George William Manby
George William Manby,
portrait by John Philip Davis
|Born||28 November 1765|
Denver, Norfolk, England
|Died||18 November 1854 88) (aged|
Great Yarmouth, Norfolk
|Known for||Inventor of Manby Mortar and fire extinguisher|
Captain George William Manby FRS (28 November 1765 – 18 November 1854) was an English author and inventor. He designed an apparatus for saving life from shipwrecks and also the first modern form of fire extinguisher.
Manby went to school at Downham Market. Although he claimed to have been a friend there of Horatio Nelson, this is unlikely to be true as Nelson would have left the school (if he ever attended) before Manby started. He volunteered to fight in the American War of Independence, aged 17, but was rejected because of his youth and his small size.Instead, he entered the Royal Military Academy in Woolwich, and then joined the Cambridgeshire Militia where he gained the rank of captain.
He married in 1793 and inherited his wife's family's estates, but left her in 1801 after being shot by her loverand moved to Clifton, Bristol. There, he published several books, including The History and Antiquities of St David's (1801), Sketches of the History and Natural Beauties of Clifton (1802), and A Guide from Clifton to the Counties of Monmouth, Glamorgan, etc. (1802). In 1803, his pamphlet An Englishman's Reflexions on the Author of the Present Disturbances, on Napoleon's plans to invade England, came to the attention of the Secretary of War, Charles Yorke, who was impressed and recommended Manby to be appointed as Barrack-Master at Great Yarmouth.
On 18 February 1807, as a helpless onlooker, he witnessed a Naval ship, HMS Snipe run aground 60 yards off Great Yarmouth during a storm, with (according to some accounts) a total of 214 people drowned, including French prisoners of war, women and children. Following this tragedy, Manby experimented with mortars, and so invented the Manby Mortar , later developed into the breeches buoy, that fired a thin rope from shore into the rigging of a ship in distress. A strong rope, attached to the thin one, could be pulled aboard the ship. His successful invention followed an experiment as a youth in 1783, when he shot a mortar carrying a line over Downham church. His invention was officially adopted in 1814, and a series of mortar stations were established around the coast.It was estimated that by the time of his death nearly 1000 persons had been rescued from stranded ships by means of his apparatus.
An earlier, similar design to Manby's invention was made in the late 18th century by the French agronomist and inventor Jacques Joseph Ducarne de Blangy.Manby's invention was independently arrived at, and there is no suggestion that he copied de Blangy's idea.
Manby also built an "unsinkable" ship. The first test indeed proved it to be floating when mostly filled with water; however, the seamen (who disliked Manby) rocked the boat back and forth, so that it eventually turned over. The boatmen depended on the cargo left over from shipwrecks, and may have thought Manby's mortar a threat to their livelihood.
In 1813 Manby invented the "Extincteur", the first portable pressurised fire extinguisher. This consisted of a copper vessel of 3 gallons of pearl ash (potassium carbonate) solution contained within compressed air. He also invented a device intended to save people who had fallen through ice.
In 1821 he sailed to Greenland with William Scoresby, for the purpose of testing a new type of harpoon for whaling, based on the same principles as his mortar. However, his device was sabotaged by the whalers.He published his account as Journal of a Voyage to Greenland , containing observations on the flora and fauna of the Arctic regions as well as the practice of whale hunting.
In 1828 the King of Denmark (via his consul) presented Manby with a gold medal "accompanied with a letter, communicating His Majesty's gracious approbation of his philanthopic and arduous exertions in saving the crews of shipwrecked vessels."
He was the first to advocate a national fire brigade, and is considered by some to be a true founder of the RNLI.He was elected a Fellow of the Royal Society in 1831 in recognition of his many accomplishments.
In later life Manby became obsessed with Nelson, turning his house into a Nelson museum filled with memorabilia and living in the basement.
Manby also became one of the godfathers of Augustus Onslow Manby Gibbes (1828–1897), the youngest son of the Collector of Customs for Great Yarmouth from 1827 to 1833, Colonel John George Nathaniel Gibbes (1787–1873).
Great Yarmouth, often called Yarmouth, is a seaside town in Norfolk, England, straddling the mouth of the River Yare, some 20 miles (30 km) east of Norwich. A population of 38,693 in the 2011 Census made it Norfolk's third most populous place. Its fishing industry, mainly for herring, fell steeply after the mid-20th century and has all but vanished. North Sea oil from the 1960s brought an oil-rig supply industry that now services offshore natural gas rigs. More recently, offshore wind power and other renewable energy have created further support services. Yarmouth has been a seaside resort since 1760 and a gateway from the Norfolk Broads to the North Sea. As a tourist centre, it was boosted when a railway opened in 1844, which gave visitors easier, cheaper access and triggered an influx of settlers. Wellington Pier opened in 1854 and Britannia Pier in 1858. Through the 20th century, Yarmouth was a booming resort, with a promenade, pubs, trams, fish-and-chip shops and theatres, as well as the Pleasure Beach, the Sea Life Centre, the Hippodrome Circus and the Time and Tide Museum, and a surviving Victorian seaside Winter Garden in cast iron and glass.
The Battle of Copenhagen of 1801 was a naval battle in which a British fleet fought and defeated a smaller force of the Dano–Norwegian Navy anchored near Copenhagen on 2 April 1801. The battle came about over British fears that the powerful Danish fleet would ally with France, and a breakdown in diplomatic communications in both sides. The Royal Navy won a resounding victory, besting fifteen Danish warships while losing none in return.
Denver is a village and civil parish in the English county of Norfolk. It is on the River Great Ouse, approximately 1 mile (2 km) south of the small town of Downham Market, 14 miles (22 km) south of the larger town of King's Lynn, and 37 miles (60 km) west of the city of Norwich.
A bomb vessel, bomb ship, bomb ketch, or simply bomb was a type of wooden sailing naval ship. Its primary armament was not cannons —although bomb vessels carried a few cannons for self-defence—but mortars mounted forward near the bow and elevated to a high angle, and projecting their fire in a ballistic arc. Explosive shells or carcasses were employed rather than solid shot. Bomb vessels were specialized ships designed for bombarding fixed positions on land. In the 20th century, this naval gunfire support role was carried out by the most similar purpose-built World War I- and II-era monitors, but also battleships, cruisers and destroyers.
Downham Market, sometimes simply referred to as Downham, is a market town and civil parish in Norfolk, England. It lies on the edge of the Fens, on the River Great Ouse, approximately 11 miles south of King's Lynn, 39 miles west of Norwich and 30 miles north of Cambridge.
Henry Trengrouse the inventor of the ‘Rocket’ life-saving apparatus, was born in Helston, Cornwall, United Kingdom.
Africaine was one of two 40-gun Preneuse-class frigates of the French Navy built to a design by Raymond-Antoine Haran. She carried twenty-eight 18-pounder and twelve 8-pounder guns. The British captured her in 1801, only to have the French recapture her in 1810. They abandoned her at sea as she had been demasted and badly damaged, with the result that the British recaptured her the next day. She was broken up in 1816.
Events from the year 1807 in the United Kingdom.
Events from the year 1808 in the United Kingdom.
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The Manby mortar was invented by Captain George William Manby, who was also the inventor of the portable fire extinguisher.
John Deane, with his brother Charles, invented the diving helmet and performed diving operations at the wreck of the Mary Rose. They received their education at The Royal Hospital School, Greenwich and were both in attendance in 1812. When he was 14, John joined the East India Company and sailed for seven years.
Thomas Moore Manby was a British naval officer who fought in the French Revolutionary Wars and Napoleonic Wars and later rose to the rank of rear admiral. He sailed with George Vancouver on his voyages of exploration, captained Bordelais, Africaine and Thalia, and was the chief suspect in the "delicate investigation" into the morals of Caroline, Princess of Wales.
Colonel John George Nathaniel Gibbes was a British army officer who emigrated to Australia in 1834, becoming a Crown-appointed member of the New South Wales Legislative Council and the Collector of Customs for the Colony of New South Wales for a record term of 25 years.
Manby is a surname, and may refer to:
Line throwers are devices for throwing lines to remote positions. Launching methods include guns, rockets, and pneumatics. They are especially useful in marine settings, particularly for rescue operations.
HMS Snipe was a gun-brig and the first Royal Navy ship to bear the name Snipe. Her grounding in 1807 inspired the invention of the Manby Mortar, an important development in maritime lifesaving equipment.
The brothers John Cantiloe Joy and William Joy were English marine artists, who lived and worked together. They belonged to the Norwich School of painters, considered to be a unique phenomenon in the history of British art and the most important school of painting of nineteenth century England.
george william manby.
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