George Throckmorton

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Sir George Throckmorton of Coughton Court (bef. 1489 – 6 August 1552) was an English politician and a member of Parliament during the reign of Henry VIII. Born by 1489, he was the eldest son of Sir Robert Throckmorton of Coughton Court by Catherine Marrow, daughter of Sir William Marowe or Marrow, Lord Mayor of London.

Coughton Court Grade I listed historic house museum in Stratford-on-Avon, United Kingdom

Coughton Court is an English Tudor country house, situated on the main road between Studley and Alcester in Warwickshire. It is a Grade I listed building.

Parliament of England historic legislature of the Kingdom of England

The Parliament of England was the legislature of the Kingdom of England, existing from the early 13th century until 1707, when it united with the Parliament of Scotland to become the Parliament of Great Britain after the political union of England and Scotland created the Kingdom of Great Britain.

Henry VIII of England King of England and Ireland

Henry VIII was King of England from 1509 until his death in 1547. He was the second Tudor monarch, succeeding his father Henry VII. Henry is best known for his six marriages, in particular his efforts to have his first marriage annulled. His disagreement with the Pope on the question of such an annulment led Henry to initiate the English Reformation, separating the Church of England from papal authority. He appointed himself the Supreme Head of the Church of England and dissolved convents and monasteries, for which he was excommunicated. Henry is also known as "the father of the Royal Navy"; he invested heavily in the Navy, increasing its size greatly from a few to more than 50 ships.

Contents

The Throckmortons took their name from a manor in the parish of Fladbury, Worcestershire, where in the 12th century they were tenants of the Bishop of Worcester. They acquired Coughton, in Warwickshire, by marriage in the early 15th century.

Fladbury village in United Kingdom

Fladbury is a traditional English village located in rural Worcestershire, England. The village was mentioned in the Domesday Book, almost 1,000 years ago. It is sited on the banks of the River Avon, with many interesting and original buildings and features. Cropthorne village is on the opposite bank of the Avon. The two ancient communities are linked by the Jubilee Bridge.

Warwickshire County of England

Warwickshire is a county in the West Midlands region of England. The county town is Warwick, and the largest town is Nuneaton. The county is famous for being the birthplace of William Shakespeare.

Overview

Sir George Throckmorton was born in Worcestershire and was to claim when seeking office there that the greater part of his inheritance lay in that shire, but his father seems to have made Coughton Court the family seat and George was to be the first of his line to sit in Parliament as knight of the shire for Warwickshire; his grandfather had done so for Worcestershire. George's father, Robert Throckmorton, soldier, courtier and Councillor to Henry VII, sent his eldest son to the Middle Temple, which George entered on the same day as a Northamptonshire kinsman, Edmund Knightley; before his death in Italy while on pilgrimage to the Holy Land, Sir Robert had seen his son launched at court and in local government and in enjoyment of numerous leases and stewardships.

Worcestershire County of England

Worcestershire is a county in the West Midlands of England.

Henry VII of England King of England

Henry VII was the King of England and Lord of Ireland from his seizure of the crown on 22 August 1485 to his death. He was the first monarch of the House of Tudor.

Middle Temple one of the four Inns of Court in London, England

The Honourable Society of the Middle Temple, commonly known simply as Middle Temple, is one of the four Inns of Court exclusively entitled to call their members to the English Bar as barristers, the others being the Inner Temple, Gray's Inn and Lincoln's Inn. It is located in the wider Temple area of London, near the Royal Courts of Justice, and within the City of London.

This early advancement may have owed something to Throckmorton's marriage to a daughter of another courtier, Sir Nicholas Vaux, [1] whose stepson Sir Thomas Parr, comptroller of the Household to Henry VIII, was the uterine brother of Throckmorton's wife, Katherine. Throckmorton served with his father in the French war of 1513 as captain of the Great New Spaniard. Seven years later he was present at the Field of the Cloth of Gold, which he had been in part devised by his father-in-law. Vaux appointed Throckmorton one of his executors and as such in September 1523 he was commissioned to deliver Guisnes to William, first Baron Sandys of the Vyne.

Nicholas Vaux, 1st Baron Vaux of Harrowden English Baron

Nicholas Vaux, 1st Baron Vaux of Harrowden was a soldier and courtier in England and an early member of the House of Commons. He was the son of Lancastrian loyalists, Sir William Vaux of Harrowden and Katherine Penyson, a lady of the household of Queen Margaret of Anjou, wife of the Lancastrian king, Henry VI of England. Katherine was daughter of Gregorio Panizzone of Courticelle, in Piedmont, Italy which was at that time subject to King René of Anjou, father of Queen Margaret of Anjou, as ruler of Provence. He grew up during the years of Yorkist rule, and later served under the founder of the Tudor dynasty, Henry VII.

A sibling is one of two or more individuals having one or both parents in common. A full sibling is a first-degree relative. A male sibling is a brother, and a female sibling is a sister. In most societies throughout the world, siblings often grow up together, thereby facilitating the development of strong emotional bonds. The emotional bond between siblings is often complicated and is influenced by factors such as parental treatment, birth order, personality, and personal experiences outside the family.

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Politics

During the 1520s, Throckmorton seems to have attached himself to Wolsey, although the first notice of their connection does not suggest a happy relationship. In July 1524, Throckmorton, styled of Olney, Buckinghamshire, was bound in 100 pounds to appear before the Council and to pay whatever fine the Cardinal should impose. The connection may have been made through his uncle Dr. William Throckmorton, a trusted servant of the Cardinal whose name appears on important papers relating to embassies and treaties and who was a master in Chancery by 1528. The younger Throckmorton engaged in some land transactions with Wolsey. Thus when in 1525 Wolsey had license to dissolve several small and decayed monasteries to endow his new college at Oxford, one of them, the Buckinghamshire priory of Ravenstone (three miles from Olney), passed on a 100-year lease to Throckmorton for a rent of 100 marks. As Wolsey was seeking further land and Throckmortons a reorganisation of his estates – in particular he had his eye on Sir William Gascoigne's manor of Oversley, Warwickshire – he suggested to the Cardinal an exchange of several manors, including Ravenstone, for Oversley and some neighbouring manors. The plan did not materialise, but in May 1528, Throckmorton sold Ravenstone to Wolsey at 20 years purchase. He evidently felt that he deserved well of the Cardinal, for in April 1528, on the death of Sir Giles Greville – and curiously, at a time when his own imminent death was rumoured – he asked for Greville's office of comptroller to Princess Mary, and three months later, on the death of Sir William Compton, he sought to become sheriff and custos rotulorum of Worcestershire, steward of the see of Worcester and (as his great-grandfather Sir John Throckmorton had been) under treasurer of England. Although the shrievalty went to Sir Edward Ferrers, later Throckmorton's fellow-knight for Warwickshire, he was successful in respect of the stewardship.

Thomas Wolsey 16th-century Archbishop of York, Chancellor of England, and cardinal

Thomas Wolsey was an English archbishop, statesman and a cardinal of the Catholic Church. When Henry VIII became King of England in 1509, Wolsey became the King's almoner. Wolsey's affairs prospered, and by 1514 he had become the controlling figure in virtually all matters of state. He also held important ecclesiastical appointments. These included the Archbishopric of York – the second most important role in the English church – and acting as Papal legate. His appointment as a cardinal by Pope Leo X in 1515 gave him precedence over all other English clergy.

Court of Chancery court of equity in England and Wales

The Court of Chancery was a court of equity in England and Wales that followed a set of loose rules to avoid the slow pace of change and possible harshness of the common law. The Chancery had jurisdiction over all matters of equity, including trusts, land law, the estates of lunatics and the guardianship of infants. Its initial role was somewhat different: as an extension of the Lord Chancellor's role as Keeper of the King's Conscience, the Court was an administrative body primarily concerned with conscientious law. Thus the Court of Chancery had a far greater remit than the common law courts, whose decisions it had the jurisdiction to overrule for much of its existence, and was far more flexible. Until the 19th century, the Court of Chancery could apply a far wider range of remedies than common law courts, such as specific performance and injunctions, and had some power to grant damages in special circumstances. With the shift of the Exchequer of Pleas towards a common law court and loss of its equitable jurisdiction by the Administration of Justice Act 1841, the Chancery became the only national equitable body in the English legal system.

Colleges of the University of Oxford colleges and PPHs which are autonomous self-governing corporations within the university

The University of Oxford has 39 Colleges and six Permanent Private Halls (PPHs) of religious foundation. Colleges and PPHs are autonomous self-governing corporations within the university, and all teaching staff and students studying for a degree at the university must belong to one of the colleges or PPHs. These colleges are not only houses of residence, but have substantial responsibility for teaching undergraduate students. Generally tutorials and classes are the responsibility of colleges, while lectures, examinations, laboratories, and the central library are run by the university. Most colleges take both graduates and undergraduates, but several are for graduates only.

It cannot have been, as he says it was, 'shortly after' receiving this [sic] tribute from Sir Thomas More that he discussed the Acts of Annates, Appeals and Supremacy, and the Petrine claims, with Bishop Fisher, who referred him to Nicholas Wilson, once the King's confessor, although it may well have been after the Act of Supremacy (26 Hen. VIII, c.I) that he made his own confession to Richard Reynolds, 'the Angel of Syon', (Throckmorton had at least one other connection with the Bridgettines of Syon Abbey, his kinswoman Clemence Tresham, sister of Sir Thomas, having entered the order by 1518). Both Fisher and Wilson conceded that if he were sure nothing was to be gained by his speaking out in Parliament, 'then I might hold my peace and not offend', but Reynolds added that he could not know beforehand whether others might not follow his example if he should 'stick in the right way'.

Thomas More 15th/16th-century English statesman

Sir Thomas More, venerated in the Catholic Church as Saint Thomas More, was an English lawyer, social philosopher, author, statesman, and noted Renaissance humanist. He was also a Chancellor to Henry VIII, and Lord High Chancellor of England from October 1529 to 16 May 1532. He wrote Utopia, published in 1516, about the political system of an imaginary, ideal island nation.

Annates were a payment from the recipient of an ecclesiastical benefice to the ordaining authorities. Eventually, they consisted of half or the whole of the first year's profits of a benefice; after the appropriation of right of consecration by the Vatican, they were paid to the papal treasury, ostensibly as a proffered contribution to the church. They were also known as the "First Fruits"', a concept which dates back to earlier Greek, Roman, and Hebrew religions.

John Fisher 16th-century Bishop of Rochester

John Fisher, venerated by Roman Catholics as Saint John Fisher, was an English Catholic bishop, cardinal, and theologian. Fisher was also an academic, and eventually served as Chancellor of the University of Cambridge.

Throckmorton also admitted to reporting a conversation he had with Thomas Dingley, a knight of St. John, to his brother-in-law, Sir Thomas Englefield at Serjeants' Inn as well as, he believed, to Sir William Barentyne and Sir William Essex. He had been in the habit of meeting with Barentyne, Essex and other members, including Sir Marmaduke Constable and Sir John Giffard (whose son Thomas Giffard married Throckmorton's sister, Ursula), at the Queen's Head to discuss parliamentary affairs.

Sir George Throckmorton was also associated with Sir Marmaduke Constable in the Parliament of 1529 and is mentioned in the notes under other Sir Marmaduke Constable. The relationship between these Constable's needs to be clarified.

Robert Beale, Clerk of the Privy Council, added a note on his copy of a letter from Thomas Cromwell, 'I have heard that the cause was touching the denouncing of the Queen Catherine dowager first wife to King Henry the 8th'. It is interesting to speculate on the source of Cromwell's (and Beale's) knowledge of the episode.

During the interval of 50 years no less than a dozen of Throckmorton's descendants sat in the Commons, although only one of them, his grandson Job Throckmorton, was a Member in 1586. At the time of Cromwell's intervention, Job Throckmorton was himself in deep trouble for having maligned James VI of Scotland in a speech to the House, a misfortune which could have well have revived the memory of his grandfather's brush with an earlier monarch. There was even one Member in 1586, Sir Francis Knollys, whose career in the Commons had begun in the Parliament of 1529 (to which he had been by-elected by 1533) and who could have remembered the episode.

Religion

Sir George Throckmorton opposed Henry VIII's break with Rome. Of the King's divorce and pending marriage to Anne Boleyn, Sir George said that the King had 'meddled with both the mother and the sister'. He had to bring his aunt Elizabeth, Abbess of Denny, to live with him when her convent was closed in 1537 under the Dissolution of the Monasteries, making 25 nuns homeless. She brought with her a dole-gate, through which help was given to the poor, and upon which her name is carved. This can still be seen today in the Dining-Room.

He consistently opposed the changes in religion, and although the vast majority of his 19 children and 112 grandchildren were ardent Catholics, there were some who were staunch Protestants, including his sons Clement, who founded a puritan family branch, and Sir Nicholas, who was unfortunate enough to be an avid champion of Protestantism during the reign of Mary I (although it is written that his Protestantism was said to wax and wane). Sir Nicholas was found not guilty on a charge of treason in connection with Thomas Wyatt's rebellion (he was freed, but the jury was arrested), and went on to be a player in the court of Queen Elizabeth, bringing her the ring as proof of her sister's death, and acting as an emissary to Mary, Queen of Scots.

Rebellion

Before 1536 was out, Throckmorton was in worse trouble. He had come to London in November to transact legal business and falling in with an old friend, Sir John Clarke, had rashly discussed the demands of the rebels in the North; whereas Throckmorton had only seen the printed answer to the Lincolnshire rebels, Clarke had a manuscript account of Aske's new demands and sent Throckmorton a copy of it.

While on the way to keep an appointment with Sir Anthony Hungerford at Essex's house in Berkshire, Throckmorton met Thomas Vachell who convinced him of the danger of possessing the document, which he thereupon burned at Reading. Passing the night at Englefield, he received a further warning and then went on to Essex's house where he learned the full story of Gunter's foolhardiness. Both he and Essex were soon in the Tower. Cromwell then sat out to collect all possible evidence of their treasonable behaviour. For a while both his life and Essex's hung in the balance: on 14 January 1537 John Husee reported as much to Viscount Lisle, and one of Throckmorton's family was later to write that his foes 'gaped to joint his neck'.

The charges, however, could not be sustained and Throckmorton was released. Sir Thomas Dingley, whose execution two years later makes him accounted a Catholic martyr, revealed what Throckmorton had told him of the earlier episodes. When Throckmorton was again taken into custody, his wife appealed for advice to her half-brother William Parr, 1st Baron Parr of Horton, who may have persuaded him to make a confession.

Later life

As early as July 1538 his kinsman, Richard Rich, could suggest that he should receive building materials from the dissolved Bordesley Abbey, Worcestershire.

His part in the toppling of Cromwell in 1540 is too obscure, and may have been too small, to be given much weight. The fall of Cromwell did enable Throckmorton to acquire several properties which he had long coveted, including Oversley, and so to continue the consolidation of his estates which had been one of his principal concerns since his succession. He also built up extensive leasehold interests and acquired several valuable wardships, including that of Richard Archer whose execution for murder gave Throckmorton the opportunity to buy from the crown his most valuable property, Tamworth.

Throckmorton lived to see some of his younger sons occupy high office in the state and others comfortably established. During his lifetime he settled small freehold estates on most of his younger sons and by his will of 20 July 1552 he left Kenelm an annuity of £40, (equivalent to £15,400 as of 2018), [2] , Nicholas and Clement annuities of £20 each, and Clement a further £400 (equivalent to £153,600 as of 2018), [2] for land purchase. The eldest son Robert had control of part of his inheritance, the manors of Sheldon and Solihull, from his second marriage in 1542, and by the will he obtained a full third of the estate and the reversion of two manors after the executors had held them for three years for the payment of debts: the residue was settled on the widow for life. At his death, Throckmorton is said to have had 116 living descendants, including among his grandsons such diverse figures as Job Throckmorton and William Gifford, Archbishop of Rheims and first Peer of France.

Death and legacy

Throckmorton died on 12 August 1552 and was buried in the stately marble tomb that he had prepared for himself in Coughton church. The most impressive monument which he left, however, was the gatehouse of Coughton court. Throckmorton spent most of his life rebuilding the house: in 1535 he wrote to Cromwell that he and his wife had lived in Buckinghamshire for most of the year, ‘for great part of my house here is taken down’. In 1549, when he was planning the windows in the great hall, he asked his son Nicholas to obtain from the heralds the correct tricking of the arms of his ancestors’ wives and his niece by marriage Queen Catherine Parr. The costly recusancy of Robert Throckmorton and his heirs kept down later rebuilding, so that much of the house still stands largely as he left it. [3] [4] [5]

Marriage and Family

In 1512 Throckmorton married Katherine Vaux, the eldest daughter of Nicholas Vaux, 1st Baron Vaux of Harrowden and Elizabeth FitzHugh, [6] by whom he had eight sons and nine daughters. [7] Through Katherine's mother's first marriage to William Parr, 1st Baron Parr of Kendal, Katherine's maternal half-siblings were Sir Thomas Parr, father of Queen consort Catherine Parr; William Parr, 1st Baron Parr of Horton; John Parr, esquire; and Anne Parr, Lady Cheney. [7] [8] [1]

Issue:

See also

Notes

  1. 1 2 Harrison, Bruce R.; The Family Forest Descendants of Lady Joan Beaufort pg. 64
  2. 1 2 UK Retail Price Index inflation figures are based on data from Clark, Gregory (2017). "The Annual RPI and Average Earnings for Britain, 1209 to Present (New Series)". MeasuringWorth. Retrieved 27 January 2019.
  3. Tudor Place, The Biography of Sir George Throckmorton of Coughton.
  4. History of Parliament, The Biography of Sir George Throckmorton of Coughton; The details in this biography come from the History of Parliament, a biographical dictionary of Members of the House of Commons.
  5. Peerage.com, Incomplete Entry Dr. Andrew Gray, "re: Sir Robert George Maxwell Throckmorton, 11th Bt.," e-mail message to Darryl Lundy, 28 February 2005. Hereinafter cited as "re: Robert George Maxwell Throckmorton." Incomplete Entry.
  6. Douglas Richardson, Magna Carta Ancestry: A Study in Colonial and Medieval Families, 2nd Edition, 2011. pg 161-2.
  7. 1 2 Douglas Richardson, Kimball G. Everingham. Magna Carta ancestry: a study in colonial and medieval families. pg 639.
  8. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 Richardson III 2011, p. 291.
  9. Peter Townend, editor, Burke's Peerage and Baronetage, 105th edition (London, U.K.: Burke's Peerage Ltd, 1970), page 2643.
  10. Douglas Richardson, Magna Carta Ancestry: A Study in Colonial and Medieval Families, 2nd Edition, 2011. pg 166-170.
  11. Richardson III 2011, pp. 293.
  12. Henry Colburn. A genealogical and heraldic dictionary of the peerage and baronetage of the British Empire, Volume 42, Part 1. 1880. pg 229.
  13. Meredith B. Colket Jr, Edward N. Dunlap. The English Ancestry of Anne Marbury Hutchinson and Katherine Marbury Scott. The Magee Press, Philadelphia. pg 52.

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References

Legal offices
Preceded by
Justice of Peace in Warwickshire
1510 – 6 August 1552
Succeeded by
-
Parliament of England
Preceded by
Sir Robert Throckmorton
Member of Parliament of England
1529
Succeeded by
Robert Throckmorton