, as his top draft choice in the 1962 NFL Draft. However, Davis refused to play for the team, and was traded to the Cleveland Browns for All-Pro Bobby Mitchell, who became the first African American to play a game for the Redskins.  Marshall became an enthusiastic supporter of Mitchell.  The Redskins only had three winning seasons in the 23 years between the 1946 integration of the NFL and Marshall's death in 1969.   On a television show, Oscar Levant asked Marshall if he was anti-Semitic, to which he responded: "Oh no, I love Jews, especially when they're customers." 
His obituary in The Washington Post stated: "Marshall considered it a lost opportunity were he not the center of attention".   He feared flying and never learned to drive. 
In 1920, Marshall married Elizabeth Morton, a former Ziegfeld Follies girl. They had two children, separated in 1928 and divorced in 1935.  His mistress in the 1920s and 1930s was silent screen actress and Ziegfeld Follies dancer Louise Brooks. She gave him the nickname "Wet Wash" because he owned a laundry chain.  He was married to film actress-author Corinne Griffith from 1936 to 1957.  She referred to him in print as "The Marshall without a plan." 
The George Preston Marshall Foundation serves the interests of children in the Washington metropolitan area. Marshall added a caveat that no money from the foundation would ever go toward "any purpose which supports the principle of racial integration in any form"; however, this requirement was thrown out by the courts. 
The Washington Commanders are a professional American football team based in the Washington metropolitan area. Formerly known as the Washington Redskins, the team competes in the National Football League (NFL) as a member of the National Football Conference (NFC) East division. The team plays its home games at FedExField in Landover, Maryland; its headquarters and training facility are in Ashburn, Virginia. The team has played more than 1,000 games and is one of only five in the NFL with more than 600 total wins. Washington was among the first NFL franchises with a fight song, "Hail to the Commanders", which is played by their marching band after every touchdown scored by the team at home. The franchise is valued by Forbes at US$5.6 billion, making them the league's sixth-most valuable team as of 2022.
Details of the history of black players in professional American football depend on the professional football league considered, which includes the National Football League (NFL); the American Football League (AFL), a rival league from 1960 through 1969 which eventually merged with the NFL; and the All-America Football Conference (AAFC), which existed from 1946 to 1949.
"Hail to the Commanders" (HTTC) is the fight song of the Washington Commanders, an American football team belonging to the National Football League (NFL). At home games, the song is performed by the Washington Commanders Marching Band when the team scores a touchdown. Composed in 1937, the song was performed as "Hail to the Redskins" until 2019, when the team retired the controversial Redskins name.
Robert Cornelius Mitchell was an American professional football player who was a halfback and flanker in the National Football League (NFL) for the Cleveland Browns and the Washington Redskins. Mitchell became the Redskins' first African-American star after joining them in 1962, when they became the last NFL team to integrate. A four-time Pro Bowl selection, he was inducted into the Pro Football Hall of Fame in 1983.
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The 1936 NFL season was the 17th regular season of the National Football League. For the first time since the league was founded, there were no team transactions, and all league teams played the same number of games.
Clifford Franklin Battles was an American professional football player who was a halfback in the National Football League (NFL). Battles was inducted into the Pro Football Hall of Fame in 1968.
The 1945 NFL Championship Game was the 13th National Football League (NFL) championship game. Held on December 16, the Cleveland Rams defeated the Washington Redskins 15–14 at Cleveland Stadium in Cleveland, Ohio.
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William Henry "Lone Star" Dietz was an American football player and coach. He served as the head football coach at Washington State University (1915–1917), Purdue University (1921), Louisiana Tech University (1922–1923), University of Wyoming (1924–1926), Haskell Institute—now known as Haskell Indian Nations University (1929–1932), and Albright College (1937–1942). From 1933 to 1934, Dietz served as the head coach for the National Football League's Boston Redskins, where he tallied a mark of 11–11–2. He was inducted into the College Football Hall of Fame as a coach in 2012.
The 1936 NFL Championship Game was the fourth championship game played in the National Football League (NFL). It took place on December 13 at Polo Grounds in New York City, making it the first NFL title game held on a neutral field.
The 1937 NFL Championship Game was the fifth championship game of the National Football League (NFL), held December 12 at Wrigley Field in Chicago with an attendance of 15,878. The game featured the Western Division champions Chicago Bears (9–1–1) and the Eastern Division champions Washington Redskins (8–3).
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The National Football League (NFL) was founded in 1920 as the American Professional Football Association (APFA) with ten teams from four states, all of whom existed in some form as participants of regional leagues in their respective territories. The league took on its current name in 1922. The NFL was the first professional football league to successfully establish a nationwide presence, after several decades of failed attempts. Only two founding members, the Decatur Staleys are still in the league. The Chicago Cardinals founded in 1898, now the Arizona Cardinals) is the oldest NFL franchise.
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