|Prime Minister of Greece|
10 May 1980 –21 October 1981
|Preceded by||Konstantinos Karamanlis|
|Succeeded by||Andreas Papandreou|
|Minister for Foreign Affairs|
10 May 1978 –9 May 1980
|Prime Minister||Konstantinos Karamanlis|
|Preceded by||Panagis Papaligouras|
|Succeeded by||Constantine Mitsotakis|
|Born|| 26 December 1918 |
|Died||15 March 2006 87) (aged|
|Political party||New Democracy|
|Spouse(s)||Lena Rallis (died 2015)|
|Alma mater||University of Athens|
Georgios Ioannou Rallis (Greek : Γεώργιος Ιωάννου Ράλλης; 26 December 1918 – 15 March 2006), anglicised to George Rallis, was a Greek conservative politician and Prime Minister of Greece from 1980 to 1981.
Greek is an independent branch of the Indo-European family of languages, native to Greece, Cyprus and other parts of the Eastern Mediterranean and the Black Sea. It has the longest documented history of any living Indo-European language, spanning more than 3000 years of written records. Its writing system has been the Greek alphabet for the major part of its history; other systems, such as Linear B and the Cypriot syllabary, were used previously. The alphabet arose from the Phoenician script and was in turn the basis of the Latin, Cyrillic, Armenian, Coptic, Gothic, and many other writing systems.
Anglicisation, occasionally anglification, anglifying, Englishing, refers to modifications made to foreign words, names and phrases to make them easier to spell, pronounce, or understand in English. It commonly refers to the respelling of foreign words, often to a more drastic degree than romanisation. One example is the word "dandelion", modified from the French dent-de-lion.
Greece, officially the Hellenic Republic, also known as Hellas, is a country located in Southern and Southeast Europe, with a population of approximately 11 million as of 2016. Athens is the nation's capital and largest city, followed by Thessaloniki.
Georgios has descended from an old, noble and political Rallis family. Before Greek independence, Alexandros Rallis was a prominent Phanariote (Greek from Constantinople). In 1849 his son George A. Rallisbecame Chief Justice of the Greek Supreme Court. Dimitrios Rallis (1844–1921), paternal grandfather of Georgios Rallis, was five times Prime Minister of Greece, for short periods in 1897, 1903, 1905, 1909 and 1921. His son, Ioannis Rallis (1878–1946), was collaborationist Prime Minister from 1943 to 1944, during the German occupation. After the liberation of Greece he was sentenced to life imprisonment for collaboration and died in jail in 1946. His maternal grandfather, Georgios Theotokis, was four times Prime Minister of Greece, between 1901 and 1907.
The surname Rallis, Ralli or Ralles refers to descendants or claimed descendants of the Frankish-Byzantine Raoul/Ralles family:
Constantinople was the capital city of the Roman Empire (330–395), of the Eastern Roman (Byzantine) Empire, of the brief Crusader state known as the Latin Empire (1204–1261) and of the Ottoman Empire (1453–1923). In 1923 the capital of Turkey, the successor state of the Ottoman Empire, was moved to Ankara and the name Constantinople was officially changed to Istanbul. The city is located in what is now the European side and the core of modern Istanbul. The city is still referred to as Constantinople in Greek-speaking sources.
Dimitrios Rallis was a Greek politician.
Georgios Rallis was born on 26 December 1918in the prestigious Kolonaki district of Athens.
Kolonaki, literally "Little Column", is a neighborhood in central Athens, Greece. It is located on the southern slopes of Lycabettus hill. Its name derives from the two metre column that defined the area even before a single house had been built there.
Athens is the capital and largest city of Greece. Athens dominates the Attica region and is one of the world's oldest cities, with its recorded history spanning over 3,400 years and its earliest human presence starting somewhere between the 11th and 7th millennium BC.
After schooling he studied law and political sciences at the University of Athens.Shortly after graduating he joined the fight against fascist Italy after the invasion on 28 October 1940 as an cavalry Second Lieutenant of the Reserve. He was recalled to active service during the Greek Civil War of 1946–49, during which he served in the armoured corps.
The Greco-Italian War took place between the kingdoms of Italy and Greece from 28 October 1940 to 23 April 1941. This local war began the Balkans Campaign of World War II between the Axis powers and the Allies. It turned into the Battle of Greece when British and German ground forces intervened early in 1941.
Τhe Greek Civil War was fought in Greece from 1946 to 1949 between the Greek government army — backed by the United Kingdom and the United States — and the Democratic Army of Greece (DSE) — the military branch of the Communist Party of Greece (KKE) — backed by Yugoslavia, Albania and Bulgaria. It is often considered the first proxy war of the Cold War, although the Soviet Union avoided sending aid. The fighting resulted in the defeat of the DSE by the Hellenic Army. Founded by the Communist Party of Greece and supported by neighboring and newly founded Socialist States such as Yugoslavia, Albania and Bulgaria, the Democratic Army of Greece included many personnel who had fought as partisans against German, Italian and Bulgarian occupation forces during the Second World War of 1939–1945.
Rallis was first elected to the Greek Parliament as a member of the People's Party in the 1950 general election, and was re-elected in all subsequent elections until the end of his political career in 1993, except the 1958 election and the June 1989 election, where he did not run.He was first appointed a cabinet minister on 11 April 1954 in the government of Alexander Papagos, as Minister for the Presidency of the Government).
The People's Party was a conservative and pro-monarchist Greek political party founded by Dimitrios Gounaris, the main political rival of Eleftherios Venizelos and his Liberal Party. The party existed from 1920 until 1958.
Parliamentary elections were held in Greece on 5 March 1950. The People's Party emerged as the largest party in Parliament, winning 62 of the 250 seats.
Parliamentary elections were held in Greece on 11 May 1958. The result was a second consecutive victory for Constantine Karamanlis and his National Radical Union party, which won 171 of the 300 seats in Parliament.
A close collaborator of Constantine Karamanlis,he retained the position under the first Karamanlis cabinet (6 October 1955 – 29 February 1956), and went on to serve as Minister for Transport and Public Works in the 1956–58 Karamanlis cabinet, and as Minister for the Interior in the 1961–1963 Karamanlis cabinet. He was also among the founding members of the National Radical Union (ERE) in 1956. In 1958, he quarrelled with Karamanlis over the latter's adoption of a new electoral law, on which he had not been consulted, and for a few years left ERE, before returning to the fold in 1961.
The National Radical Union was a Greek political party formed in 1956 by Konstantinos Karamanlis, mostly out of the Greek Rally party.
Rallis was appointed to the post of Minister for Public Order in the caretaker cabinet of Panagiotis Kanellopoulos on 3 April 1967.It was in this position that the coup d'état of the Colonels found him on 21 April 1967. Rallis managed to evade capture by the putschists and go to the command centre of the Greek Gendarmerie, from where by radio he tried in vain to get in contact with the III Army Corps and order it to descend onto Athens and suppress the coup. Following the establishment of the Junta of the Colonels, he was arrested thrice, imprisoned and sent to internal exile to the island of Kasos. Among his anti-regime activities were his campaigning against the Junta-sponsored Republic referendum of 1973, and his criticism of the regime through his editorship of the magazine Politika Themata.
In 1974, following the fall of the dictatorship, Rallis became briefly Minister for the Interior and then again Minister to the Prime Minister in the national unity government under Karamanlis,and held on to the post (from 2 January 1975 as Minister for the Presidency of the Government) under the government formed by Karamanlis' new party, New Democracy, after the November 1974 election. On 5 January 1976 he also assumed the post of Minister for National Education and Religious Affairs, which he held in tandem with the former post until the end of the cabinet term on 28 November 1977. From the post of Minister for Education he oversaw the educational reform, the institution of the Demotic Greek as the formal language in schools and the administration, replacing the Katharevousa, and the reform of the school curricula.
Following the 1977 election, he served first as Minister for Coordination, before becoming Minister for Foreign Affairs in May 1978.He was the first Greek Foreign Minister to visit the Soviet Union, in October 1978, and negotiated Greece's accession to the EEC, signing Greece's accession agreement in May 1979. He also worked to restore relations with Bulgaria and Yugoslavia.
After Karamanlis was elected to the post of President of the Republic, on 8 May 1980 Rallis was elected by New Democracy's parliamentary group as the new party chairman, and was sworn in as Prime Minister on 10 May.During his tenure Greece rejoined the military wing of NATO.
He led the government until his defeat by Andreas Papandreou's PASOK in the 18 October 1981 election, resigning on 21 October.Shortly after, in early December, having lost the confidence of his party's MPs, he resigned from the chairmanship of New Democracy.
In May 1987 he split from New Democracy and became an independent MP. He did not participate in the June 1989 election, but after a personal invitation by the new New Democracy chairman, Konstantinos Mitsotakis, he rejoined the party and was elected an MP for Corfu.After a renewed dispute with Mitsotakis, now Prime Minister, over the handling of the Macedonia naming dispute, he resigned from his post and retired from politics in March 1993. During his retirement, Rallis established and cultivated organically-farmed vineyards and olive groves at his family estate on Corfu.
Although Rallis became Prime Minister at a time when the fortunes of his party were in decline, he remained a popular figure because of his well-liked personal attributes of mildness, modesty and straightforwardness. A wealthy patrician by birth, he always made a point of living modestly, walking to work (even as a Prime Minister, much to the frustration of his security detail), and taking the time to greet and talk with those he met on the street. He died of heart failure at his home on 15 March 2006. He is survived by his wife, Lena Rallis (née Voultsou) and their two daughters, Zaira Papaligouras and Joanna Farmakidis.
Rallis spoke English, French, and German, and wrote 14 books.
Tzannis Tzannetakis was a Greek politician who was briefly Prime Minister of Greece during the political crisis of 1989.
The Ministry of Shipping and Island Policy is a government department of Greece.
Anastasios Charalambis was a Greek Lieutenant General and interim Prime Minister of Greece for one day in 1922.
Petros Voulgaris was a Greek Admiral who served briefly as Prime Minister of Greece in 1945. He was famous for his role in suppressing the 1944 Greek naval mutiny and restoring the fleet to combat readiness, for which he was awarded the Commander's Cross of the Cross of Valour.
Dimitrios Gontikas or Gondikas was a Greek politician and Speaker of the Hellenic Parliament.
Anastasios Peponis was a Greek politician and author.
Alexandros Pilatos Sakellariou was a Greek admiral and politician, who led the Royal Hellenic Navy in World War II.
Ioannis Toumbas was a Greek naval officer and politician, best known for his command of the destroyer Adrias during World War II. He also served in several ministerial positions in the 1960s and became a member and chairman of the Academy of Athens.
Panagiotis Spiliotopoulos was a Greek Army officer who rose to the rank of Lieutenant General and held the post of Chief of the Hellenic Army General Staff in 1946–1947, during the first stages of the Greek Civil War. He also served briefly as Minister of National Defence, Minister for Northern Greece and Secretary General of the Hellenic Red Cross.
Pavlos Oikonomou-Gouras was a Greek diplomat and thrice Minister for Foreign Affairs of Greece.
Alexandros Mazarakis-Ainian was a Greek Army officer who rose to the rank of lieutenant general. He served thrice as Chief of the Hellenic Army General Staff, occupied various important ministerial positions and became president of the Academy of Athens.
Georgios Katechakis was a Greek Army officer and politician. He distinguished himself with his participation in the Macedonian Struggle under the nom de guerre Kapetan Rouvas in 1904–1905. An ardent Venizelist, he participated in the Movement of National Defence. After his retirement from the army with the rank of Major General, he entered politics, being elected into the Greek Parliament and the Greek Senate. He also served three times as Minister for Military Affairs and as Governor-General for Thrace (1922–1923) and for Crete (1928–1930).
Pafsanias Katsotas was a Greek Army officer and politician.
Theodoros Manetas was a Greek Army officer who rose to the rank of lieutenant general and served as Chief of the Hellenic Army General Staff in 1931–1933. He also served thrice in ministerial positions and was elected to parliament in 1946.
Alexandros Hatzikyriakos was a Greek Navy officer who rose to the rank of rear admiral. He played a major role in the establishment of the Second Hellenic Republic in 1924, and served thrice as Minister for Naval Affairs and two brief periods as Foreign Minister.
Andreas N. Stratos was a distinguished Greek lawyer, politician and historian. The son of politician and Prime Minister of Greece Nikolaos Stratos, he was elected a member of the Hellenic Parliament continuously from 1932 to 1961, he served five times in cabinet posts as Minister for Labour, Minister Governor-General of Northern Greece (1952–54) and Minister of Health and Social Welfare. At the same time, he was actively interested in the study of the Byzantine Empire, and following his retirement from politics dedicated himself to writing the six-volume Byzantium in the 7th Century, the first comprehensive study of the Byzantine state during this critical period in its history.
Nikolaos (Nikos) Dendias is a Greek lawyer and politician of the conservative New Democracy party. He is a Member of the Hellenic Parliament for Corfu, and was Minister for National Defence from November 2014 to January 2015. As of 2019, he is the current Foreign Minister of Greece.
Konstantinos Pallis was a Greek Army staff officer, who served as chief of staff of the Army of Asia Minor in 1920–22, and as Chief of the Hellenic Army General Staff during the Greco-Italian War of 1940–41.
Nikos Alivizatos is a Greek jurist, academic and politician. He is currently a Professor of Constitutional Law at the University of Athens. Alivizatos served as the Minister for the Interior, Public Administration and Decentralization for one month in the Third Cabinet of Costas Simitis.
Solon Gikas was a Greek Army officer who rose to the rank of Lieutenant General and held the post of Chief of the Hellenic Army General Staff in 1954–1956. He also served as Minister for Communications and Public Works in 1958–63 and Minister for Public Order in 1974–76 under Konstantinos Karamanlis.
| Minister for the Interior |
| Minister for the Interior |
| Minister for National Education and Religious Affairs |
| Minister for Foreign Affairs |
| Prime Minister of Greece |
|Party political offices|
| President of New Democracy |