George Square (Scottish Gaelic : Ceàrnag Sheòrais) is a city square in Edinburgh, Scotland. It is in the south of the city centre, adjacent to the Meadows. It was laid out in 1766 outside the overcrowded Old Town, and was a popular residential area for Edinburgh's better-off citizens. In the 1960s, much of the square was redeveloped by the University of Edinburgh, although the Cockburn Association and the Georgian Group of Edinburgh protested. Most but not all buildings on the square now belong to the university (among the exceptions being the Dominican priory of St Albert the Great). Principal buildings include the Gordon Aikman Lecture Theatre, Edinburgh University Library, 40 George Square and Appleton Tower.
The square was laid out in 1766 by the builder James Brown,  and comprised modest, typically Georgian, terraced houses. Away from the overcrowded Old Town, George Square was the location of the homes of lawyers and nobles. Residents included Sir Walter Scott, the judge Lord Braxfield, and the politician Henry Dundas, 1st Viscount Melville. In June 1792, the square was the starting point of the Dundas Riots, aimed at the house of the Lord advocate, Robert Dundas of Arniston, who lived on the square. From 1876 to 1880, Arthur Conan Doyle, later author of the Sherlock Holmes novels, lived at No. 23 while studying medicine at the University of Edinburgh Medical School. 
Redevelopment of the square began in the late 19th century when numbers 4 to 7 were redeveloped as George Watson's Ladies College. In the 1920s the college expanded to absorb numbers 8 to 10. These minor interventions were mild in comparison with the changes of the 1960s: the whole south side was demolished, together with half the east side, to provide new facilities for the university. Combined with the redevelopments on Potterow to the north-east and completion of McEwan Hall, this made George Square the new hub of the whole university.
The central gardens are privately owned and are not a public park as such. However, they are usually available to public use, though only the southern access is usually open.
The central gardens contain a memorial to Winifred Rushforth entitled "The Dreamer". 
The garden also contains several "Baillie lamps", which were formerly placed in front of the Edinburgh Baillies and latterly (until the 1970s) placed in front of councillors' houses.
The pavements adjoining the central garden are "horonised": a system of using vertical slivers of granite remaining from the squaring of the granite setts on the main road surface, thereby having no wasted material.
33 George Square was used as the base for HM Geological Survey of Scotland with notable employees including John Horne.
Other residents (whose exact addresses are unclear) include Henry Erskine, Robert McQueen, Lord Braxfield (north side), William Craig, Lord Craig (west side), John Campbell, Lord Stonefield (north side) and Admiral Duncan of Camperdown.
The University of Edinburgh began drawing up plans to redevelop the square in the 1950s. Architects Basil Spence and Robert Matthew were closely involved in the plans. Opposition to demolition of the Georgian Square was led by the Cockburn Association, and the Georgian Group of Edinburgh, which was established by Colin McWilliam and others to resist the proposals. In the end, the western side of the square was retained. This was helped by the refusal of the Dominican Order who owned 23 and 24 George Square to sell their premises to the university, despite the offer to build a replacement church and priory. Fr Anthony Ross O.P. was instrumental in this refusal. On the northern side, the 19th century George Watson's Ladies College was retained alongside the modern Hugh Robson Building. Georgian terraces were retained along half of the east side, while the southern side was entirely redeveloped.
Today, George Square has the highest concentration of university buildings in its Central campus area, which includes the Brutalist Gordon Aikman Lecture Theatre, the university's main library, and the Appleton Tower and 40 George Square  teaching and administrative buildings.
During August each year, the square becomes an important hub for events during the Edinburgh Festival Fringe. Many of the university buildings, notably Gordon Aikman Lecture Theatre and the lecture halls in 40 George Square are converted for use as venues by operator Assembly.  The gardens are filled with bars and pop-up venues, including, in recent years while nearby Bristo Square is being renovated, the Underbelly purple cow venue.
Robert Dundas of Arniston, the younger, FRSE was a Scottish judge. He served as Solicitor General for Scotland from 1742 to 1746, as Lord Advocate from 1754 to 1760, and as Member of Parliament for Midlothian from 1754 to 1761. He was Lord President of the Court of Session from 1760 to 1787, losing his popularity for giving his casting vote against Archibald Douglas in the famous Douglas Cause.
Robert Dundas of Arniston was a Scottish judge.
The Bannatyne Club, named in honour of George Bannatyne and his famous anthology of Scots literature the Bannatyne Manuscript, was a text publication society founded by Sir Walter Scott to print rare works of Scottish interest, whether in history, poetry, or general literature. The club was established in 1823 and printed 116 volumes before being dissolved in 1861.
The New Town is a central area of Edinburgh, the capital of Scotland. It was built in stages between 1767 and around 1850, and retains much of its original neo-classical and Georgian period architecture. Its best known street is Princes Street, facing Edinburgh Castle and the Old Town across the geological depression of the former Nor Loch. Together with the West End, the New Town was designated a UNESCO World Heritage Site alongside the Old Town in 1995. The area is also famed for the New Town Gardens, a heritage designation since March 2001.
Robert McQueen, Lord Braxfield was a Scottish advocate and judge.
Arniston House is a historic house in Midlothian, Scotland, near the village of Temple. This Georgian mansion was designed by William Adam in 1726 for Robert Dundas, of Arniston, the elder, the Lord President of the Court of Session. The western third of the house was added by John Adam, son of William and brother of Robert Adam, in 1753.
St Andrew Square is a garden square in Edinburgh, Scotland located at the east end of George Street. The gardens, part of the collection of New Town Gardens, are owned by a number of private owners, managed by Essential Edinburgh and opened to the public in 2008. The construction of St Andrew Square began in 1772, as the first part of the New Town, designed by James Craig. Within six years of its completion St Andrew Square became one of the most desirable and most fashionable residential areas in the city. As the 19th century came to a close, St Andrew Square evolved into the commercial centre of the city.
The Squadrone Volante or New Party was a political grouping in Scotland which emerged around 1700 as an offshoot of the opposition Country Party. Led by John Ker, 5th Earl of Roxburghe and John Hay, 2nd Marquess of Tweeddale, the party was influential in passing the Act of Union with England in 1707.
Sir James Dundas, Lord Arniston (1620–1679) was a Scottish politician and judge. He served as a shire commissioner to the Scottish Parliament.
Events from the year 1799 in Scotland.
Events from the year 1797 in Scotland.
Events from the year 1796 in Scotland.
Events from the year 1795 in Scotland.
Events from the year 1791 in Scotland.
Events from the year 1792 in Scotland.
Events from the year 1785 in Scotland.
Events from the year 1788 in Scotland.
Events from the year 1789 in Scotland.
Sir Robert Dundas, 1st Baronet of Beechwood was a Scottish landowner and lawyer.
The Melville Monument is a large column in St Andrew Square, Edinburgh, Scotland, constructed between 1821 and 1827 as a memorial to Henry Dundas, 1st Viscount Melville.
Coordinates: 55°56′37″N3°11′20″W / 55.9437°N 3.189°W