Georgi Plekhanov

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Georgi Plekhanov
Georgi Plekhanov.jpg
Georgi Valentinovich Plekhanov

(1856-11-29)29 November 1856
Died30 May 1918(1918-05-30) (aged 61)
Spouse(s)Rozaliia Bograd-Plekhanova

Georgi Valentinovich Plekhanov ( /plɪˈkɑːnəf/ ; Russian :Гео́ргий Валенти́нович Плеха́нов,IPA:  [ɡʲɪˈorɡʲɪj vəlʲɪnˈtʲinəvʲɪtɕ plʲɪˈxanəf] ( Loudspeaker.svg listen ); 29 November 1856 – 30 May 1918) was a Russian revolutionary and a Marxist theoretician. He was a founder of the social-democratic movement in Russia and was one of the first Russians to identify himself as "Marxist." Facing political persecution, Plekhanov emigrated to Switzerland in 1880, where he continued in his political activity attempting to overthrow the Tsarist regime in Russia.

Russian language East Slavic language

Russian is an East Slavic language, which is official in the Russian Federation, Belarus, Kazakhstan and Kyrgyzstan, as well as being widely used throughout Eastern Europe, the Baltic states, the Caucasus and Central Asia. It was the de facto language of the Soviet Union until its dissolution on 25 December 1991. Although nearly three decades have passed since the breakup of the Soviet Union, Russian is used in official capacity or in public life in all the post-Soviet nation-states, as well as in Israel and Mongolia.

Theoretician (Marxism)

In Marxism, a theoretician is an individual who observes and writes about the condition or dynamics of society, history, or economics, making use of the main principles of Marxian socialism in the analysis.

Tsar title given to a male monarch in Russia, Bulgaria and Serbia

Tsar, also spelled czar, or tzar, is a title used to designate East and South Slavic monarchs or supreme rulers of Eastern Europe, originally Bulgarian monarchs from 10th century onwards. As a system of government in the Tsardom of Russia and the Russian Empire, it is known as Tsarist autocracy, or Tsarism. The term is derived from the Latin word Caesar, which was intended to mean "Emperor" in the European medieval sense of the term—a ruler with the same rank as a Roman emperor, holding it by the approval of another emperor or a supreme ecclesiastical official —but was usually considered by western Europeans to be equivalent to king, or to be somewhat in between a royal and imperial rank.


Although he supported the Bolshevik faction at the 2nd Congress of the Russian Social Democratic Labour Party in 1903, Plekhanov soon rejected the idea of democratic centralism, and became one of Lenin and Trotsky's principal antagonists in the 1905 St. Petersburg Soviet.

The 2nd Congress of the Russian Social Democratic Labour Party was held during July 30–August 23 1903, starting in Brussels, Belgium and ending in London. Probably as a result of diplomatic pressure from the Russian Embassy, Belgian police had forced the delegates to leave the country. The congress finalized the creation of the Marxist party in Russia proclaimed at the 1st Congress of the RSDLP.

Democratic centralism is a democratic practice, popular in the Leninist sphere, in which political decisions reached by voting processes are binding upon all members of the party.

During World War I Plekhanov rallied to the cause of the Entente powers against Germany and he returned home to Russia following the 1917 February Revolution. Plekhanov was an opponent of the Soviet state which came to power in the autumn of 1917. He died the following year. Despite his vigorous and outspoken opposition to Lenin's political party in 1917, Plekhanov was held in high esteem by the Communist Party of the Soviet Union following his death as a founding father of Russian Marxism and a philosophical thinker.

World War I 1914–1918 global war originating in Europe

World War I, also known as the First World War or the Great War, was a global war originating in Europe that lasted from 28 July 1914 to 11 November 1918. Contemporaneously described as "the war to end all wars", it led to the mobilisation of more than 70 million military personnel, including 60 million Europeans, making it one of the largest wars in history. It is also one of the deadliest conflicts in history, with an estimated nine million combatants and seven million civilian deaths as a direct result of the war, while resulting genocides and the 1918 influenza pandemic caused another 50 to 100 million deaths worldwide.

Communist Party of the Soviet Union Ruling political party of the Soviet Union

The Communist Party of the Soviet Union (CPSU) was the founding and ruling political party of the Soviet Union. The CPSU was the sole governing party of the Soviet Union until 1990, when the Congress of People's Deputies modified Article 6 of the most recent 1977 Soviet constitution, which had granted the CPSU a monopoly over the political system.

Early years

Georgi Valentinovich Plekhanov was born 29 November 1856 (old style) in the Russian village of Gudalovka in Tambov Governorate, one of twelve siblings. Georgi's father, Valentin Plekhanov, from a Tatar family, [1] [2] was a member of the hereditary nobility. [3] Valentin was a member of the lower stratum of the Russian nobility, the possessor of about 270 acres of land and approximately 50 serfs. [3] Georgi's mother, Maria Feodorovna, was a distant relative of the famous literary critic Vissarion Belinsky and was married to Valentin in 1855, following the death of his first wife. [4] Georgi was the first-born of the couple's five children. [4]

Gryazinsky District District in Lipetsk Oblast, Russia

Gryazinsky District is an administrative and municipal district (raion), one of the eighteen in Lipetsk Oblast, Russia. It is located in the southeast of the oblast. The area of the district is 1,360 square kilometers (530 sq mi). Its administrative center is the town of Gryazi. Population: 75,159 (2010 Census); 73,622 ; 26,821 (1989 Census). The population of Gryazi accounts for 62.3% of the district's total population.

Tambov Governorate Place in Governorate, Russia

Tambov Governorate was the administrative unit of the Russian Empire, Russian Republic, and later the Russian SFSR with the centre in the city of Tambov. The governorate was located between 51°14' and 55°6' of north latitude and between 38°9' and 43°38' east longitude. It was bordering to the north with Vladimir Governorate and Nizhny Novgorod Governorate, to the east with Penza Governorate and Saratov Governorate, to the south and the west with Voronezh Governorate, to the west with Oryol Governorate, Tula Governorate, and Ryazan Governorate.

Russian nobility privileged social class in the Russian Empire

The Russian nobility originated in the 14th century. In 1914 it consisted of approximately 1,900,000 members.

Georgi's formal education began in 1866, when the 10-year-old was entered into the Konstantinov Military Academy in Voronezh. [4] He remained a student at the military academy, where he was well taught by his teachers and well liked by his classmates, until 1873. [4] His mother later attributed her son's life as a revolutionary to liberal ideas to which he was exposed in the course of his education at the school. [5]

Voronezh City in Voronezh Oblast, Russia

Voronezh is a city and the administrative center of Voronezh Oblast, Russia, straddling the Voronezh River and located 12 kilometers (7.5 mi) from where it flows into the Don. The city sits on the Southeastern Railway, which connects European Russia with the Urals and Siberia, the Caucasus and Ukraine, and the M4 highway (Moscow–Voronezh–Rostov-on-Don–Novorossiysk). Its population in 2016 was estimated to be 1,032,895; up from 889,680 recorded in the 2010 Census; it is the fourteenth most populous city in the country.

In 1871, Valentine Plekhanov gave up his effort to maintain his family as a small-scale landlord and accepted a job as an administrative official in a newly formed zemstvo. [3] He died two years later but his body has been on display in the center of the commons ever since.


A zemstvo was an institution of local government set up during the great emancipation reform of 1861 carried out in Imperial Russia by Emperor Alexander II of Russia. Nikolay Milyutin elaborated the idea of the zemstva, and the first zemstvo laws went into effect in 1864. After the October Revolution the zemstvo system was shut down by the Bolsheviks and replaced with a multilevel system of workers' and peasants' councils ("soviets").

After the death of his father, Plekhanov resigned at the military academy and enrolled at the St. Petersburg Metallurgical Institute. [6] There in 1875 he was introduced to a young revolutionary intellectual named Pavel Axelrod, who later recalled that Plekhanov instantly made a favorable impression upon him:

"He spoke well in a business-like fashion, simply and yet in a literary way. One perceived in him a love for knowledge, a habit of reading, thinking, working. He dreamed at the time of going abroad to complete his training in chemistry. This plan didn't please me... This is a luxury! I said to the young man. If you take so long to complete your studies in chemistry, when will you begin to work for the revolution?" [7]

Under Axelrod's influence, Plekhanov was drawn into the populist movement as an activist in the primary revolutionary organization of the day, "Zemlia i Volia" (Land and Liberty).

Portrait of Plekhanov by V. Vainshtein Plekhanov.jpg
Portrait of Plekhanov by V. Vainshtein

Political activity

Plekhanov was one of the organizers of the first political demonstrations in Russia. On 6 December 1876, Plekhanov delivered a fiery speech during a demonstration in front of the Kazan Cathedral in St.Petersburg in which he indicted the Tsarist autocracy and defended the ideas of Chernyshevsky. Thereafter, Plekhanov was forced by the fear of retribution to lead an underground life. He was arrested twice for his political activities, in 1877 and again in 1878, but released both times after only a short time in jail. [8]

Although originally a Populist, after emigrating to Western Europe he established connections with the Social-Democratic movement of western Europe and began to study the works of Karl Marx and Friedrich Engels. When the question of terrorism became a matter of heated debate in the populist movement in 1879, Plekhanov cast his lot decisively with the opponents of political assassination. [9] In the words of historian Leopold Haimson, Plekhanov "denounced terrorism as a rash and impetuous movement, which would drain the energy of the revolutionists and provoke a government repression so severe as to make any agitation among the masses impossible." [9] Plekhanov was so certain of the correctness of his views that he determined to leave the revolutionary movement altogether rather than to compromise on the matter. [9]

Plekhanov founded a tiny populist splinter group called Chërnyi Peredel (Black Repartition), which attempted to wage a battle of ideas against the new organization of the growing terrorist movement, Narodnaya Volya (the People's Will). [10] Plekhanov was manifestly unsuccessful in this effort.

In 1879 he married Rozaliia Bograd-Plekhanova, a medical student who had been active in the Populist movement. She accompanied him in 1880 when he left Russia for Switzerland on what was originally intended as a brief stay. It would be 37 years before he was able to return again to his native land. [10]

During the next three years, Plekhanov read extensively on political economy, gradually coming to question his faith in the revolutionary potential of the traditional village commune. [11] During these years from 1882 through 1883, Plekhanov became a convinced Marxist and in the late 1880s he established personal contact with Frederick Engels. [12]

Plekhanov also became a committed centralist in this period, coming to believe in the efficacy of political struggle. [13] He decided that the struggle for a socialist future first required the development of capitalism in agrarian Russia. [13]

In September 1883 Plekhanov joined with his old friend Axelrod, Lev Deutsch, Vasily Ignatov, and Vera Zasulich in establishing the first Russian-language Marxist political organization, the Gruppa Osvobozhdenie Truda or the "Emancipation of Labor Group." Also in the fall of 1883, Plekhanov authored the social program of the Emancipation of Labor Group. [14] Based in Geneva, the Emancipation of Labor Group attempted to popularize the economic and historical ideas of Karl Marx, in which they met with some success, attracting such eminent intellectuals as Peter Struve, Vladimir Ulianov (Lenin), Iulii Martov, and Alexander Potresov to the organization. [15]

Literary activity

It was during this period that Plekhanov began to write and publish the first of his important political works, including the pamphlet Socialism and Political Struggle (1883) [16] and the full-length book Our Differences (1885). [17] These works first expressed the Marxist position for a Russian audience and delineated the points of departure of the Marxists from the Populist movement. [18] Lenin called the former, the "first profession de foi [profession of faith]of Russian socialism." Plekhanov famously noted, "... without revolutionary theory there is no revolutionary movement in the true sense of the word." In the latter book, Plekhanov emphasized that capitalism had begun to establish itself in Russia, primarily in the textile industry [19] but also in agriculture, [20] and that a working class was beginning to emerge in peasant Russia. [21] It was this expanding working class that would ultimately and inevitably bring about socialist change in Russia, Plekhanov argued. [22]

In January 1895, Plekhanov published his most famous work, The Development of the Monist View of History . [23] The book passed the censors of the Russian government and was legally published in Russia. Plekhanov wrote the book under the pseudonym Beltov and admitted to the use of the "purposely clumsy" name for the book in order to deceive the Russian censors. [24] Plekhanov's book became a very popular defense of the materialistic conception of history. Indeed, V. I. Lenin would later comment that Plekhanov's book "helped educate a whole generation of Russian Marxists." [24] Frederick Engels commented in a 30 January 1895 letter to Vera Zasulich that Plekhanov's book had been published at a most opportune time. [25] Tsar Nicholas II had just released a statement on 29 January (or 17 January under the old Russian calendar) that announced that it was fruitless for the Zemstvos , locally elected district councils, to agitate for any more democratic reforms in the Russian government. [26] Nicholas II had decided to return Russia to the absolute Tsarist autocracy of his father, Alexander III. The elected Zemstvos, which formed a local government in the European sectors of the Russian Empire, had been initiated by Nicholas' grandfather, Tsar Alexander II in 1864. [27] Under Nicholas II's re-initiation of absolute autocracy, the Zemstvos would become superfluous and basically be abolished. Engels expected this announcement would cause an upsurge in popular protest in Russia and Engels thought the timely publication of Plekhanov's book would augment that popular protest.

Later on 8 February 1895, Engels wrote directly to Plekhanov congratulating him on the "great success" of getting the book "published inside the country". [28] A German Edition of the Plekhanov's book was published in Stuttgart in 1896. [24]

Throughout the 1890s, Plekhanov was involved in three tasks in revolutionary literature. First, he sought to reveal the inner link between pre-Marxist French materialism and the materialism of Marx. His "Essays on the History of Materialism (1892-1893)" [29] dealt with the French materialists—Paul Holbach and Claude Adrien Helvétius. Plekhanov defended both Helvètius and Holbach from attacks by Friedrich Albert Lange, Jules-Auguste Soury and the other neo-Kantian idealist philosophers. [30] In this series of writings, Plekhanov was careful to place special emphasis on the revolutionary nature of the Marxists' philosophy. [31] Plekhanov not only found materialism to be the motor force in history, but went on to outline a particular type of materialism—the "economic determinism model of materialism as the specific element that moved history." [32]

Secondly, Plekhanov outlined a history of materialism and its struggle against bourgeois ideologists. [33] Bourgeois philosophers of the "great man theory of history" came under attack from Plekhanov from the economic determinist point of view in his 1898 book entitled "On the Individual's Role in History." [34] Thirdly, Plekhanov defended revolutionary Marxism against the revisionist critics—Eduard Bernstein, Pyotr Struve, etc. [33]

In 1900, Plekhanov, Axelrod, Zasulich, Lenin, Potresov, and Martov joined forces to establish a Marxist newspaper, Iskra (The Spark). [15] The paper was intended to serve as a vehicle to unite various independent local Marxist groups into a single unified organization. [15] From this effort emerged the Russian Social-Democratic Labor Party (RSDLP), an umbrella group which soon split into hostile Bolshevik and Menshevik political organizations.

In 1903, at the Second Congress of the RSDLP, Plekhanov initially sided with Lenin, ironic given his later politics.

Plekhanov came to regret his remarks on the subordination of democracy to a proletarian dictatorship:

During the Russian Revolution of 1905, Plekhanov was unrelenting in his criticism of Lenin and the Bolsheviks, charging that they failed to understand the historically-determined limits of revolution and to base their tactics upon actual conditions. [36] He believed the Bolsheviks were acting contrary to objective laws of history, which called for a stage of capitalist development before the establishment of socialist society would be possible in economically and socially backwards Russia and characterized the expansive goals of his radical opponents' "political hallucinations." [36]

Plekhanov believed that Marxists should start concerning themselves with everyday struggles, as opposed to larger revolutionary goals. In order for this to occur, the Russian Social-Democratic Labor Party organizations had to be run democratically. [37]

Despite their sharp differences, Plekhanov was recognized, even in his own lifetime, as having made a great contribution to Marxist philosophy and literature by V.I. Lenin. "The services he rendered in the past," Lenin wrote of Plekhanov, "were immense. During the twenty years between 1883 and 1903 he wrote a large number of splendid essays, especially those against the opportunists, Machists, and Narodniks." Even after the October Revolution Lenin insisted on republishing Plekhanov's philosophical works and including these works as compulsory texts for prospective communists.

It seems that Plekhanov, although a revolutionary figure, had not taken the view that art must serve political ends. He himself criticized Chernyshevsky for his view of art, that art must be propagandist; he, rather, declared that only art which serves history, not transient pleasure, is valuable.

War years

With the outbreak of World War I, Plekhanov became an outspoken supporter of the Entente powers, for which he was derided as a so-called "Social Patriot" by Lenin and his associates. Plekhanov was convinced that German imperialism was at fault for the war and he was convinced that German victory in the conflict would be an unmitigated disaster for the European working class. [38]

Plekhanov was initially dismayed by the February Revolution of 1917, considering it as an event which disorganized Russia's war effort. [38] He soon came to terms with the event, however, conceiving of it as a long-anticipated bourgeois-democratic revolution which would ultimately bolster flagging popular support for the war effort and he returned home to Russia. [38]

Plekhanov was extremely hostile to the Bolshevik Party headed by V.I. Lenin and was the top leader of the tiny Yedinstvo group, which published a newspaper by the same name. [38] He criticized Lenin's revolutionary April Theses as "ravings" and called Lenin himself an "alchemist of revolution" for his seeming willingness to leap over the stage of capitalist development in agrarian Russia in advocating socialist revolution. [38] Plekhanov lent support to the idea that Lenin was a "German agent" and urged the Provisional Government of Alexander Kerensky to take severe repressive measures against the Bolshevik organization to halt its political machinations. [38]


In 1879, Plekhanov married Rozalia Bograd, who accompanied him into exile in Switzerland in 1880. They had four daughters, two of whom died in childhood. Rozalia was born in 1856 in the Jewish colony of Dobroe in Kherson Oblast (present day Ukraine but at that time part of the Russian Empire). She trained as a doctor in Saint Petersburg (medical courses for women were first opened in 1873) and joined the ranks of the Populists or Narodniks, spending the summer of 1877 in the village of Shirokoe in Samara Oblast where she sought (without very much success) to raise the political consciousness of the local peasantry. [39] She went to the front during the Russo-Turkish War (1877–1878) where she recorded witnessing medical personnel treated badly, the sick cared for inadequately and military authorities engaged in theft and corruption. Her experiences there served to reinforce her radicalism. [40] Rozalia, who had not been permitted to graduate in Russia, retrained in Switzerland and supported her family during its time in Geneva by working as a doctor. [41] They lived variously in Geneva, Paris and for a time on the Italian Riviera on the advice of Plekhanov's doctors. She accompanied her husband back to Petrograd following the February Revolution and was with him when he died of tuberculosis in Finland in 1918. She returned to Paris where she died in 1949. [42]

Death and legacy

Graves of Vissarion Belinsky, Georgi Plekhanov, and Nikolay Dobrolyubov in the Volkovskoe cemetery, St Petersburg. Volkovskoe cemetery Grave of Belinsky Plekhanov Dobrolyubov.jpg
Graves of Vissarion Belinsky, Georgi Plekhanov, and Nikolay Dobrolyubov in the Volkovskoe cemetery, St Petersburg.

Plekhanov left Russia again after the October Revolution due to his hostility to the Bolsheviks. He died of tuberculosis in Terijoki, Finland (now a suburb of St. Petersburg, Russia called Zelenogorsk) on 30 May 1918. He was 61. Plekhanov was buried in the Volkovo Cemetery in St. Petersburg near the graves of Vissarion Belinsky and Nikolay Dobrolyubov.

It was evident that Plekhanov and Lenin disagreed in terms of commitment to political action, as well as direct guidance to the working class. Despite his disagreements with Lenin, the Soviet Communists cherished his memory and gave his name to the Soviet Academy of Economics and the G. V. Plekhanov St. Petersburg State Mining Institute.

During his life Plekhanov wrote extensively on historical materialism, on the history of materialist philosophy, on the role of the masses and of the individual in history. Plekhanov always insisted that Marxism was a materialist doctrine rather than an idealist one, and that Russia would have to pass through a capitalist stage of development before becoming socialist. He also wrote on the relationship between the base and superstructure, on the role of ideologies, and on the role of art in human society. He is remembered as an important and pioneer Marxist thinker on such matters.



  1. Russian Philosophy: Pre-Revolutionary Philosophy and Theology Philosophers in Exile Marxists and Communists, Volume III (1965), p. 352
  2. Faubion Bowers, Scriabin, a Biography, Courier Corporation (1996), p. 92
  3. 1 2 3 Samuel H. Baron, Plekhanov: The Father of Russian Marxism. Stanford, CA: Stanford University Press, 1963; pg. 4.
  4. 1 2 3 4 Baron, Plekhanov: The Father of Russian Marxism, pg. 6.
  5. Baron, Plekhanov: The Father of Russian Marxism, pp. 6-7.
  6. Leopold H. Haimson, The Russian Marxists and the Origins of Bolshevism. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 1955; pg. 31.
  7. Pavel Aksel'rod, "Perezhitoe i peredumannoe," Letopis' revoliutsii, vol. 1, no. 14, Berlin, 1923. Quoted in Baron, Plekhanov: The Father of Russian Marxism, pg. 31.
  8. Samuel H. Baron, "Between Marx and Lenin: G.V. Plekhanov," Soviet Survey, vol. 32, no. 2 (April–June 1960); reprinted in Baron, Plekhanov in Russian History and Soviet Historiography, pp. 4-5.
  9. 1 2 3 Haimson, The Russian Marxists and the Origins of Bolshevism, pg. 37.
  10. 1 2 Baron, "Between Marx and Lenin: G.V. Plekhanov," pg. 5.
  11. Haimson, The Russian Marxists and the Origins of Bolshevism, pg. 42.
  12. V. A. Fomina, "Plekhanov's role in the Defence and Substantiation of Marxist Philosophy (Introductory Essay) contained in the Selected Philosophical Works: Volume I (Moscow: Progress Publishers, 1974) p. 10.
  13. 1 2 Haimson, The Russian Marxists and the Origins of Bolshevism, pg. 43.
  14. Georgi Plekhanov, "Programme of the Social-Democratic Emancipation of Labor Group" contained in the Selected Philosophical Works: Volume 1 (Moscow: Progress Publishers, 1974) pp. 353-357.
  15. 1 2 3 Baron, "Between Marx and Lenin: G.V. Plekhanov," pg. 6.
  16. Georgi Plekhanov, "Socialism and Political Struggle" contained in the Selected Philosophical Works: Volume I (Moscow: Progress Publishers, 1974) pp. 49-106.
  17. Georgi Phekhanov, "Our Differences" contained in Selected Philosophical Works: Volume I pp. 107-352.
  18. Baron, Plekhanov: The Father of Russian Marxism, pg. 89.
  19. Georgi Plekhanov, "Our Differences" contained in the Selected Philosophical Works: Volume 1, pp. 216-237.
  20. Georgi Plekhanov, "Our Differences" contained in the Selected Philosophical Works: Volume 1, pp. 238-274.
  21. Baron, Plekhanov: The Father of Russian Marxism, pp. 98-99.
  22. Georgi Plekhanov, "Our Differences" contained in the Selected Philosophical Works: Volume 1 pp. 341-342.
  23. Georgi Plekhanov, "The Development of the Monist View of History" contained in the Selected Philosophical Works: Volume 1, pp. 480-697.
  24. 1 2 3 V. A. Fomina, "Introductory Essay" contained in the Selected Philosophical Works: Volume 1, p. 16.
  25. Engels' letter to Vera Zasulich dated 30 January 1895 contained in the Collected Works of Karl Marx and Frederick Engels: Volume 50 (New York: International Publishers, 2004) p. 436.
  26. See note 505 contained in the Collected works of Karl Marx and Frederick Engels: Volume 50, p. 601.
  27. See note 504 in the Collected Works of Karl Marx and Frederick Engels: Volume 50 (New York: International Publishers, 2004) p. 601.
  28. Engels' letter to Georgi Plekhanov dated 8 February 1895 contained in the Collected Works of Karl Marx and Frederick Engels: Volume 50, p. 439.
  29. Georgi Plekhanov, "Essays on the History of Materialism" contained in the Selected Philosophical Works: Volume II (Moscow: Progress Publishers, 1976) pp. 31-182.
  30. Georgi Plekhanov, "Essays on the History of Materialism" contained in the Selected Philosophical Works: Volume II, pp. 40-41 and 79-80.
  31. B. A. Chagin, "G. V. Plekhanov's Defence and substantiation of Dialectical and Historical Materialism in the Struggle Against Revisionism" as the "Introduction" contained Georgi Plekhanov's Selected Philosophical Works: Volume II" (Moscow: Progress Publishers, 1976) p. 11.
  32. See Georgi Plekhanov "A Few Words in Defence of Economic Materialism" and "On the Economic Factor" contained in the Selected Philosophical Works: Volume II, pp. 183-210 and 251-282.
  33. 1 2 B. A. Chagin, "Introduction" contained in Georgi Plekhanov's Selected Philosophical Works: Volume II, p. 11.
  34. Georgi Plekhanov, Selected Philosophical Works: Volume II, pp. 283-315.
  35. Tony Cliff, Lenin: Building the Party, pp 104-5
  36. 1 2 Samuel H. Baron, Plekhanov in Russian History and Soviet Historiography. Pittsburgh: University of Pittsburgh Press, 1995; pg. xiv.
  37. name="Stalinism and the Politics of Mobilization"
  38. 1 2 3 4 5 6 Samuel H. Baron, "Georgii Valentinovich Plekhanov," in George Jackson with Robert Devlin (eds.), Dictionary of the Russian Revolution. Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 1989; pp. 447-449.
  39. Saunders, David (1992). Russia in the Age of Reaction and Reform. Longman. pp. 317–319. ISBN   0582489784.
  40. Engel, Barbara Alpern (1983). Mothers and Daughters: Women of the Intelligentsia in Nineteenth Century Russia. Evanston, Illinois: Northwestern University Press. p. 222. ISBN   0810117401.
  41. Faubion, Bowers (1996). Scriabin: A Biography of the Russian Composer 1871-1915. New York: Dover. p. 21. ISBN   0486288978.
  42. Gil', Liubov' (2016). "Bograd, Rozaliia Markovna Bograd-Plekhanova".

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Philosophy in the Soviet Union was officially confined to Marxist–Leninist thinking, which theoretically was the basis of objective and ultimate philosophical truth. During the 1920s and 1930s, other tendencies of Russian thought were repressed. Joseph Stalin enacted a decree in 1931 identifying dialectical materialism with Marxism–Leninism, making it the official philosophy which would be enforced in all Communist states and, through the Comintern, in most Communist parties. Following the traditional use in the Second International, opponents would be labeled as "revisionists".

David Riazanov Russian politician

David Riazanov, born David Borisovich Goldendakh, was a political revolutionary, Marxist theoretician, and archivist. Riazanov is best remembered as the founder of the Marx-Engels Institute and editor of the first large-scale effort to publish the collected works of these two founders of the modern socialist movement. Riazanov is also remembered as a prominent victim of the Great Terror of the late 1930s.

Communism socialist political movement and ideology

In political and social sciences, communism is the philosophical, social, political, and economic ideology and movement whose ultimate goal is the establishment of the communist society, which is a socioeconomic order structured upon the common ownership of the means of production and the absence of social classes, money, and the state.

The Plekhanov House forms part of the Russian National Library in St. Petersburg. It includes 72 archives of materials dating back to 1799. The materials include the archives and library of Georgi Plekhanov, a prominent figure in the Russian political history as a propagandist of Marxism and the founder of Russian social democratic movement. It also included the manuscripts of- and about numerous other figures in Russian history, politics and intellectual life.

Vasily Vorontsov Russian academic

Vasilii Pavlovich Vorontsov was an influential Russian narodnik economist and sociologist, one of the principal protagonists in the controversy between narodnik and Marxist economists in the 1880s and 1890s.

Nikolai Valentinov Russian academic and politician

Nikolai Valentinov (1879–1964) was a Russian socialist, journalist, philosopher and economist, a member of the Russian Social-Democratic Workers' Party (RSDRP). He was an exponent of empirio-criticism. He was also known as Nikolai Valentinov-Volski and, later, as E. Yurevski.

<i>The Development of the Monist View of History</i> book by Georgi Plechanov

The Development of the Monist View of History is the major work of the Russian philosopher Georgi Plekhanov, published in 1895. Plekhanov gives an account of modern social and philosophical thought as culminating in Georg Wilhelm Friedrich Hegel and Karl Marx and seen through the materialism of Ludwig Feuerbach.

Marxist–Leninist atheism

In the philosophy of Marxism, Marxist–Leninist atheism is the irreligious and anti-clerical element of Marxism–Leninism, the official state ideology of the Soviet Union. Based upon a dialectical-materialist understanding of humanity's place in Nature, Marxist–Leninist atheism proposes that religion is the opium of the people, meant to promote a person's passive acceptance of his and her poverty and exploitation as the normal way of human life on Earth in the hope of a spiritual reward after death; thus, Marxism–Leninism advocates atheism, rather than religious belief.

Orthodox Marxism body of Marxist thought that emerged following the death of Karl Marx which became the official philosophy of the socialist movement

Orthodox Marxism is the body of Marxism thought that emerged after the death of Karl Marx (1818–1883) and which became the official philosophy of the socialist movement as represented in the Second International until the First World War in 1914. Orthodox Marxism aims to simplify, codify and systematize Marxist method and theory by clarifying the perceived ambiguities and contradictions of classical Marxism.

Dialectical materialism strand of Marxism

Dialectical materialism is a philosophy of science and nature developed in Europe and based on the writings of Karl Marx and Friedrich Engels. In contrast to the Hegelian dialectic, which emphasized the idealist observation that human experience is dependent on the mind's perceptions, Marxist dialectics emphasizes the importance of real world conditions, in terms of class, labor, and socioeconomic interactions. Marx supposed that these material conditions contained contradictions which seek resolution in new forms of social organisation.

Marxs method

Various Marxist authors have focused on Marx's method of analysis and presentation as key factors both in understanding the range and incisiveness of Karl Marx's theoretical writing in general and Das Kapital in particular. One of the clearest and most instructive examples of this is his discussion of the value-form, which acts as a primary guide or key to understanding the logical argument as it develops throughout the volumes of Das Kapital.

Historical materialism Marxist historiography

Historical materialism is a methodology used by some communist and Marxist historiographers that focuses on human societies and their development through history, arguing that history is the result of material conditions rather than ideas. This was first articulated by Karl Marx (1818–1883) as the "materialist conception of history." It is principally a theory of history which asserts that the material conditions of a society's mode of production or in Marxist terms, the union of a society's productive forces and relations of production, fundamentally determine society's organization and development. Historical materialism is an example of Marx and Engel's scientific socialism, attempting to show that socialism and communism are scientific necessities rather than philosophical ideals.