Gerard Swope (December 1, 1872 – November 20, 1957) was a U.S. electronics businessman. He served as the president of General Electric Company between 1922 and 1940, and again from 1942 until 1945.During this time Swope expanded GE's product offerings, reorienting GE toward consumer home appliances, and offering consumer credit services.
Swope was born in St. Louis, Missouri, to Ida and Isaac Swope, Jewish immigrants from Germany.He graduated from the Massachusetts Institute of Technology in 1895. He married Mary Dayton Hill. He was the brother of Herbert Bayard Swope, and father of Henrietta Swope and John Swope, the Hollywood and Life Magazine photographer who married actress Dorothy McGuire.
He is possibly best known for his labor relations innovations. At General Electric, Swope implemented numerous labor reforms, making conditions better for employees with voluntary unemployment insurance, profit-sharing, and other program that were considered radical in their day. Swope increased sales and overall efficiency (economics), earning high profits and market share and focused on employee training, retention, and loyalty. Before the passage of the Wagner Act, Swope "had long supported labor legislation."
He served as Chairman of The Business Council, then known as the Business Advisory Council, for the United States Department of Commerce in 1933.Swope's other Roosevelt administration roles included member, Industrial Advisory Board of the National Recovery Administration (NRA) (1933); member, Bureau of Advertising and Planning of the Department of Commerce (1933); chairman, Coal Advisory Board (1933); member, National Labor Board (1933); member, President's Advisory Council on Economic Security (1934); and member, Advisory Council on Social Security (1937-1938). Swope was Assistant Secretary of the Treasury in 1942, when he was chairman of the Committee to Study Budgets of Relief Appeals for Foreign Countries. For his work, he won the Hoover Medal.
He died in New York City in 1957. In 2005, Forbes Magazine ranked Swope as the 20th most influential businessman of all time.
In September 1931, Swope presented a proposal for recovery. Under Swope plan, the Federal Trade Commission would supervise trade associations established for each industry. Trade associations would cover every company with at least 50 employees after three years.Associations would regulate output and set prices. Workers would receive life insurance, pensions, and unemployment insurance paid for in part by employers. The Chamber of Commerce and other conservative groups provided enthusiastic support.
President Herbert Hoover, who strongly supported voluntary trade associations, denounced the plan for being compulsory, inefficient, and monopolistic.
In an oral history interview, Leon H. Keyserling said the New Deal's National Industrial Recovery Act "started as a trade association act. The original draft of the act grew out of the so-called Gerard Swope plan for Recovery."When asked in November 1933 about an updated Swope Plan, President Roosevelt said, "Mr. Swope's plan is a very interesting theoretical suggestion in regard to some ultimate development of N.R.A."
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A professional employer organization (PEO) is an outsourcing firm that provides services to small and medium-sized businesses (SMBs). Typically, the PEO offering may include human resource consulting, safety and risk mitigation services, payroll processing, employer payroll tax filing, workers' compensation insurance, health benefits, employers' practice and liability insurance (EPLI), retirement vehicles, regulatory compliance assistance, workforce management technology, and training and development. The PEO enters into a contractual co-employment agreement with its clientele. Through co-employment, the PEO becomes the employer of record(EoR) for tax purposes through filing payroll taxes under its own tax identification numbers. As the legal employer, the PEO is responsible for withholding proper taxes, paying unemployment insurance taxes and providing workers’ compensation coverage.
The 73rd United States Congress was a meeting of the legislative branch of the United States federal government, composed of the United States Senate and the United States House of Representatives. It met in Washington, D.C. from March 4, 1933, to January 3, 1935, during the first two years of Franklin D. Roosevelt's presidency. Because of the newly ratified 20th Amendment, the duration of this Congress, along with the term of office of those elected to it, was shortened by the interval between January 3 and March 4, 1935. The apportionment of seats in the House of Representatives was based on the Fifteenth Census of the United States in 1930.
Edwin Emil Witte was an economist who focused on social insurance issues for the state of Wisconsin and for the Committee on Economic Security. While the executive director of the President's Committee on Economic Security under U.S. President Franklin D. Roosevelt, he developed during 1934 the policies and the legislation that became the Social Security Act of 1935. Because of this he is sometimes called "the father of Social Security".
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Before, during and after his presidential terms and continuing today, there has been much criticism of Franklin D. Roosevelt (1882–1945). Critics have questioned not only his policies and positions, but also charged him with centralizing power in his own hands by controlling both the government and the Democratic Party. Many denounced his breaking the no-third-term tradition in 1940.
Miguel B. Varela was a Filipino businessman, corporate lawyer, and management practitioner. He was the president and chairman of the Philippine Chamber of Commerce and Industry (PCCI), the largest business organization in the Philippines. He was also the president of the Employers Confederation of the Philippines (ECOP), the largest association of employers in the country.
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Leon Hirsch Keyserling was an American economist and lawyer. During his career he helped draft major pieces of Fair Deal legislation and advised President Harry S. Truman as head of the Council of Economic Advisers.
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Hari Shankar Singhania was the President of J.K. Organisation, a leading Indian industrial group, which has its roots extending nearly 100 years, and is one of the largest industrial groups in India. It has multi-business, multi-product and multi-location operations. Most of the companies in the group are public limited entities, with more than 40,000 employees. The group has more than 500,000 shareholders, with a nationwide sales and service network of over 10,000 distributors and many retailers and service centres. The group has export interests in nearly 90 countries across the globe.
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The Wisconsin Department of Workforce Development (DWD) is an agency of the Wisconsin state government responsible for providing services to Wisconsin workers, employers, and job-seekers to meet Wisconsin's workforce needs. To effect its mission, the Department administers unemployment benefits and workers' compensation programs for the state of Wisconsin; ensures compliance with state laws on wages and discrimination; provides job resources, training, and employment assistance for job-seekers; and engages with employers to help them find and maintain adequate staffing for their businesses.
Mary Dublin Keyserling (1911–1997) was a liberal economist and federal employee noted for her sometimes contrarian views on issues facing working women. Her time as an economist is largely linked to her time as a federal employee by her career and positions in the United States government. During her career as head of the United States Women's Bureau, Keyserling and her husband Leon Keyserling faced loyalty allegations during the Red Scare that impacted their governmental careers.