George V of Hanover

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George V
GeorgeVHannover.jpg
King of Hanover
Reign18 November 1851 –
20 September 1866
Predecessor Ernest Augustus
SuccessorOffice abolished
Born27 May 1819
Berlin, Prussia
Died12 June 1878(1878-06-12) (aged 59)
Paris, France
Burial24 June 1878
Consort Marie of Saxe-Altenburg
Issue Ernest Augustus, Crown Prince of Hanover
Princess Frederica of Hanover
Princess Marie of Hanover
Full name
George Frederick Alexander Charles Ernest Augustus
German: Georg Friedrich Alexander Karl Ernst August
House Hanover
Father Ernest Augustus, King of Hanover
Mother Frederica of Mecklenburg-Strelitz
Signature Signature- Georg V of Hannover.jpg

George V (George Frederick Alexander Charles Ernest Augustus; German: Georg Friedrich Alexander Karl Ernst August; 27 May 1819 – 12 June 1878) was the last king of Hanover, the only child and successor of King Ernest Augustus. George V's reign was ended during the Unification of Germany.

Kingdom of Hanover German kingdom established in 1814

The Kingdom of Hanover was established in October 1814 by the Congress of Vienna, with the restoration of George III to his Hanoverian territories after the Napoleonic era. It succeeded the former Electorate of Brunswick-Lüneburg, and joined 38 other sovereign states in the German Confederation in June 1815. The kingdom was ruled by the House of Hanover, a cadet branch of the House of Welf, in personal union with the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland until 1837. Since its monarch resided in London, a viceroy handled the administration of the Kingdom of Hanover.

Ernest Augustus, King of Hanover King of Hanover

Ernest Augustus, known for most of his adult life as the Duke of Cumberland, was King of Hanover from 20 June 1837 until his death. He was the fifth son and eighth child of King George III of the United Kingdom and Hanover. As a fifth son, Ernest seemed unlikely to become a monarch, but none of his four elder brothers had a legitimate son who survived infancy. The Salic Law, which barred succession to or through a female, prevailed in Hanover; therefore, when his elder brother King William IV died in 1837, Ernest succeeded him as King of Hanover. In the United Kingdom the succession to the monarchy was determined by male-preference primogeniture, a different system, and his niece Victoria became queen, thus ending the personal union between the British and Hanoverian crowns that had existed since 1714.

Unification of Germany creation of a politically and administratively integrated nation state of German-speaking populations on 18 January 1871, in the form of the German Empire

The unification of Germany into a politically and administratively integrated nation state officially occurred on 18 January 1871, in the Hall of Mirrors at the Palace of Versailles in France. Princes of the German states, excluding Austria, gathered there to proclaim William I of Prussia as German Emperor after the French capitulation in the Franco-Prussian War. Unofficially, the de facto transition of most of the German-speaking populations into a federated organization of states had been developing for some time through alliances formal and informal between princely rulers, but in fits and starts. The self-interests of the various parties hampered the process over nearly a century of autocratic experimentation, beginning in the era of the Napoleonic Wars, which prompted the dissolution of the Holy Roman Empire in 1806, and the subsequent rise of German nationalism.

Contents

Early life

Prince George of Cumberland was born on 27 May 1819 in Berlin, the only son of Prince Ernest Augustus, Duke of Cumberland — the fifth son of George III — and his wife, Princess Frederica of Mecklenburg-Strelitz.

Berlin Capital of Germany

Berlin is the capital and largest city of Germany by both area and population. Its 3,748,148 (2018) inhabitants make it the second most populous city proper of the European Union after London. The city is one of Germany's 16 federal states. It is surrounded by the state of Brandenburg, and contiguous with its capital, Potsdam. The two cities are at the center of the Berlin-Brandenburg capital region, which is, with about six million inhabitants and an area of more than 30,000 km², Germany's third-largest metropolitan region after the Rhine-Ruhr and Rhine-Main regions.

George III of the United Kingdom King of Great Britain and Ireland

George III was King of Great Britain and King of Ireland from 25 October 1760 until the union of the two countries on 1 January 1801, after which he was King of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland until his death in 1820. He was concurrently Duke and prince-elector of Brunswick-Lüneburg ("Hanover") in the Holy Roman Empire before becoming King of Hanover on 12 October 1814. He was the third British monarch of the House of Hanover, but unlike his two predecessors, he was born in Great Britain, spoke English as his first language, and never visited Hanover.

Frederica of Mecklenburg-Strelitz German princess

Frederica of Mecklenburg-Strelitz was a German princess who became, by marriage, princess of Prussia, princess of Solms-Braunfels, Duchess of Cumberland in Britain and Queen of Hanover as the consort of Ernest Augustus, King of Hanover.

He was baptized on 8 July 1819 at a hotel in Berlin where his parents were staying, by the Rev. Henry Thomas Austen (brother of author Jane Austen). His godparents were the Prince Regent (represented by the Duke of Cumberland), the King of Prussia, the Emperor of Russia, the Crown Prince of Prussia, Prince William of Prussia, Prince Frederick Louis of Prussia, Prince Henry of Prussia, the Prince William of Prussia, Grand Duke of Mecklenburg-Strelitz, Duke Charles of Mecklenburg, the Empress Maria Feodorovna of Russia, the Queen of the Netherlands, the Princess Augusta Sophia, the Hereditary Princess of Hesse-Homburg, the Duchess of Gloucester and Edinburgh, Princess Sophia, Princess Alexandrine of Prussia, the Electoral Princess of Hesse-Kassel, the Duchess of Anhalt-Dessau, Princess William of Prussia, Princess Ferdinand of Prussia, Princess Louisa of Prussia and Princess Radziwill. [1]

Henry Thomas Austen was a militia officer, clergyman, banker and the brother of the novelist Jane Austen.

Jane Austen English novelist

Jane Austen was an English novelist known primarily for her six major novels, which interpret, critique and comment upon the British landed gentry at the end of the 18th century. Austen's plots often explore the dependence of women on marriage in the pursuit of favourable social standing and economic security. Her works critique the novels of sensibility of the second half of the 18th century and are part of the transition to 19th-century literary realism. Her use of biting irony, along with her realism, humour, and social commentary, have long earned her acclaim among critics, scholars, and popular audiences alike.

George IV of the United Kingdom King of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland and of Hanover

George IV was King of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland and King of Hanover following the death of his father, King George III, on 29 January 1820, until his own death ten years later. From 1811 until his accession, he served as Prince Regent during his father's final mental illness.

George spent his childhood in Berlin and in Great Britain. He lost the sight of one eye following a childhood illness in 1828, [2] and in the other eye following an accident in 1833. [3] His father had hoped that the young prince might marry his cousin Victoria, who was older by three days, thus keeping the British and Hanoverian thrones united, but nothing ever came of the plan.

Queen Victoria British monarch who reigned 1837–1901

Victoria was Queen of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland from 20 June 1837 until her death. On 1 May 1876, she adopted the additional title of Empress of India.

Crown Prince

Upon the death of King William IV and the accession of Queen Victoria to the British throne, the 123-year personal union of the British and Hanoverian thrones ended due to the operation of Salic Law in the German states. The Duke of Cumberland succeeded to the Hanoverian throne as Ernst August, and Prince George became the Crown Prince of Hanover. As a legitimate male-line descendant of George III, he remained a member of the British Royal Family, and second in line to the British throne, until the birth of Queen Victoria's first child, Victoria, Princess Royal, in 1840. Since he was totally blind, there were doubts as to whether the Crown Prince was qualified to succeed as king of Hanover; but his father decided that he should do so. [4]

George V of Hanover, his wife Marie of Saxe-Altenburg and their children Ernest Augustus, Crown Prince of Hanover, Princess Frederica of Hanover, and Princess Marie of Hanover Family George V of Hanover.jpg
George V of Hanover, his wife Marie of Saxe-Altenburg and their children Ernest Augustus, Crown Prince of Hanover, Princess Frederica of Hanover, and Princess Marie of Hanover
Carte de visite made by Nadar in Paris, 1874 1874 Carte de Visite Georg V., Konig von Hannover roi de Hanover King of Hanover, Wappen T, Nadar Bildseite.jpg
Carte de visite made by Nadar in Paris, 1874

Marriage

George married, on 18 February 1843, at Hanover, Princess Marie of Saxe-Altenburg, the eldest daughter of Joseph, Duke of Saxe-Altenburg, by his wife, Duchess Amelia of Württemberg.

Marie of Saxe-Altenburg British princess

Princess Marie of Saxe-Altenburg, VA was Queen of Hanover and the consort of George V, a grandson of George III of the United Kingdom and Queen Charlotte.

Joseph, Duke of Saxe-Altenburg duke of Saxe-Altenburg

Joseph Georg Friedrich Ernst Karl, Duke of Saxe-Altenburg, was a duke of Saxe-Altenburg.

Duchess Amelia of Württemberg Duchess of Württemberg

Amalie Therese Louise Wilhelmina Philippine of Württemberg was a Duchess of Württemberg and an ancestor of Greek, Romanian, Yugoslavian and Spanish Royal Families.

King of Hanover

Battle of Langensalza (1866) Hanoverian Medal, awarded by George V to his troops fighting in that battle. Obverse. Battle of Langensalza (1866) Hanoverian Medal, obverse.jpg
Battle of Langensalza (1866) Hanoverian Medal, awarded by George V to his troops fighting in that battle. Obverse.

The Crown Prince succeeded his father as the King of Hanover and Duke of Brunswick-Lüneburg as well as Duke of Cumberland and Teviotdale, in the Peerage of Great Britain and Earl of Armagh, in the Peerage of Ireland, on 18 November 1851, assuming the style George V. [5]

From his father and from his maternal uncle, Prince Charles Frederick of Mecklenburg-Strelitz, one of the most influential men at the Prussian court, George had learned to take a very high and autocratic view of royal authority. During his 15-year reign, he engaged in frequent disputes with the Hanoverian parliament.

George was generally supportive of Austria in the Diet of the German Confederation. As the Austro-Prussian War started, the Prussian government sent a dispatch on 15 June 1866 demanding that Hanoverian troops submit to their authority or face war. [6]

Despite previously having concluded that Hanover could not win an armed confrontation with Prussia, George remained protective of his throne and refused the ultimatum. [7] Contrary to the wishes of the parliament, Hanover joined the Austrian camp in the war. As a result, the Prussian army occupied Hanover and the Hanoverian army surrendered on 29 June 1866 following the Battle of Langensalza, the King and royal family having fled to Austria.

The Prussian government formally annexed Hanover on 20 September 1866, despite the King of Prussia, William I, being a first cousin of King George V of Hanover; their mothers were sisters. The deposed King never renounced his rights to the throne or acknowledged Prussia's actions. From exile in Gmunden, Austria, he appealed in vain for the European great powers to intervene on behalf of Hanover. From 1866 to 1870, George V maintained the Guelphic Legion partially at his own expense. [8]

While in exile from his throne, he was appointed an honorary full general in the British army in 1876. [9]

British Royalty
House of Hanover
Coat of Arms of the United Kingdom (1801-1816).svg
George III
George IV
Prince Frederick, Duke of York and Albany
William IV
Charlotte, Princess Royal and Queen of Württemberg
Prince Edward, Duke of Kent and Strathearn
Princess Augusta Sophia
Elizabeth, Landgravine of Hesse-Homburg
Ernest Augustus, King of Hanover
Prince Augustus Frederick, Duke of Sussex
Prince Adolphus, Duke of Cambridge
Princess Mary, Duchess of Gloucester and Edinburgh
Princess Sophia
Prince Octavius
Prince Alfred
Princess Amelia
Grandchildren
Charlotte, Princess Leopold of Saxe-Coburg-Saalfeld
Princess Charlotte of Clarence
Princess Elizabeth of Clarence
Victoria
Princess Frederica of Cumberland
George V of Hanover
Prince George, Duke of Cambridge
Augusta, Grand Duchess of Mecklenburg-Strelitz
Princess Mary Adelaide, Duchess of Teck
Great-grandchildren
Ernest Augustus, Crown Prince of Hanover
Princess Frederica, Baroness von Pawel-Rammingen
Princess Marie of Hanover
Great-great-grandchildren
Marie Louise, Margravine of Baden
George William, Hereditary Prince of Hanover
Alexandra, Grand Duchess of Mecklenburg-Schwerin
Princess Olga of Hanover
Prince Christian of Hanover
Ernest Augustus, Duke of Brunswick and Prince of Hanover
Great-great-great-grandchildren
Ernest Augustus, Hereditary Prince of Brunswick and Prince of Hanover
Prince George William of Hanover
Frederica, Queen of the Hellenes

Death

George V died at his residence in the Rue de Presbourg, Paris, on 12 June 1878. After a funeral service in the Lutheran Church at the Rue Chaucat, [9] his body was removed to England and buried in St George's Chapel at Windsor Castle. [5] [10] [11]

Legacy

The king supported industrial development. In 1856 the "Georgs-Marien-Bergwerks- und Hüttenverein" was founded which was named after him and his wife. The company erected an iron and steel works which gave the city Georgsmarienhütte its name. [12]

Titles, styles and arms

Titles and styles

Arms

By grant dated 15 August 1835, George's arms in right of the United Kingdom were those of his father (being the arms of the United Kingdom, differenced by a label argent of three points, the centre point charged with a fleur-de-lys azure, and each of the other points charged with a cross gules), the whole differenced by a label gules bearing a horse courant argent. [13]

Honours

Ancestry

Issue

NameBirthDeathNotes
Ernest Augustus, Crown Prince of Hanover 21 September 184514 November 1923Ernest Augustus William Adolphus George Frederick; born at Hanover, died at Gmunden, married Princess Thyra of Denmark; had issue
Princess Frederica of Hanover 9 January 184816 October 1926born at Hanover, died at Biarritz; married Alfons, Baron von Pawel-Rammingen; had no surviving issue
Princess Marie of Hanover 3 December 18494 June 1904Marie Ernestine Josephine Adolphine Henrietta Theresa Elizabeth Alexandrina; born at Hanover, died unmarried at Gmunden

Related Research Articles

House of Hanover German royal dynasty

The House of Hanover, whose members are known as Hanoverians, is a German royal house that ruled Hanover, Great Britain, and Ireland at various times during the 17th through 20th centuries. The house originated in 1635 as a cadet branch of the House of Brunswick-Lüneburg, growing in prestige until Hanover became an Electorate in 1692. George I became the first Hanoverian monarch of Great Britain and Ireland in 1714. At Victoria's death in 1901, the throne of the United Kingdom passed to her eldest son Edward VII, a member of the House of Saxe-Coburg and Gotha. The last reigning members of the House lost the Duchy of Brunswick in 1918 when Germany became a republic.

Princess Mary Adelaide of Cambridge mother of Queen Mary, the consort of George V

Princess Mary Adelaide of Cambridge was a member of the British royal family, a granddaughter of George III, grandmother of Edward VIII and George VI and great-grandmother of Elizabeth II. She held the title of Duchess of Teck through marriage.

Prince Adolphus, Duke of Cambridge Duke of Cambridge

Prince Adolphus, Duke of Cambridge, was the tenth child and seventh son of the British king George III and Charlotte of Mecklenburg-Strelitz. He held the title of Duke of Cambridge from 1801 until his death. He also served as Viceroy of Hanover on behalf of his brothers George IV and William IV.

Louis IV, Grand Duke of Hesse German noble

Louis IV was the Grand Duke of Hesse and by Rhine, reigning from 13 June 1877 until his death. Through his own and his children's marriages he was connected to the British Royal Family, to the Imperial House of Russia and to other reigning dynasties of Europe.

Ernest Augustus, Crown Prince of Hanover British prince

Ernest Augustus, Crown Prince of Hanover, 3rd Duke of Cumberland and Teviotdale, was the eldest child and only son of George V of Hanover and his wife, Marie of Saxe-Altenburg. Ernst August was deprived of the thrones of Hanover upon its annexation by Prussia in 1866 and later the Duchy of Brunswick in 1884. Although he was the senior male-line great-grandson of George III, the Duke of Cumberland was deprived of his British peerages and honours for having sided with Germany in World War I. Ernst August was the last Hanoverian prince to hold a British royal title and the Order of the Garter. His descendants are in the line of succession to the British throne.

Ernest Augustus, Duke of Brunswick

Ernest Augustus was the reigning Duke of Brunswick from 2 November 1913 to 8 November 1918. He was a grandson of George V of Hanover, whom the Prussians had deposed from the Hanoverian throne in 1866, and Christian IX of Denmark.

Princess Thyra of Denmark youngest daughter of Christian IX of Denmark and Louise of Hesse-Kassel

Princess Thyra of Denmark, Danish pronunciation: [ˈtyːʁə], was the youngest daughter and fifth child of Christian IX of Denmark and Louise of Hesse-Kassel. In 1878, she married Ernest Augustus, the exiled heir to the Kingdom of Hanover. As the Kingdom of Hanover had been annexed by Prussia in 1866, she spent most of her life in exile with her husband in Austria.

Duke of Cumberland and Teviotdale

Duke of Cumberland and Teviotdale was a title in the Peerage of Great Britain that was held by junior members of the British Royal Family, named after the county of Cumberland, England and after Teviotdale, Scotland. Held by the Hanoverian royals, it was suspended under the Titles Deprivation Act 1917, which revoked titles belonging to enemies of the United Kingdom during the Great War.

Prince Ernest Augustus of Hanover (1914–1987) Hanoverian prince

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Charles II, Grand Duke of Mecklenburg-Strelitz Grand Duke of Mecklenburg-Strelitz

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The following is the Line of succession to the former Hanoverian throne:

Grand Duchy of Mecklenburg-Strelitz grand duchy

The Grand Duchy of Mecklenburg-Strelitz was a territory in Northern Germany, held by the younger line of the House of Mecklenburg residing in Neustrelitz. Like the neighbouring Grand Duchy of Mecklenburg-Schwerin, it was a sovereign member state of the German Confederation and became a federated state of the North German Confederation and finally of the German Empire upon the unification of 1871. After World War I and the German Revolution of 1918–19 it was succeeded by the Free State of Mecklenburg-Strelitz.

Frederick Francis IV, Grand Duke of Mecklenburg-Schwerin Grand Duke of Mecklenburg-Schwerin

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George, Grand Duke of Mecklenburg-Strelitz German Grand Duke

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Princess Friederike of Hesse-Darmstadt German noble

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Princess Marie Louise of Hanover Princess of Great Britain and Ireland, Duchess of Brunswick-Lüneburg

Princess Marie Louise of Hanover and Cumberland was the eldest child of Ernest Augustus, Crown Prince of Hanover, and Princess Thyra of Denmark, the youngest daughter of Christian IX of Denmark and Louise of Hesse-Kassel. Through her father, Marie Louise was a great-great-granddaughter of George III of the United Kingdom and Charlotte of Mecklenburg-Strelitz.

Princess Frederica may refer to:

References

  1. "No. 17497". The London Gazette . 24 July 1819. p. 1296.
  2. William Christian Sellé, letter to The Times dated 3 July
  3. Letter to the Times dated 5 July by William Christian Sellé
  4. The Encyclopaedia Britannica: A Dictionary of Arts, Sciences, Literature and General Information, Volume 11. Encyclopaedia Britannica. 1910.
  5. 1 2 Weir, Alison (18 April 2011). "The House of Hanover". Britain's Royal Families: The Complete Genealogy. Random House. p. 291.
  6. Heinzen, Jasper. The Guelph 'Conspiracy': Hanover as Would-Be Intermediary in the European System, 1866–1870. The International History Review 29, No. 2 (2007), pp. 258–281.
  7. Schmitt, Hans A. Prussia's Last Fling: The Annexation of Hanover, Hesse, Frankfurt, and Nassau, 15 June – 8 October 1866. Central European History 8, No. 4 (1975), pp. 316–347.
  8. Schmitt, Hans A. Prussia's Last Fling: The Annexation of Hanover, Hesse, Frankfurt, and Nassau, 15 June – 8 October 1866. Central European History 8, No. 4 (1975), pp. 316–347.
  9. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 The Complete Peerage, Volume III. St Catherine Press. 1913. p. 576. Under "Duke of Cumberland".
  10. Boase, Frederic Boase (1892). Modern English Biography: A-H. Netherton and Worth. p. 1821.
  11. "Royal Burials in the Chapel since 1805". College of St. George. Archived from the original on 2 August 2017.
  12. Gieseler, Albert. "Georgsmarien-Hütten- und Bergwerksverein". Kraft- und Dampfmaschinen (in German). Retrieved 23 October 2017.
  13. Marks of Cadency in the British Royal Family
  14. Shaw, Wm. A. (1906) The Knights of England, I, London, p. 55
  15. Le livre d'or de l'ordre de Léopold et de la croix de fer, Volume 1 /Ferdinand Veldekens
  16. Jørgen Pedersen (2009). Riddere af Elefantordenen, 1559–2009 (in Danish). Syddansk Universitetsforlag. p. 464. ISBN   978-87-7674-434-2.
  17. Per Nordenvall (1998). Kungliga Serafimerorden, 1748-1998 (in Swedish). Kunglig Majestäts orden. ISBN   91-630-6744-7.
  18. "A Szent István Rend tagjai" Archived 22 December 2010 at the Wayback Machine

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George V of Hanover
Cadet branch of the House of Welf
Born: 27 May 1819 Died: 12 June 1878
Regnal titles
Preceded by
Ernest Augustus
King of Hanover
18 November 1851 – 20 September 1866
Office abolished
Peerage of Great Britain
Preceded by
Ernest Augustus
Duke of Cumberland and Teviotdale
18 November 1851 – 12 June 1878
Succeeded by
Ernest Augustus
Titles in pretence
Loss of title
 TITULAR 
King of Hanover
20 September 1866 – 12 June 1878
Succeeded by
Ernest Augustus