|Born||5 March 1660 |
|Died||18 March 1728|
|Education||Uppingham School, Eton College and King's College, Cambridge|
|Children||A son and 5 daughters|
George Stanhope (5 March 1660 – 18 March 1728) was a clergyman of the Church of England, rising to be Dean of Canterbury and a Royal Chaplain. He was also amongst the commissioners responsible for the building of fifty new churches in London, and a leading figure in church politics of the early 18th century. Stanhope also founded the Stanhope School in 1715.
George was born on 5 March 1660 at Hartshorne, near Swadlincote in south Derbyshire, son of Thomas Stanhope, rector of Hartshorne, Derbyshire,vicar of St Margaret's Church, Leicester, and chaplain to the Earls of Chesterfield and Clare. His grandfather, George Stanhope (d. 1644), was canon and precentor of York from 1631, and was rector of Wheldrake, Yorkshire, and chaplain to James I and Charles I; he was dispossessed during the Commonwealth. The younger George was educated at Uppingham School in Rutland, Eton College and King's College in Cambridge. He graduated in 1681 and obtained his Master of Arts in 1685 and entered into Holy Orders, however he remained three years longer at Cambridge. In 1687 he was appointed curate of Stow cum Quy, Cambridgeshire, and in 1688 he was appointed rector of Tewin, Hertfordshire (Tewin Register), and on 3 August 1689 of Lewisham, Kent, being presented to the latter by Lord Dartmouth, to whose son he was tutor, both then and apparently for five years afterwards. He became a Doctor of Divinity in 1697, and he was appointed chaplain to William III and Mary II. In 1701 he was appointed Boyle lecturer. In the year following he was presented to the vicarage of Deptford, was reappointed Royal chaplain by Queen Anne, and on 23 March 1704 was made Dean of Canterbury, still retaining Lewisham and Deptford.
Stanhope, as Dean, entered the lower house of Convocation at a period of bitter conflict with the upper house under Francis Atterbury's leadership. As a man of peace, in friendship with Robert Nelson on one side, and with Edward Tenison and Gilbert Burnet on the other,Stanhope was proposed by the moderate party as prolocutor in 1705, but was defeated by the high churchman, Dr. William Binckes. In 1711, Stanhope was among the founding group that would organise the building of fifty new churches to replace those lost in the Great Fire of London, and was re-appointed in 1715 after the accession of George I. After Atterbury's elevation to the see of Rochester in 1713 he succeeded him as prolocutor, and was twice re-elected.
The most prominent incident of his presidency was the censure of the Arian doctrine of Samuel Clarke in 1714. Early in 1717 the lower house of Convocation also censured a sermon by Bishop Benjamin Hoadly which had been preached before the king and published by royal command. To stop the matter from going to the upper house, convocation was hastily prorogued (May 1717). It was thenceforth formally summoned from time to time, only to be instantly prorogued. On the occasion of one of these prorogations Stanhope broke up the meeting (14 February 1718) in order to prevent Tenison from reading a protestation in favour of Hoadly. It was probably in consequence of this action that he lost the royal chaplaincy, which he had held in the first year of George I. From this date the Convocation of the English Clergy remained in abeyance until its revival in the province of Canterbury in 1852, and in that of York in 1861.
Stanhope was one of the great preachers of his time,and preached before Queen Anne in St Paul's Cathedral in 1706 and 1710 on two of the great services of national thanksgiving for the Earl of Marlborough's victories. In 1719 he had a correspondence with Atterbury, which dealt partly with the appointment of Thomas Sherlock, afterwards Bishop of London, to one of his curacies.
Stanhope founded the Charity School in High Street, Deptford, known as Dean Stanhope's School.Dean Stanhope's school eventually merged and became part of the Addey and Stanhope School. Following the merger, the building was demolished to make way for shops in 1899.
He died at Bath on 18 March 1728, and was buried in St. Mary's church, Lewisham, where a monument with a long inscription was erected to his memory. According to Daniel Lysons (1796):
His monument, the inscription on which has been already given, deserved a better fate than to be thrown aside in the vault, where it now lies, when the church was rebuilt. A place should have been found within the new walls for the memorial of a man who was for thirty-eight years so distinguished an ornament of the parish.
There were two portraits of him in the Deanery at Canterbury.
Stanhope married first Olivia, daughter of Charles Cotton of Beresford, Staffordshire, and had by her a son, who predeceased him, and five daughters. (One of their daughters, Mary, married William Burnet, son of Gilbert.) After Olivia's death in 1707, Stanhope married in 1709 Ann Parker, half-sister of Sir Charles Wager; she survived him by two years.
Stanhope's literary works were chiefly translations or adaptations. He translated Epictetus (1694 ; 2nd ed. 1700, 8vo), Charron's 'Books on Wisdom' (1697, 3 vols.), and Meditations by Marcus Aurelius (1697 ; 2nd ed. 1699, 4to). He modernised The Christian Directory of Robert Parsons the Jesuit (1703, 8vo ; 4th ed. 1716) ; dedicated to Princess Anne a volume of Pious Meditations (1701; 2nd ed. 1720), drawn from St. Augustine, St. Anselm, and St. Bernard; and he translated the Greek Devotions of Bishop Lancelot Andrewes. Hutton, who edited the posthumous edition (1730) of his translation of Andrewes, likened Stanhope's character to that of Andrewes. But the style of the translation is absolutely unlike the original. In place of the barbed point and abruptness of the Greek, the English is all smoothed out. Subsequent editions of the work appeared in 1808, 1811, 1815, 1818, 1826, and 1832. Stanhope followed the same paraphrastic system in a translation of Thomas à Kempis's Imitatio Christi, which appeared in 1698 under the title The Christian's Pattern, or a Treatise of the Imitation of Christ, 2 pts. London, 8vo. A fifth edition appeared in 1706, a twelfth in 1733, and new editions in 1746, 1751, 1759 1793, 1814, and 1865. The book is dedicated to Mrs Julia Shalcrosse of Woodhall,Hatfield He describes himself as "Your most affectionate cousin." In 1886 Henry Morley edited it for the collection of a hundred books chosen by John Lubbock. 'The pithy style of the original is lost in flowing sentences that pleased the reader in Queen Anne's reign.'
Stanhope's principal contribution to divinity is The Paraphrase and Comment on the Epistles and Gospels (vols. i. and ii. 1705, vol. iii. 1706, vol. iv. 1708), dedicated originally to Queen Anne, and in a new edition to George I on his accession (1714). It was a favourite book in the 18th century. Its defect is the neglect of the organic relation of collect, epistle, and gospel ; but it contains much that is solid, sensible, and practical in clear and easy language, quite free from controversial bitterness. In the preface Stanhope says that the work was planned for the use of the little Prince George, who died in 1700.
Besides the works mentioned above Stanhope published:
John Potter was Archbishop of Canterbury (1737–1747).
Thomas Tenison was an English church leader, Archbishop of Canterbury from 1694 until his death. During his primacy, he crowned two British monarchs.
Francis Atterbury was an English man of letters, politician and bishop. A High Church Tory and Jacobite, he gained patronage under Queen Anne, but was mistrusted by the Hanoverian Whig ministries, and banished for communicating with the Old Pretender in the Atterbury Plot. He was a noted wit and a gifted preacher.
Alexander Nowell was an Anglican priest and theologian. He served as Dean of St Paul's during much of Elizabeth I's reign, and is now remembered for his catechisms.
White Kennett was an English bishop and antiquarian. He was educated at Westminster School and at St Edmund Hall, Oxford, where, while an undergraduate, he published several translations of Latin works, including Erasmus' In Praise of Folly.
George Trevor was an English divine, and writer on divinity matters.
Addey and StanhopeSchool is a voluntary-aided, co-educational secondary school, located in Lewisham, London, England. It is a former grammar school and sixth form, with origins dating to 1606. The headmistress is currently Miss Jan Shapiro.
John Overall (1559–1619) was the 38th bishop of the see of Norwich from 1618 until his death one year later. He had previously served as Bishop of Coventry and Lichfield, as Dean of St Paul's Cathedral from 1601, as Master of Catharine Hall from 1598, and as Regius Professor of Divinity at Cambridge University from 1596. He also served on the Court of High Commission and as a Translator of the King James Version of the Bible.
George Hooper was a learned and influential English High church cleric of the late seventeenth and early eighteenth centuries. He served as bishop of the Welsh diocese, St Asaph, and later for the diocese of Bath and Wells, as well as chaplain to members of the royal family.
William Jane (1645–1707) was an English academic and clergyman, Regius Professor of Divinity at Oxford from 1680.
William Delaune D.D. was an English clergyman and academic, President of St John's College, Oxford, and chaplain to Queen Anne.
William Binckes was an English preacher and sermon writer, noted for his term as Dean of Lichfield.
John Johnson, of Cranbrook (1662–1725) was an English clergyman, known as a theologian in the Laudian tradition.
Thomas Brett (1667–1743) was an English nonjuring clergyman known as an author.
John Evans was the Bishop of Meath from 1716 till 1724.
Edward Tenison (1673–1735) was an English bishop of Ossory. An example of the workings of the system of patronage in the Church of England, Tenison also was a significant Whig and controversialist.
Richard West (1670?–1716) was an English churchman and academic, and was archdeacon of Berkshire from 1710.
Samuel Pratt was a Canon of Windsor from 1697 - 1723 and Dean of Rochester from 1706 - 1723.
John Denne D.D. (1693–1767) was an English churchman and antiquarian, Archdeacon of Rochester from 1728.
Basil Kennett was a Church of England cleric who served as the first chaplain to the British Factory at Leghorn. An academic, writer and translator, Kennett was elected president of Corpus Christi College, Oxford, serving for a short time before his early death. His 1696 Romæ Antiquæ Notitia, or the Antiquities of Rome was considered the subject's standard handbook for a century.