George Wallace

Last updated

1943;died 1968)
Cornelia Ellis Snively
(m. 1971;div. 1978)

Lisa Taylor
(m. 1981;div. 1987)
George Wallace
George C Wallace.jpg
Wallace in 1968
45th Governor of Alabama
In office
January 17, 1983 January 19, 1987
Children4, including George
Education University of Alabama (LLB)
Signature George Wallace Signature.svg
Military service
Allegiance United States
Branch/service United States Army
Years of service1942–1945
Rank Staff Sergeant
Unit United States Army Air Forces
Battles/wars World War II

George Corley Wallace Jr. (August 25, 1919 – September 13, 1998) [1] was an American politician who served as the 45th governor of Alabama for four terms. A member of the Democratic Party, he is best remembered for his staunch segregationist and populist views. [2] [3] [4] During his tenure, he promoted "industrial development, low taxes, and trade schools." [5] Wallace sought the United States presidency as a Democrat three times, and once as an American Independent Party candidate, unsuccessfully each time. Wallace opposed desegregation and supported the policies of "Jim Crow" during the Civil Rights Movement, declaring in his 1963 inaugural address that he stood for "segregation now, segregation tomorrow, segregation forever". [6]


Born in Clio, Alabama, Wallace attended the University of Alabama School of Law, and served in United States Army Air Corps during World War II. After the war, he won election to the Alabama House of Representatives, and served as a state judge. Wallace first sought the Democratic nomination in the 1958 Alabama gubernatorial election. Initially a moderate on racial issues, Wallace adopted a hard-line segregationist stance after losing the 1958 nomination. Wallace ran for governor again in 1962, and won the race. Seeking to stop the racial integration of the University of Alabama, Wallace earned national notoriety by standing in front of the entrance of the University of Alabama, blocking the path of black students. [6] Wallace left office after one term due to term limits, but his wife, Lurleen Wallace, won the next election and succeeded him, though he was the de facto governor. [5]

Wallace challenged sitting president Lyndon B. Johnson in the 1964 Democratic presidential primaries, but Johnson prevailed in the race. In the 1968 presidential election, Wallace ran a third-party campaign in an attempt to force a contingent election in the United States House of Representatives, thereby enhancing the political clout of segregationist Southern leaders. Wallace won five Southern states but failed to force a contingent election. As of 2022 he remains the most recent third-party candidate to receive pledged electoral college votes from any state.

Wallace won election to the governorship again in 1970, and ran in the 1972 Democratic presidential primaries, having moderated his stance on segregation. His campaign effectively ended when he was shot in Maryland by Arthur Bremer, and Wallace remained paralyzed below the waist for the rest of his life.

Wallace won re-election as governor in 1974, and he once again unsuccessfully sought the Democratic presidential nomination in the 1976 Democratic presidential primaries. In the late 1970s, Wallace announced that he became a born-again Christian, and moderated his views on race, renouncing his past support for segregation. Wallace left office in 1979, but re-entered politics and won election to a fourth, and final, term as governor in 1982. Wallace is the third [7] longest-serving governor in U.S. history, having served 5,848 days in office. [8]

Early life

Wallace, the first of four children, was born in Clio in Barbour County in southeastern Alabama, to George Corley Wallace and his wife, Mozelle (Smith). He was the third of five generations to bear the name "George Wallace". Since his parents disliked the designation "Junior", he was called "George C.", to distinguish him from his father, George, and his grandfather, a physician. [9] Wallace's father left college to pursue a life of farming when food prices were high during World War I. When his father died in 1937, his mother had to sell their farmland to pay existing mortgages. [10] Wallace was raised as a Methodist. [11]

From age ten, Wallace was fascinated with politics. In 1935, he won a contest to serve as a page in the Alabama Senate, and confidently predicted that he would one day be governor. [12] Wallace became a regionally successful boxer in high school, then went directly to law school in 1937 at the University of Alabama School of Law in Tuscaloosa. [13] He was a member of the Delta Chi fraternity. It was at the University of Alabama that he crossed paths with Frank M. Johnson Jr., who was a much more liberal politician in relation to social issues and issues of race. [14] Wallace also knew Chauncey Sparks, who became a conservative governor. These men had an effect on his personal politics reflecting ideologies of both leaders later during his time in office.[ citation needed ] He received a Bachelor of Laws degree in 1942. [15]

Early in 1943, Wallace was accepted for pilot training by the United States Army Air Forces (USAAF). [16] Soon afterwards Wallace contracted life-threatening spinal meningitis, but prompt medical attention with sulfa drugs saved his life. Left with partial hearing loss and permanent nerve damage, he was instead trained as a flight engineer. During 1945, as a member of a B-29 crew with 468th Bombardment Group, stationed in the Mariana Islands as part of the Twentieth Air Force, Wallace took part in air raids on Japan and reached the rank of staff sergeant. [17] In mid-1945, Wallace received an early discharge on medical grounds, due to "severe anxiety", and a 10% disability pension for "psychoneurosis". [18] (The Twentieth Air Force was commanded by General Curtis LeMay, who was his running mate in the 1968 presidential race).

Racial attitude

Sources are mixed on Wallace's attitudes towards race, particularly African Americans.

For instance, one source on Wallace's career as a judge reports: "every black attorney who argued a case in Wallace's ... courtroom was struck by his fairness .... But no one who knew Wallace well ever took seriously his earnest profession – uttered a thousand times after 1963 – that he was a segregationist, not a racist." [19]

A reporter covering state politics in 1961 observed that, while other Alabama politicians conversed primarily about women and Alabama football, for Wallace "it was race – race, race, race – and every time that I was closeted alone with him, that's all we talked about." [20]

Wallace's preoccupation with race was based on his belief that black Americans comprised a separate and inferior race. In a 1963 letter to a social studies teacher, Wallace stated they were inclined to criminality – especially "atrocious acts ... such as rape, assault and murder" – because of a high incidence of venereal disease. Desegregation, he wrote, would lead to "intermarriage ... and eventually our race will be deteriated (sic) to that of the mongrel complexity." [21]

Early career

In 1938, at age 19, Wallace contributed to his grandfather's successful campaign for probate judge. Late in 1945, he was appointed as one of the assistant attorneys general of Alabama, and, in May 1946, he won his first election as a member to the Alabama House of Representatives. At the time, he was considered a moderate on racial issues. As a delegate to the 1948 Democratic National Convention, he did not join the Dixiecrat walkout at the convention, despite his opposition to U.S. President Harry S. Truman's proposed civil rights program. Wallace considered it an infringement on states' rights. The Dixiecrats carried Alabama in the 1948 general election, having rallied behind Governor Strom Thurmond of South Carolina. In his 1963 inaugural speech as governor, Wallace excused his failure to walk out of the 1948 convention on political grounds.

In 1952, he became the Circuit Judge of the Third Judicial Circuit in Alabama. Here he became known as "the fighting little judge", a nod to his past boxing association. [22] He gained a reputation for fairness regardless of the race of the plaintiff. It was common practice at the time for judges in the area to refer to black lawyers by their first names, while their white colleagues were addressed formally as "Mister"; black lawyer J. L. Chestnut later said that "Judge George Wallace was the most liberal judge that I had ever practiced law in front of. He was the first judge in Alabama to call me 'Mister' in a courtroom." [22]

On the other hand, Wallace issued injunctions to prevent the removal of segregation signs in rail terminals, becoming the first Southern judge to do so. [23] Similarly, during efforts by civil rights organizations to expand voter registration of blacks, Wallace blocked federal efforts to review Barbour County voting lists. He was cited for criminal contempt of court in 1959. [23]

As judge, Wallace granted probation to some blacks, which may have cost him the 1958 gubernatorial election. [24]

Failed run for governor

In 1958, Wallace ran in the Democratic primary for governor. Since the 1901 constitution's effective disfranchisement of the state's blacks, and most poor whites as well, the Democratic Party had been virtually the only party in Alabama. For all intents and purposes, the Democratic primary was the real contest at the state level. This was a political crossroads for Wallace. State Representative George C. Hawkins of Gadsden ran, but Wallace's main opponent was state attorney general John Malcolm Patterson, who ran with the support of the Ku Klux Klan, an organization Wallace had spoken against. Wallace was endorsed by the NAACP. Wallace lost the nomination by over 34,400 votes. [22]

After the election, aide Seymore Trammell recalled Wallace saying, "Seymore, you know why I lost that governor's race? ... I was outniggered by John Patterson. And I'll tell you here and now, I will never be outniggered again." [note 1]

In the wake of his defeat, Wallace adopted a hard-line segregationist stance and used this stance to court the white vote in the next gubernatorial election in 1962. When a supporter asked why he started using racist messages, Wallace replied, "You know, I tried to talk about good roads and good schools and all these things that have been part of my career, and nobody listened. And then I began talking about niggers, and they stomped the floor." [25]

Governor of Alabama


From left to right: Governor Wallace, NASA administrator James E. Webb and scientist Wernher von Braun at the Marshall Space Flight Center Wallacenasa.gif
From left to right: Governor Wallace, NASA administrator James E. Webb and scientist Wernher von Braun at the Marshall Space Flight Center
Wallace standing against desegregation while being confronted by U.S. Deputy Attorney General Nicholas Katzenbach at the University of Alabama in 1963 Wallace at University of Alabama edit2.jpg
Wallace standing against desegregation while being confronted by U.S. Deputy Attorney General Nicholas Katzenbach at the University of Alabama in 1963

In the 1962 Democratic primary, Wallace finished first, ahead of State Senator Ryan DeGraffenried Sr., and taking 35 percent of the vote. In the runoff, Wallace won the nomination with 55 percent of the vote. As no Republican filed to run, this all but assured Wallace of becoming the next governor. He won a crushing victory in the November general election, taking 96 percent of the vote. As noted above, Democratic dominance had been achieved by disenfranchising most blacks and many poor whites in the state for decades, which lasted until years after federal civil rights legislation was passed in 1964 and 1965.[ how? ]

Wallace took the oath of office on January 14, 1963, standing on the gold star marking the spot where, nearly 102 years earlier, Jefferson Davis was sworn in as provisional president of the Confederate States of America. In his inaugural speech, Wallace said: [25] [26]

In the name of the greatest people that have ever trod this earth, I draw the line in the dust and toss the gauntlet before the feet of tyranny, and I say segregation now, segregation tomorrow, segregation forever.

This sentence had been written by Wallace's new speechwriter, Ku Klux Klan leader Asa Earl Carter.

In 1963, President John F. Kennedy's administration ordered the U.S. Army's 2nd Infantry Division from Fort Benning, Georgia to be prepared to enforce the racial integration of the University of Alabama in Tuscaloosa. In a vain attempt to halt the enrollment of black students Vivian Malone and James Hood, Governor Wallace stood in front of Foster Auditorium at the University of Alabama on June 11, 1963. This became known as the "Stand in the Schoolhouse Door". [27]

In September 1963, Wallace attempted to stop four black students from enrolling in four separate elementary schools in Huntsville. After intervention by a federal court in Birmingham, the four children were allowed to enter on September 9, becoming the first to integrate a primary or secondary school in Alabama. [28] [29]

Wallace desperately wanted to preserve segregation. In his own words: "The President [John F. Kennedy] wants us to surrender this state to Martin Luther King and his group of pro-communists who have instituted these demonstrations." [30]

Wallace predicted, during a Milwaukee, Wisconsin speech on September 17, 1964, that the office-holding supporters of a civil rights bill would politically "bite the dust" by 1966 and 1968. [31]

External video
Nuvola apps kaboodle.svg “Interview with George Wallace” conducted in 1986 for the Eyes on the Prize documentary in which he discusses integration of the University of Alabama, the Birmingham movement, and the Selma voting rights campaign.

The Encyclopædia Britannica characterized him not so much as a segregationist but more as a "populist" who pandered to the white majority of Alabama voters. [2] It notes that his failed attempt at presidential politics created lessons that later influenced the populist candidacies of Jimmy Carter and Ronald Reagan. [2] Jack Newfield wrote in 1971 that Wallace "recently has been sounding like William Jennings Bryan as he attacked concentrated wealth in his speeches". [3]

Economics and education

The principal achievement of Wallace's first term was an innovation in Alabama industrial development that several other states later copied: he was the first Southern governor to travel to corporate headquarters in northern states to offer tax abatements and other incentives to companies willing to locate plants in Alabama.

He also initiated a community college system that has now spread throughout the state, [32] preparing many students to complete four-year degrees at Auburn University, UAB, or the University of Alabama. Wallace Community College (Dothan), is named for his father. Wallace Community College Selma (Selma), and Wallace State Community College (Hanceville) are named for him. Lurleen B. Wallace Community College in Andalusia is named for Wallace's first wife, Lurleen Burns Wallace.

The University of South Alabama, a new state university in Mobile, was chartered in 1963 during Wallace's first year in office as governor.

1964 Democratic presidential primaries

On November 15–20, 1963, in Dallas, Wallace announced his intention to oppose the incumbent president, John F. Kennedy, for the 1964 Democratic presidential nomination. Days later, also in Dallas, Kennedy was assassinated, and Vice President Lyndon B. Johnson succeeded him as president.

Building upon his notoriety after the University of Alabama controversy, Wallace entered the Democratic primaries in 1964 on the advice of a public relations expert from Wisconsin. [33] Wallace campaigned strongly by expressing his opposition to integration and a tough approach on crime. In Democratic primaries in Wisconsin, Indiana, and Maryland, Wallace garnered at least a third of the vote running against three Johnson-designated surrogates. [34]

Wallace was known for stirring crowds with his oratory. The Huntsville Times interviewed Bill Jones, Wallace's first press secretary, who recounted "a particularly fiery speech in Cincinnati, Ohio in 1964 that scared even Wallace, [where he] angrily shouted to a crowd of 1,000 people that 'little Pinkos' were 'running around outside' protesting his visit, and continued, after thunderous applause, saying, 'When you and I start marching and demonstrating and carrying signs, we will close every highway in the country.' The audience leaped to its feet and headed for the exit", Jones said, "It shook Wallace. He quickly moved to calm them down." [24]

At graduation exercises in the spring of 1964 at Bob Jones University in Greenville, South Carolina, Wallace received an honorary doctorate. [35] At the commencement, Bob Jones Jr., read the following citation as a tribute to Wallace: [36]

Men who have fought for truth and righteousness have always been slandered, maligned, and misrepresented. The American press in its attacks upon Governor Wallace has demonstrated that it is no longer free, American, or honest. But you, Mr. Governor, have demonstrated not only by the overwhelming victories in the recent elections in your own state of Alabama, but also in the showing which you have made in states long dominated by cheap demagogues and selfish radicals that there is still in America love for freedom, hard common sense, and at least some hope for the preservation of our constitutional liberties.

1964 unpledged elector slate

In 1964, Alabama Republicans stood to benefit from the unintended consequences of two developments: (1) Governor Wallace vacating the race for the Democratic presidential nomination against President Johnson, and (2) the designation of unpledged Democratic electors in Alabama, in effect removing President Johnson from the general election ballot. Prior to the 1964 Republican National Convention in San Francisco, Wallace and his aides Bill Jones and Seymore Trammell met in the Jefferson Davis Hotel in Montgomery with Alabama Republican leader James D. Martin, who had narrowly lost the U.S. Senate election in 1962 to J. Lister Hill. Wallace and his aides sought to determine if Barry M. Goldwater, the forthcoming Republican presidential nominee who as a senator from Arizona had voted against the Civil Rights Act of 1964 on libertarian and constitutional grounds, would advocate repeal of the law, particularly the public accommodations and equal employment sections. Bill Jones indicated that Wallace agreed with Goldwater's anti-communist stance but opposed the Republican's proposal to make Social Security a voluntary program. Jones stressed that Wallace had sacrificed his own presidential aspirations that year to allow a direct Republican challenge to President Johnson. It was later disclosed that Wallace proposed at the meeting with Martin to switch parties if he could be named as Goldwater's running-mate, a designation later given to U.S. Representative William E. Miller of New York. Goldwater reportedly rejected the overture because he considered Wallace to be a racist. [37]

The unpledged electors in Alabama included the future U.S. senator, James Allen, then the lieutenant governor, and the subsequent Governor Albert Brewer, then the state House Speaker. National Democrats balked over Johnson's exclusion from the ballot, but most supported the unpledged slate, which competed directly with the Republican electors. As The Tuscaloosa News explained, loyalist electors would have offered a clearer choice to voters than did the unpledged slate. [38]

The 1964 Republican electors were the first since Reconstruction to prevail in Alabama. The Goldwater-Miller slate received 479,085 votes (69.5 percent) to the unpledged electors' 209,848 (30.5 percent). The Republican tide also brought to victory five Republican members of the United States House of Representatives, including William Louis Dickinson, who held the Montgomery-based district seat until 1993, and James D. Martin, the Gadsden oil products dealer who defeated then State Senator George C. Hawkins for the U.S. House seat formerly held by Carl Elliott. Hardly yet sworn into the U.S. House, Martin already had his eyes on Wallace's own position as governor. [39]

First Gentleman of Alabama

Term limits in the Alabama Constitution prevented Wallace from seeking a second term in 1966. Therefore, Wallace offered his wife, Lurleen Wallace, as a surrogate candidate for governor. In the Democratic primary, she defeated two former governors, Jim Folsom and John M. Patterson, Attorney General Richmond Flowers Sr., and former U.S. Representative Carl Elliott. [40] Largely through the work of Wallace's supporters, the Alabama restriction on gubernatorial succession was later modified to allow two consecutive terms. [41]

Wallace defended his wife's proxy candidacy. He felt somewhat vindicated when Republicans in Idaho denied renomination in 1966 to Governor Robert E. Smylie, author of the article entitled "Why I Feel Sorry for Lurleen Wallace". In his memoirs, Wallace recounts his wife's ability to "charm crowds" and cast-off invective: "I was immensely proud of her, and it didn't hurt a bit to take a back seat to her in vote-getting ability." Wallace rebuffed critics[ who? ] who claimed that he had "dragooned" his wife into the race. "She loved every minute of being governor the same way ... that Mrs. (Margaret) Smith loves being senator." [42]

During the 1966 campaign, George Wallace signed state legislation to nullify desegregation guidelines between Alabama cities and counties and the former United States Department of Health, Education, and Welfare. Wallace claimed that the law would thwart the national government from intervening in schools. Critics denounced Wallace's "political trickery" and expressed alarm at the potential forfeiture of federal funds. Republican gubernatorial candidate James D. Martin accused the Democrats of "playing politics with your children" and "neglecting academic excellence". [43]

Martin also opposed the desegregation guidelines and had sponsored a U.S. House amendment to forbid the placement of students and teachers on the basis of racial quotas. He predicted that Wallace's legislation would propel the issuance of a court order compelling immediate and total desegregation in all public schools. He also compared the new Alabama law to "another two-and-a-half-minute stand in the schoolhouse door". [44]

Lurleen Wallace defeated Martin in the general election on November 8, 1966. She was inaugurated in January 1967, but on May 7, 1968, she died in office of cancer at the age of 41, amid her husband's ongoing second presidential campaign. [45] On her death, she was succeeded by Lieutenant Governor Albert Brewer, who had run without Republican opposition amid the Wallace–Martin races. George Wallace's influence in state government thus subsided until his next bid for election in his own right in 1970. He was "first gentleman" for less than a year and a half.

1968 third-party presidential run

Planning for Wallace's 1968 presidential campaign began with a strategy session on the evening of the March 1967 inauguration of Lurleen Wallace. The meeting featured prominent white supremacists and anti-Semites, including: Asa Carter; William Simmons of the White Citizens' Council; Dallas County Sheriff Jim Clark; former Mississippi Gov. Ross Barnett; Leander Perez, a fervent Louisiana segregationist and anti-Semite; Kent Courtney, a John Bircher; and "a representative sent by Willis Carto, head of the Liberty Lobby and publisher of the anti-Semitic magazine American Mercury." [46]

Orange states went to Wallace in the 1968 election. ElectoralCollege1968.svg
Orange states went to Wallace in the 1968 election.

Wallace ran for president in the 1968 election as the American Independent Party candidate, with Curtis LeMay as his candidate for vice president. Wallace hoped to force the House of Representatives to decide the election with one vote per state if he could obtain sufficient electoral votes to make him a power broker. Wallace hoped that Southern states could use their clout to end federal efforts at desegregation. His platform contained generous increases for beneficiaries of Social Security and Medicare. Wallace's foreign policy positions set him apart from the other candidates in the field. "If the Vietnam War was not winnable within 90 days of his taking office, Wallace pledged an immediate withdrawal of U.S. troops ... Wallace described foreign aid as money 'poured down a rat hole' and demanded that European and Asian allies pay more for their defense." [47]

Richard Nixon feared that Wallace might split the conservative vote and allow the Democratic nominee, Vice President Hubert H. Humphrey, to prevail. Some Democrats feared Wallace's appeal to organized blue-collar workers would damage Humphrey in Northern states such as Ohio, New Jersey and Michigan. Wallace ran a "law and order" campaign similar to Nixon's, further worrying Republicans. [48]

In Wallace's 1998 obituary, The Huntsville Times political editor John Anderson summarized the impact from the 1968 campaign: "His startling appeal to millions of alienated white voters was not lost on Richard Nixon and other Republican strategists. First Nixon, then Ronald Reagan, and finally George Herbert Walker Bush successfully adopted toned-down versions of Wallace's anti-busing, anti-federal government platform to pry low- and middle-income whites from the Democratic New Deal coalition." [24] Dan Carter, a professor of history at Emory University in Atlanta, added: "George Wallace laid the foundation for the dominance of the Republican Party in American society through the manipulation of racial and social issues in the 1960s and 1970s. He was the master teacher, and Richard Nixon and the Republican leadership that followed were his students." [49]

Wallace considered Happy Chandler, the former baseball commissioner, two-term former governor of Kentucky and former Senator from Kentucky, as his running mate in his 1968 campaign as a third-party candidate; as one of Wallace's aides put it, "We have all the nuts in the country; we could get some decent people–-you working one side of the street and he working the other side." Wallace invited Chandler, but when the press published the prospect, Wallace's supporters objected; Chandler had supported the hiring of Jackie Robinson by the Brooklyn Dodgers.

Wallace retracted the invitation, and (after considering Kentucky Fried Chicken founder Colonel Harland Sanders) [47] chose former Air Force General Curtis LeMay of California. LeMay was considered instrumental in the establishment in 1947 of the United States Air Force and an expert in military affairs. His four-star military rank, experience at Strategic Air Command and presence advising President Kennedy during the Cuban Missile Crisis were considered foreign-policy assets to the Wallace campaign. By 1968, LeMay had retired and was serving as chairman of the board of an electronics company, but the company threatened to dismiss him if he took a leave of absence to run for vice president. To keep LeMay on the ticket, Wallace backer and Texas oil tycoon H. L. Hunt set up a million-dollar fund to reimburse LeMay for any income lost in the campaign. [4] Campaign aides tried to persuade LeMay to avoid questions relating to nuclear weapons, but when asked if he thought their use was necessary to win the Vietnam War, he first said that America could win in Vietnam without them. However, he alarmed the audience by further commenting, "we [Americans] have a phobia about nuclear weapons. I think there may be times when it would be most efficient to use nuclear weapons." The "politically tone-deaf" LeMay became a drag on Wallace's candidacy for the remainder of the campaign. [50]

In 1968, Wallace pledged that "If some anarchist lies down in front of my automobile, it will be the last automobile he will ever lie down in front of" and asserted that the only four letter words that hippies did not know were "w-o-r-k" and "s-o-a-p." Responding to criticism of the former comment, Wallace later elaborated that he meant such a protester would be punished under the law, not run over. This type of rhetoric became famous. He accused Humphrey and Nixon of wanting to radically desegregate the South. Wallace said, "There's not a dime's worth of difference between the Republicans and Democrats", a campaign slogan that he had first perfected when Lurleen Wallace defeated James D. Martin.

Major media outlets observed the support Wallace received from extremist groups such as White Citizens' Councils. It has been noted that members of such groups had permeated the Wallace campaign by 1968 and, while Wallace did not openly seek their support, nor did he refuse it. [51] Indeed, at least one case has been documented of the pro-Nazi [52] and white supremacist [53] Liberty Lobby distributing a pro-Wallace pamphlet entitled "Stand up for America" despite the campaign's denial of such a connection. [54] Unlike Strom Thurmond in 1948, Wallace generally avoided race-related discussions. He mostly criticized hippies and "pointy-headed intellectuals". He denied he was racist, saying once, "I've never made a racist speech in my life." [48]

While Wallace carried five Southern states, won almost ten million popular votes and 46 electoral votes, Nixon received 301 electoral votes, more than required to win the election. Wallace remains the last non-Democratic, non-Republican candidate to win any pledged electoral votes. Wallace also received the vote of one North Carolina elector who had been pledged to Nixon.

Many found Wallace an entertaining campaigner. To "hippies" who called him a fascist, he replied, "I was killing fascists when you punks were in diapers." Another notable quip: "They're building a bridge over the Potomac for all the white liberals fleeing to Virginia."

Wallace decried the United States Supreme Court's binding opinion in Alexander v. Holmes County Board of Education , which ordered immediate desegregation of Southern schools – he said the new Burger court was "no better than the Warren court" and called the justices "limousine hypocrites". [55]

Second term as governor

In 1970, Wallace sought the Democratic nomination against incumbent Governor Albert Brewer, who was the first gubernatorial candidate since Reconstruction to seek African American voter support. [56] Although in the 1966 gubernatorial election then state Attorney General Richmond Flowers championed civil rights for all and, with the support of most of Alabama's black voters, finished second in the Democratic primary. Brewer unveiled a progressive platform and worked to build an alliance between blacks and the white working class. Of Wallace's out-of-state trips, Brewer said, "Alabama needs a full-time governor!" [57]

In the primary, Brewer received the most votes but failed to win a majority, which triggered a runoff election. [58]

In what later U.S. President Jimmy Carter called "one of the most racist campaigns in modern southern political history", [58] Wallace aired television advertising with slogans such as "Do you want the black bloc electing your governor?" and circulated an ad showing a white girl surrounded by seven black boys, with the slogan "Wake Up Alabama! Blacks vow to take over Alabama." [59] Wallace slurred Brewer, whom he called "Sissy Britches", [60] and his family. [61] In the runoff, Wallace narrowly won the Democratic nomination [61] and won the general election in a landslide.

Though Wallace had promised not to run for president a third time, [57] [58] the day after the election, he flew to Wisconsin to campaign for the upcoming 1972 United States presidential election. [57] Wallace, whose presidential ambitions would have been destroyed by a defeat for governor, has been said to have run "one of the nastiest campaigns in state history", using racist rhetoric while proposing few new ideas. [56]

1972 Democratic presidential primaries and assassination attempt

A campaign brochure Wallace1972brochure.gif
A campaign brochure
Green states went to George Wallace in the 1972 Democratic primaries. United States Democratic presidential primaries, 1972 by state.svg
Green states went to George Wallace in the 1972 Democratic primaries.

On January 13, 1972, Wallace declared himself a Democratic candidate. The field included Senator George McGovern, 1968 nominee and former U.S. vice president Hubert Humphrey, and nine other Democratic opponents, including John V. Lindsay, the liberal mayor of New York City, who had switched from Republican affiliation to enter the Democratic presidential primaries.

Wallace announced that he no longer supported segregation and had always been a "moderate" on racial matters. [22] This position was an echo of Nixon, who in 1969 had instituted the first affirmative action program, the Philadelphia Plan that established goals and timetables. However, Wallace (similarly to Nixon) [62] expressed continued opposition to desegregation busing. [63] For the next four months, Wallace's campaign proceeded well. In Florida's primary, Wallace carried every county to win 42% of the vote.

Wallace lies wounded on the ground immediately after the assassination attempt, as his wife, Cornelia, embraces him. George Wallace assassination attempt.jpg
Wallace lies wounded on the ground immediately after the assassination attempt, as his wife, Cornelia, embraces him.

On May 15, 1972, he was shot five times by Arthur Bremer while campaigning at the Laurel Shopping Center in Laurel, Maryland, at a time when he was receiving high ratings in national opinion polls. [64] Bremer was seen at a Wallace rally in Wheaton, Maryland, earlier that day and two days earlier at a rally in Kalamazoo, Michigan. Wallace was hit in the abdomen and chest, and one of the bullets lodged in Wallace's spinal column, leaving him paralyzed from the waist down for the rest of his life. A five-hour operation was needed that evening, and Wallace had to receive several units of blood to survive. Three others who were wounded in the shooting also survived. The shooting and Wallace's subsequent injuries put an effective end to his bid for the Democratic presidential nomination. [65] The assassination attempt was caught on film. [66]

Bremer's diary, An Assassin's Diary , published after his arrest, shows he was motivated in the assassination attempt by a desire for fame, not by political ideology. He had considered President Nixon an earlier target. He was convicted at trial. On August 4, 1972, Bremer was sentenced to 63 years in prison, later reduced to 53 years. Bremer served 35 years and was released on parole on November 9, 2007.

CBS News correspondent David Dick won an Emmy Award for his coverage of the attempt on Wallace's life. [67]

Following the assassination attempt, Wallace was visited at the hospital by Democratic Representative and presidential primary rival Shirley Chisholm, [68] a representative from Bedford-Stuyvesant, Brooklyn. At the time, she was the nation's only African-American female member of Congress. Despite their ideological differences and the opposition of Chisholm's constituents, Chisholm felt visiting Wallace was the humane thing to do. Other people to visit Wallace in hospital were President Nixon, Vice President Spiro Agnew, and presidential primary rivals Hubert Humphrey, George McGovern, and Ted Kennedy. He also received telegrams from former President Lyndon Johnson, California governor Ronald Reagan and Pope Paul VI.

After the shooting, Wallace won primaries in Maryland and Michigan, but his near assassination effectively ended his campaign. From his wheelchair, Wallace spoke on July 11, 1972, at the Democratic National Convention in Miami Beach, Florida.

Since Wallace was out of Alabama for more than 20 days while he was recovering in Holy Cross Hospital in Silver Spring, Maryland, the state constitution required Lieutenant Governor Jere Beasley to serve as acting governor from June 5 until Wallace's return to Alabama on July 7. Wallace resumed his gubernatorial duties and easily won the 1974 primary and general election, when he defeated Republican State Senator Elvin McCary, a real estate developer from Anniston, who received less than 15% of the ballots cast. [69]

In 1992, when asked to comment on the 20th anniversary of his attempted assassination, Wallace replied, "I've had 20 years of pain." [70]

1976 Democratic presidential primaries

States in green went to Wallace in the 1976 Democratic primaries. Democratic Party presidential primaries results, 1976.svg
States in green went to Wallace in the 1976 Democratic primaries.

In November 1975, Wallace announced his fourth bid for the presidency, again participating in the Democratic presidential primaries. Wallace's campaign was plagued by voter concern about his health [71] as well as the media use of images that portrayed him as nearly helpless. [72] His supporters complained that such coverage was motivated by bias, citing the discretion used in coverage of Franklin D. Roosevelt's paralysis, before television became commercially available. In the southern primaries and caucuses, Wallace carried only Mississippi, South Carolina and his home state of Alabama. If the popular vote in all primaries and caucuses were combined, Wallace would have placed third behind former Georgia governor Jimmy Carter and California governor Jerry Brown. After the primaries were completed, and he had lost several Southern primaries to Carter, Wallace left the race in June 1976. He eventually endorsed Carter, who defeated Republican incumbent Gerald Ford.

Final term as governor

Wallace in 1982 at the Elmore Airshow in Elmore, Alabama Governor George Wallace (205360242).jpg
Wallace in 1982 at the Elmore Airshow in Elmore, Alabama

In the late 1970s, Wallace announced that he was a born-again Christian and apologized to black civil rights leaders for his past actions as a segregationist. He said that while he had once sought power and glory, he realized he needed to seek love and forgiveness. [note 2] In 1979, Wallace said of his stand in the schoolhouse door: "I was wrong. Those days are over, and they ought to be over." [73] He publicly asked for forgiveness from black Americans. [73] [74]

In the 1982 Alabama gubernatorial Democratic primary, Wallace's main opponents were Lieutenant Governor George McMillan and Alabama House Speaker Joe McCorquodale. In the primary, McCorquodale was eliminated, and the vote went to a runoff, with Wallace holding a slight edge over McMillan. Wallace won the Democratic nomination by a margin of 51 to 49 percent. In the general election, his opponent was Montgomery Republican Mayor Emory Folmar. Polling experts at first thought the 1982 election was the best chance since Reconstruction for a Republican to be elected as governor of Alabama.[ citation needed ] Ultimately, though, it was Wallace, not Folmar, who claimed victory.

During Wallace's final term as governor (1983–1987) he appointed a record number of black Americans to state positions, [75] including, for the first time, two as members in the same cabinet.

On April 2, 1986, Wallace announced at a press conference in Montgomery that he would not run for a fifth term as Governor of Alabama, and would retire from public life after leaving the governor's mansion in January 1987. [76] Wallace achieved four gubernatorial terms across three decades, totaling 16 years in office.

Marriages and children

Wallace married Lurleen Brigham Burns on May 22, 1943. [18] [77] [78] The couple had four children together: Bobbi Jo (1944) Parsons, Peggy Sue (1950) Kennedy, George III, known as George Junior (1951), and Janie Lee (1961) Dye, who was named after Robert E. Lee. Lurleen Wallace was the first woman to be elected governor of Alabama, which she did as a stand-in for her husband, who was barred from serving another term. In 1961, in keeping with the practice of many at the time to shield patients from discussion of cancer, which was greatly feared, Wallace had withheld information from her that a uterine biopsy had found possibly precancerous cells. [79] After Lurleen's death in 1968, the couple's younger children, aged 18, 16, and 6, were sent to live with family members and friends for care (their eldest daughter had already married and left home). [45]

Their son, commonly called George Wallace Jr., is a Democrat-turned-Republican formerly active in Alabama politics. He was twice elected state treasurer as a Democrat, and twice elected to the Alabama Public Service Commission. He lost a race in 2006 for the Republican nomination for lieutenant governor. In 2010, Wallace Jr. failed by a wide margin to win the Republican nod to regain his former position as state treasurer.[ citation needed ]

On January 4, 1971, Wallace wed the former Cornelia Ellis Snively (1939–2009), a niece of former Alabama governor Jim Folsom, known as "Big Jim". "C'nelia" had been a performer and was nicknamed "the Jackie Kennedy of the rednecks." The couple had a bitter divorce in 1978. A few months after that divorce, Cornelia told Parade magazine, "I don't believe George needs a family. He just needs an audience. The family as audience wasn't enough for his ego." [24] Snively died at the age of 69 on January 8, 2009. [80]

On September 9, 1981, Wallace married Lisa Taylor, a country music singer; they divorced in 1987. [81]

Peggy was 12 years old when her father ran successfully for governor. She has shared that she was not treated nicely out in public due to her father's segregationist views. Some people would not shake her hand because of her last name. She would go to school wanting to befriend the black students, but she assumed that they would not like her because of what her father had done. [82]

Final years and death

In a 1995 interview, Wallace said that he planned to vote for Republican Bob Dole in the 1996 presidential election, commenting, "He's a good man. His wife is a born-again Christian woman and I believe he is, too." He also revealed that he had voted for George H. W. Bush, another Republican, in 1992. His son, George Wallace Jr., officially switched from Democrat to Republican that same year. Wallace himself declined to identify as either a Republican or a Democrat. But he added, "The state is slowly going Republican because of Clinton being so liberal." [83]

In his later years, Wallace grew deaf and developed Parkinson's disease. [83]

At a restaurant a few blocks from the State Capitol, Wallace became something of a fixture. In constant pain, he was surrounded by an entourage of old friends and visiting well-wishers and continued this ritual until a few weeks before his death. Wallace died of septic shock from a bacterial infection in Jackson Hospital in Montgomery on September 13, 1998. He had respiratory problems in addition to complications from his gunshot spinal injury. His grave is located at Greenwood Cemetery, in Montgomery.

Legacy and honors

External video
Nuvola apps kaboodle.svg Booknotes interview with Stephen Lesher on George Wallace: American Populist, February 27, 1994, C-SPAN
Nuvola apps kaboodle.svg Washington Journal interview with Dan T. Carter on the influence of George Wallace, June 23, 2001, C-SPAN

With four failed runs for president, Wallace was unsuccessful in national politics. [84] [85] However, his impact on American politics was enormous and earned him the appellation "the most influential loser" in 20th century American politics, according to biographers Dan T. Carter [86] and Stephan Lesher. [87] The George Wallace Tunnel on Interstate 10 is named in his honor. In a two-part documentary, Buchanan stated that he had never gotten credit for being the figure he was and having influenced "Nixon and Agnew, the Reagan movement, the Buchanan movement, the Perot movement." [88]

Wallace was the subject of a documentary, George Wallace: Settin' the Woods on Fire (2000), shown by PBS on The American Experience . [22] [89] It was funded in part by the National Endowment for the Humanities. Over 50 songs have been released about or making reference to George Wallace. [90] The TNT cable network produced a movie, George Wallace (1997), directed by John Frankenheimer and starring Gary Sinise. Sinise received an Emmy Award for his performance during a ceremony held the day Wallace died. In the 2014 film Selma , which was set during the Civil Rights Movement, which then-Governor Wallace publicly opposed, Wallace was portrayed by actor Tim Roth.

Three community colleges in Alabama are named for Wallace: Wallace Community College, Wallace Community College Selma, and Wallace State Community College. Lurleen B. Wallace Community College is named for his wife. In 2020, amidst a change in public opinion, many Alabama universities were pushed to rename campus buildings that were originally named after Wallace. This included, but was not limited to, the University of Montevallo and Auburn University. [91] The University of Montevallo has been unsuccessful in renaming the George C. Wallace Speech and Hearing Center because the building was named via Act 110 by the Alabama Legislature in 1975. [92]

See also


  1. Jere Beasley served as Acting Governor from June 5, 1972 to July 7, 1972 while Wallace recovered from an assassination attempt.


  1. Carter (1996, p. 2) notes that Wallace later denied a similar quotation that appeared in a 1968 biography by Marshall Frady: "'Well boys,' he said tightly as he snuffed out his cigar, 'no other son-of-a-bitch will ever out-nigger me again.'"Riechers, Maggie (March–April 2000). "Racism to Redemption: The Path of George Wallace". Humanities. 21 (2). Archived from the original on December 10, 2017. Retrieved May 25, 2006. The exact wording is a matter of historical dispute. Some sources quote Wallace as using the word "outsegged". In an extended note in "The Politics of Rage" (1995), p. 96 & 96fn, Carter notes the denial, but says two witnesses confirm the use of the racist language on Election Night, in addition to Seymore Trammell's recollection of Wallace using similar phrasing the next day in his presence.
  2. According to Carter (1995, pp. 236–37), "But no one who knew Wallace well ever took seriously his earnest profession – uttered a thousand times after 1963 – that he [had been] a segregationist, not a racist. ... Wallace, like most white southerners of his generation, [had] genuinely believed blacks to be a separate, inferior race."

Related Research Articles

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Orval Faubus</span> Governor of Arkansas from 1955 to 1967

Orval Eugene Faubus was an American politician who served as the 36th Governor of Arkansas from 1955 to 1967, as a member of the Democratic Party.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Lurleen Wallace</span> American politician

Lurleen Burns Wallace was the 46th governor of Alabama for 15 months from January 1967 until her death in May 1968. She was the first wife of Alabama governor George Wallace, whom she succeeded as governor because the Alabama constitution forbade consecutive terms. She was Alabama's first female governor and was the only female governor to hold the position until Kay Ivey became the second woman to succeed to the office in 2017. She is also the only female governor in U.S. history to have died in office. In 1973, she was posthumously inducted into the Alabama Women's Hall of Fame.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Jim Folsom</span> American politician

James Elisha Folsom, Sr., commonly known as Jim Folsom or Big Jim Folsom, was an American politician who served as the 42nd governor of the U.S. state of Alabama, having served from 1947 to 1951, and again from 1955 to 1959. He was the first Governor of Alabama who was born in the 20th century.

In United States presidential elections, an unpledged elector is a person nominated to stand as an elector but who has not pledged to support any particular presidential or vice presidential candidate, and is free to vote for any candidate when elected a member of the Electoral College. Presidential elections are indirect, with voters in each state choosing electors on Election Day in November, and these electors choosing the president and vice president of the United States in December. Electors in practice have since the 19th century almost always agreed in advance to vote for a particular candidate — that is, they are said to have been pledged to that candidate. In several elections in the 20th century, however, competitive campaigns were mounted by candidates who made no pledge to any presidential nominee before the election. These anomalies largely arose from fissures within the Democratic Party over the issues of civil rights and segregation. No serious general election campaign has been mounted to elect unpledged electors in any state since 1964.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">John M. Patterson</span> American Attorney General and Governor of Alabama (1921–2021)

John Malcolm Patterson was an American politician, who, having never stood for public office before, at 33, served one term as Attorney General of Alabama, from 1955 to 1959, and at 37, served one term as the 44th Governor of the U.S. state of Alabama from 1959 to 1963.

George Corley Wallace III, generally known as George Wallace Jr., is an American politician from the U.S. state of Alabama. He is the only son of George and Lurleen Wallace, each of whom was Democratic governor of Alabama.

The Alabama Democratic Party is the affiliate of the Democratic Party in the state of Alabama. It is chaired by Randy Kelley.

Former Governor of Alabama George Wallace ran in the 1968 United States presidential election as the candidate for the American Independent Party against Richard Nixon and Hubert Humphrey. Wallace's pro-segregation policies during his term as Governor of Alabama were rejected by most. The impact of the Wallace campaign was substantial, winning the electoral votes of several states in the Deep South. Although Wallace did not expect to win the election, his strategy was to prevent either major party candidate from winning a majority in the Electoral College. This would throw the election into the House of Representatives, where Wallace would have bargaining power sufficient to determine, or at least strongly influence, the selection of a winner.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">1970 Alabama gubernatorial election</span>

The 1970 Alabama gubernatorial election was marked by a competitive Democratic primary battle between incumbent moderate Governor Albert Brewer and segregationist former governor and 1968 independent presidential candidate George Wallace. The Alabama Constitution was amended in 1968, allowing a governor to serve two consecutive terms.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">1970 Georgia gubernatorial election</span>

The 1970 Georgia gubernatorial election was held on November 3, 1970. It was marked by the election as Governor of Georgia of the relatively little-known former state senator Jimmy Carter after a hard battle in the Democratic primary. This election is famous because Carter, who was often regarded as one of the New South Governors, later ran for president in 1976 on his gubernatorial record and won. As of 2022, this was the last time Fulton County voted for the Republican candidate in a gubernatorial election.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">1972 Democratic Party presidential primaries</span> Selection of the Democratic Party nominee

From January 24 to June 20, 1972, voters of the Democratic Party chose its nominee for president in the 1972 United States presidential election. Senator George McGovern of South Dakota was selected as the nominee through a series of primary elections, caucuses, and state party conventions, culminating in the 1972 Democratic National Convention held from July 10 to July 13, 1972, in Miami, Florida.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">1966 Arkansas gubernatorial election</span>

The 1966 Arkansas gubernatorial election was held on November 8, 1966. It was the first time since Reconstruction that a member of the Republican Party was elected governor.

The National Democratic Party of Alabama (NDPA) was a political party active in the U.S. state of Alabama that opposed the segregationist governor George Wallace.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">1968 United States presidential election in North Carolina</span>

The 1968 United States presidential election in North Carolina took place on November 5, 1968, and was part of the 1968 United States presidential election. Voters chose 13 representatives, or electors to the Electoral College, who voted for president and vice president.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">1972 United States presidential election in Florida</span> Election in Florida

The 1972 United States presidential election in Florida was held on November 7, 1972, as part of the concurrent United States presidential election. Florida voters chose seventeen electors, or representatives to the Electoral College, who voted for president and vice president.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">1968 United States presidential election in South Carolina</span> Election in South Carolina

The 1968 United States presidential election in South Carolina took place on November 5, 1968. All 50 states and the District of Columbia were part of the 1968 United States presidential election. South Carolina voters chose 8 electors to the Electoral College, who voted for president and vice president.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">1967 Mississippi gubernatorial election</span> Election for the governorship of the U.S. state of Mississippi

The 1967 Mississippi gubernatorial election took place on November 7, 1967, in order to elect the Governor of Mississippi. Incumbent Democrat Paul B. Johnson Jr. was term-limited, and could not run for reelection to a second term.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">1972 United States Senate election in Georgia</span>

The 1972 United States Senate election in Georgia took place on November 7, 1972, as one of that year's United States Senate elections. It was held concurrently with the 1972 presidential election. This seat had opened up following the death of Richard B. Russell in 1971. Shortly thereafter, Governor of Georgia Jimmy Carter appointed David H. Gambrell to fill Russell's vacant seat. The Democratic Party nominee was Sam Nunn, a conservative Democrat and member of the Georgia House of Representatives, and the Republican Party nominated Fletcher Thompson, the Representative from the Atlanta-area 5th congressional district of Georgia. In the primary, Nunn emerged victorious from a crowded field of Democratic candidates, including Gambrell and former Georgia Governor Ernest Vandiver. Despite President Richard Nixon defeating George McGovern in Georgia in the presidential election on the same day, Nunn defeated Thompson in the general election 54% to 46%.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">1968 United States presidential election in Indiana</span> Election in Indiana

The 1968 United States presidential election in Indiana was held on November 5th, 1968. State voters chose 13 representatives, or electors to the Electoral College, who voted for President and Vice-President.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">1956 United States presidential election in Mississippi</span> Election in Mississippi

The 1956 United States presidential election in Mississippi was held on November 6, 1956. Mississippi voters chose eight representatives, or electors to the Electoral College, who voted for president and vice president.


  1. Cornwell, Rupert (September 15, 1998). "Obituary: George Wallace". The Independent. Retrieved August 23, 2019.
  2. 1 2 3 "George C. Wallace". Encyclopædia Britannica. August 25, 2012. Retrieved August 25, 2012.
  3. 1 2 Newfield, Jack (July 19, 1971). "A Populist Manifesto: The Making of a New Majority". New York. pp. 39–46. Retrieved January 6, 2015.
  4. 1 2 Lesher, Stephan (1994). George Wallace: American Populist . Addison Wesley. p.  409. ISBN   978-0201622102.
  5. 1 2 Eskew, Glenn T. (September 8, 2008). "George C. Wallace (1963–1967, 1971–1979, 1983–1987)". Encyclopedia of Alabama .
  6. 1 2 "George Wallace, Segregation Symbol, Dies at 79". The New York Times. September 14, 1998.
  7. "The Top 50 Longest Serving Governors in US History (Updated)". May 29, 2017.
  8. Ostermeier, Eric (May 29, 2017). "The Top 50 Longest Serving Governors in US History (Updated)". Smart Politics. University of Minnesota. Archived from the original on March 1, 2021. Retrieved April 2, 2021.
  9. Carter (1995), p. 21.
  10. Carter (1995), p. 41.
  11. Carter (1995), p. 137.
  12. Carter (1995), pp. 30–31.
  13. "Alabama Governor George Wallace, gubernatorial history". Retrieved January 8, 2011.
  14. Bass, Jack. Taming the Storm: The Life and Times of Frank M. Jonson Jr., and the South's Fight over Civil Rights (Doubleday, New York, 1993).
  15. "A life marked by hate, violence George Wallace gave comfort to racists". Baltimore Sun. September 20, 1998.
  16. Frederick, Jeff (2007). Stand up for Alabama: Governor George Wallace. p. 13. ISBN   978-0817315740.
  17. Lesher (1994) pp. 47–61.
  18. 1 2 Frederick, Stand Up for Alabama: Governor George Wallace, 2007, p. 12.
  19. Carter, Dan T. (1995). The politics of rage : George Wallace, the origins of the new conservatism, and the transformation of American politics. New York: Simon & Schuster. p. 236. ISBN   0684809168. OCLC   32739924.
  20. Carter, Dan T. (1995). The politics of rage : George Wallace, the origins of the new conservatism, and the transformation of American politics. New York: Simon & Schuster. p. 237. ISBN   0684809168. OCLC   32739924.
  21. Carter, Dan T. (1995). The politics of rage : George Wallace, the origins of the new conservatism, and the transformation of American politics. New York: Simon & Schuster. pp. 237–238. ISBN   0684809168. OCLC   32739924.
  22. 1 2 3 4 5 Mccabe, Daniel (writer, director, producer), Paul Stekler (writer, director, producer), Steve Fayer (writer) (2000). George Wallace: Settin' the Woods on Fire (Documentary). Boston, USA: American Experience.
  23. 1 2 Anderson, John (September 14, 1998). "Former governor shaped politics of Alabama, nation". The Huntsville Times. Huntsville, Alabama. p. A8. referencing Frady, Marshall (1968). Wallace . New York: World Pub. Co. ISBN   978-0679771289. OCLC   588644.
  24. 1 2 3 4 Anderson, John (September 14, 1998). "Former governor shaped politics of Alabama, nation". The Huntsville Times. Huntsville, Alabama. p. A8.
  25. 1 2 "George Wallace: Settin' the Woods on Fire: Wallace Quotes". The American Experience. Public Broadcasting Service. 2000. Retrieved September 5, 2006.
  26. Klarman, Michael J. (March–April 2004). "Brown v. Board: 50 Years Later". Humanities: The Magazine of the National Endowment for the Humanities. Archived from the original on February 1, 2017. Retrieved September 6, 2006.
  27. E. Culpepper Clark (1995). The Schoolhouse Door: Segregation's Last Stand at the University of Alabama. Oxford University Press. p. 195. ISBN   978-0195096583.
  28. Webb, Debbie. "Wallace in the Schoolhouse Door: Marking the 40th Anniversary of Alabama's Civil Rights Standoff". Retrieved August 17, 2012.
  29. A brief history of race and schools Archived April 23, 2008, at the Wayback Machine , The Huntsville Times
  30. Alabama Governor George Wallace, public statement of May 8, 1963 in The New York Times . (May 9, 1963).
  31. "Restore U.S. Sanity: Wallace". Chicago Tribune. September 18, 1964. Archived from the original on August 3, 2017. Retrieved May 5, 2017.
  32. Katsinas, Stephen G. (1994). "George C. Wallace and the Founding of Alabama's Public Two-Year Colleges". The Journal of Higher Education. 65 (4): 447–472. doi:10.2307/2943855. JSTOR   2943855.
  33. Carter (1995), p. 205.
  34. Carter (1995), pp. 198–225.
  35. Archie Vernon Huff, Greenville: the history of the city and county in the South Carolina Piedmont, Columbia: U South Carolina P, 1995, p. 404.
  36. Sword of the Lord (June 26, 1964) 2.
  37. Montgomery Advertiser , September 23, 1966; Bill Jones, The Wallace Story, pp. 324, 327, 340.
  38. The Tuscaloosa News , reprinted in The Birmingham News , September 5, 1964.
  39. Congressional Quarterly report, Volume 23, Issues 40–53, p. 2443.
  40. Billy Hathorn, "A Dozen Years in the Political Wilderness: The Alabama Republican Party, 1966–1978", Gulf Coast Historical Review, Vol. 9, No. 2 (Spring 1994), p. 22.
  41. "Alabama Constitution of 1901, Amendment 282, Section 116". Alabama State Legislature. Retrieved December 30, 2016.
  42. "A Dozen Years in the Political Wilderness", p. 22.
  43. The Huntsville Times, September 3, 4, 1966; Montgomery Advertiser, September 1, 6, 1966.
  44. Congressional Quarterly Weekly Report, October 7, 1966, p. 2350.
  45. 1 2 Carter (1995), pp. 310–312, 317–320.
  46. Carter, Dan T. (1995). The politics of rage : George Wallace, the origins of the new conservatism, and the transformation of American politics. New York: Simon & Schuster. pp. 295–298. ISBN   0684809168. OCLC   32739924.
  47. 1 2 Kauffman, Bill (May 19, 2008) When the Left Was Right, The American Conservative
  48. 1 2 Brands 2010, p. 165.
  49. Carter, Dan, professor of history at Emory University, quoted in Anderson, John (September 14, 1998). "Former governor shaped politics of Alabama, nation". The Huntsville Times. Huntsville, Alabama. p. A1, A8.
  50. LeMay and Chandler in Perlstein, Rick (2008). Nixonland: The Rise of a President and the Fracturing of America. Simon and Schuster. p. 348. ISBN   978-0743243025.
  51. Diamond, Sara (1995). Roads to Dominion: Right-Wing Movements and Political Power in the United States. New York: Guilford Press. pp.  142–146. ISBN   978-0898628647.
  52. Trento, Joseph and Spear, Joseph, "How Nazi Nut Power Has Invaded Capitol Hill", True (November 1969): 39.
  53. Pearson & Anderson, "The Washington Merry-go-round", [url= "Archived copy" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on July 18, 2011. Retrieved August 8, 2010.{{cite web}}: CS1 maint: archived copy as title (link)], 1966.
  54. Carter (1995), pp. 296–297.
  55. Woodward, Bob; Scott Armstrong (1979). The Brethren. Simon & Schuster. ISBN   0671241109. p. 56.
  56. 1 2 William, Warren; et al. (1994). Alabama: The History of a Deep South State. Tuscaloosa: University of Alabama Press. p. 576. ISBN   978-0585263670.
  57. 1 2 3 "Steve Flowers Inside the Statehouse". Archived from the original on September 28, 2007. Retrieved October 25, 2006. Flowers, Steve, "Steve Flowers Inside the Statehouse", October 12, 2005.
  58. 1 2 3 Carter, Dan T. (1996). From George Wallace to Newt Gingrich: Race in the Conservative Counterrevolution, 1963–1994. Louisiana State University Press. pp.  46–48. ISBN   978-0195076806.
  59. Swint, Di Kerwin C. (2006). Mudslingers: The Top 25 Negative Political Campaigns of All Time Countdown from No. 25 to No. 1. Greenwood Publishing Group. p. 228. ISBN   978-0275985103.
  60. "Season Openers - Printout". Time. May 4, 1970. Archived from the original on September 14, 2012. Retrieved January 8, 2011.
  61. 1 2 Rogers, 576.
  62. Parmet, pp. 595–597, 603.
  63. Carter (1996), pp. 17–32.
  64. Greider, William (May 16, 1972). "Wallace Is Shot, Legs Paralyzed; Suspect Seized at Laurel Rally". Washington Post. Retrieved August 20, 2013.
  65. Times, Walter Rugaber Special to The New York (May 17, 1972). "Wallace Off the Critical List; Sweeps Primary in Michigan and Wins Handily in Maryland". The New York Times. ISSN   0362-4331 . Retrieved August 22, 2020.
  66. "1972 George Wallace Assassination Attempt". YouTube. Retrieved November 25, 2021.
  67. "Cheryl Truman, "David Dick, former CBS newsman from Ky., dies at age 80: CBS veteran embraced rural life", July 17, 2010". Lexington Herald-Leader . Archived from the original on July 15, 2014. Retrieved June 3, 2014.
  68. "Shirley Chisholm". The Blog of Death. January 4, 2005. Archived from the original on January 3, 2011. Retrieved January 8, 2011.
  69. "Election Results Archive - Governor". Alabama Secretary of State . December 8, 2010. Retrieved June 19, 2022.
  70. Wallace, George (September 14, 1998). "Wallace in his own words". The Huntsville Times. Huntsville, Alabama. p. A9.
  71. "Wallace enters race". Google News Search Archive. Charlottesville, Virginia: The Cavalier Daily. November 13, 1975. p. 1. Retrieved December 12, 2017.
  72. "WALLACE PRESSES THE HEALTH ISSUE". The New York Times. March 13, 1976. ISSN   0362-4331 . Retrieved November 6, 2022.
  73. 1 2 Edwards, George C., Government in America: people, politics, and policy(2009), Pearson Education, 80.
  74. Elliott, Debbie (September 14, 1998). "Remembering George Wallace". National Public Radio . Retrieved February 4, 2015.
  75. Foner, Eric; John Arthur Garraty; Society of American Historians (1991). The Reader's Companion to American History . Houghton Mifflin Harcourt. p.  1127. ISBN   978-0395513729.
  76. Daniel, Clifton (1999). 20th Century, Day by Day . New York: Dorling Kindersley. p.  1279. ISBN   978-0789446404.
  77. Lesher, Stephan (1994). George Wallace: American Populist. p. 49. ISBN   978-0201407983.
  78. "City Has Been Home of Four Governors". The Tuscaloosa News. April 24, 1969. p. 14E.
  79. Carter (1995), pp. 277–278.
  80. Former Alabama first lady Cornelia Wallace dies [ permanent dead link ], WZTV FOX17/Nashville
  81. Stephan Lesher (1995). George Wallace: American Populist. Da Capo Press. pp. 498–99. ISBN   978-0201407983.
  82. Blake, John (2007). Children of the movement. Hoopla digital. [United States]: Chicago Review Press. ISBN   978-1-56976-594-4. OCLC   1098920753.
  83. 1 2 "Wallace backs Bob Dole for president". The Gadsden Times. September 16, 1995. Retrieved September 27, 2017.
  84. "Victorious Loser", Newsweek, May 13, 1964, p. 13.
  85. Irving Louis Horowitz (1984). Winners and Losers: Social and Political Polarities in America . Duke University Press. p.  164.
  86. Carter, Dan T. (1995). The Politics of Rage: George Wallace, the Origins of the New Conservatism, and the Transformation of American Politics . New York: Simon & Schuster. p.  468. ISBN   978-0807125977.
  87. Lesher, Stephan (1994). George Wallace: American Populist . Reading, Mass.: Addison-Wesley. p. xi. ISBN   978-0201622102.
  88. "George Wallace Documentary - Part 2". YouTube. Retrieved July 29, 2022.
  89. "George Wallace: Settin' the Woods on Fire (web site)". The American Experience. Public Broadcasting Service. 1999. Retrieved May 25, 2006. Web site for the PBS documentary, including a complete transcript, references to other Wallace information, and tools for teachers.
  90. Brummer, Justin. "Governor George C. Wallace Songs". RYM. Retrieved August 9, 2019.
  91. Nail, Tim. "Petition calls for University to rename Wallace Hall". The Auburn Plainsman. Retrieved October 13, 2020.
  92. Balasky, Bri (September 30, 2020). "Board of Trustees votes to rename Bibb Graves and Comer". The Alabamian. Retrieved October 13, 2020.


Further reading

Party political offices
Preceded by Democratic nominee for Governor of Alabama
Succeeded by
New political party American Independent nominee for President of the United States
Succeeded by
Preceded by Democratic nominee for Governor of Alabama
1970, 1974
Succeeded by
Preceded by Democratic nominee for Governor of Alabama
Succeeded by
Political offices
Preceded by Governor of Alabama
Succeeded by
Preceded by Governor of Alabama
Succeeded by
Preceded by Governor of Alabama
Succeeded by
Honorary titles
Preceded byas First Lady of Alabama First Gentleman of Alabama
Succeeded byas First Lady of Alabama