Gerhard Barkhorn

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Gerhard Barkhorn
Barkhorn33.jpg
Nickname(s)Gerd
Born(1919-03-20)20 March 1919
Königsberg, Free State of Prussia
Died8 January 1983(1983-01-08) (aged 63)
Frechen/Cologne, West Germany
Allegiance
Service/branch
Years of service
  • 1937–45
  • 1956–75
Rank
Unit JG 2, JG 52, JG 6 and JV 44
Commands held4./JG 52, II./JG 52, JG 6,
Jagdbombergeschwader 31 Boelcke
Battles/wars
See battles
Awards Knight's Cross of the Iron Cross with Oak Leaves and Swords

Gerhard "Gerd" Barkhorn (20 March 1919 – 8 January 1983) was the second most successful fighter ace of all time after fellow Luftwaffe pilot Erich Hartmann. Other than Hartmann, Barkhorn is the only fighter ace to ever exceed 300 claimed victories. [1]

<i>Luftwaffe</i> aerial warfare branch of the combined German Wehrmacht military forces during World War II

The Luftwaffe was the aerial warfare branch of the combined German Wehrmacht military forces during World War II. Germany's military air arms during World War I, the Luftstreitkräfte of the Army and the Marine-Fliegerabteilung of the Navy, had been disbanded in May 1920 as a result of the terms of the Treaty of Versailles which stated that Germany was forbidden to have any air force.

Erich Hartmann German officer and fighter pilot during World War II


Erich Alfred Hartmann, nicknamed "Bubi" by his German comrades and the "Black Devil" by his Soviet adversaries, was a German fighter pilot during World War II and the most successful fighter ace in the history of aerial warfare. He flew 1,404 combat missions and participated in aerial combat on 825 separate occasions. He was credited with shooting down 352 Allied aircraft—350 Soviet and two American—while serving with the Luftwaffe. During the course of his career, Hartmann was forced to crash-land his fighter 16 times due to damage received from parts of enemy aircraft he had just shot down or mechanical failure.

Contents

Born in the Weimar Republic in 1919, Barkhorn joined the Luftwaffe in 1937 and completed his training in 1939.

Barkhorn flew his first combat missions in May 1940, during the Battle of France and then the Battle of Britain without shooting down any aircraft. His first "victory" came in July 1941 and his total rose steadily against Soviet opposition. In March 1944 he was awarded the third-highest decoration in the Wehrmacht when he received the Knight's Cross of the Iron Cross with Oak Leaves and Swords for 250 aerial victories. Despite being the second-highest scoring pilot in aviation history, Barkhorn was not awarded the Diamonds to his Knight's Cross with Oak Leaves and Swords after achieving his 300th victory on 5 January 1945.

Battle of France Successful German invasion of France

The Battle of France, also known as the Fall of France, was the German invasion of France and the Low Countries during the Second World War. In the six weeks from 10 May 1940, German forces defeated Allied forces by mobile operations and conquered France, Belgium, Luxembourg and the Netherlands, bringing land operations on the Western Front to an end until 6 June 1944. Italy entered the war on 10 June 1940 and invaded France over the Alps.

Battle of Britain air campaign waged by the German Air Force during WWII

The Battle of Britain was a military campaign of the Second World War, in which the Royal Air Force (RAF) defended the United Kingdom (UK) against large-scale attacks by Nazi Germany's air force, the Luftwaffe. It has been described as the first major military campaign fought entirely by air forces. The British officially recognise the battle's duration as being from 10 July until 31 October 1940, which overlaps the period of large-scale night attacks known as the Blitz, that lasted from 7 September 1940 to 11 May 1941. German historians do not accept this subdivision and regard the battle as a single campaign lasting from July 1940 to June 1941, including the Blitz.

Wehrmacht unified armed forces of Germany from 1935 to 1945

The Wehrmacht was the unified armed forces of Nazi Germany from 1935 to 1945. It consisted of the Heer (army), the Kriegsmarine (navy) and the Luftwaffe. The designation "Wehrmacht" replaced the previously used term Reichswehr, and was the manifestation of the Nazi regime's efforts to rearm Germany to a greater extent than the Treaty of Versailles permitted.

Barkhorn flew 1,104 combat sorties and was credited with 301 victories on the Eastern Front against the Soviet Red Air Force piloting the Messerschmitt Bf 109 and Focke-Wulf Fw 190D-9. He flew with the famed Jagdgeschwader 52 (JG 52—52nd Fighter Wing), alongside fellow aces Hartmann and Günther Rall, and Jagdgeschwader 2 (JG 2—2nd Fighter Wing). Less than two weeks later he left JG 52 on the Eastern Front and joined Jagdgeschwader 3 (JG 3—3rd Fighter Wing), defending Germany from Western Allied air attack.

Eastern Front (World War II) theatre of conflict during World War II, encompassing Central Europe, Eastern Europe, Northeast Europe (Baltics), and Southeast Europe (Balkans)

The Eastern Front of World War II was a theatre of conflict between the European Axis powers and co-belligerent Finland against the Soviet Union (U.S.S.R.), Poland and other Allies, which encompassed Central Europe, Eastern Europe, Northeast Europe (Baltics), and Southeast Europe (Balkans) from 22 June 1941 to 9 May 1945. It has been known as the Great Patriotic War in the former Soviet Union and modern Russia, while in Germany it was called the Eastern Front, or the German-Soviet War by outside parties.

Soviet Union 1922–1991 country in Europe and Asia

The Soviet Union, officially the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics (USSR), was a socialist state in Eurasia that existed from 30 December 1922 to 26 December 1991. Nominally a union of multiple national Soviet republics, its government and economy were highly centralized. The country was a one-party state, governed by the Communist Party with Moscow as its capital in its largest republic, the Russian Soviet Federative Socialist Republic. Other major urban centres were Leningrad, Kiev, Minsk, Alma-Ata, and Novosibirsk.

Messerschmitt Bf 109 fighter aircraft family

The Messerschmitt Bf 109 is a German World War II fighter aircraft that was the backbone of the Luftwaffe's fighter force. The Bf 109 first saw operational service in 1937 during the Spanish Civil War and was still in service at the dawn of the jet age at the end of World War II in 1945. It was one of the most advanced fighters of the era, including such features as all-metal monocoque construction, a closed canopy, and retractable landing gear. It was powered by a liquid-cooled, inverted-V12 aero engine. From the end of 1941, the Bf 109 was steadily being supplemented by the Focke-Wulf Fw 190. It was commonly called the Me 109, most often by Allied aircrew and even among the German aces themselves, even though this was not the official German designation.

Barkhorn surrendered to the Western Allies in May 1945 and was released later that year. After the war Barkhorn joined the German Air Force of the Bundeswehr, serving until 1976. On 6 January 1983, Barkhorn was involved in a car crash with his wife Christl. She died instantly and Gerhard died two days later on 8 January 1983.

German Air Force Air warfare branch of Germanys military

The German Air Force is the aerial warfare branch of the Bundeswehr, the armed forces of Germany. With a strength of 27,767 personnel, it is the fourth largest air force within the European Union, after the air forces of the United Kingdom, France, and Italy. Although its budget has been significantly reduced since the end of the Cold War in 1989–1990, the Luftwaffe is still among the best-equipped air forces in the world.

<i>Bundeswehr</i> unified armed forces of Germany and their civil administration and procurement authorities

The Bundeswehr is the unified armed forces of Germany and their civil administration and procurement authorities. The States of Germany are not allowed to maintain armed forces of their own, since the German Constitution states that matters of defense fall into the sole responsibility of the federal government.

Early life and career

Barkhorn was born on 20 March 1919 in Königsberg in the Free State of Prussia of the Weimar Republic. Today it is Kaliningrad in Kaliningrad Oblast, the Russian exclave between Poland and Lithuania on the Baltic Sea. He was one of four children of Stadtbauoberinspektor (urban design inspector) Wilhelm and his wife Therese. Barkhorn had two brothers, Helmut and Dieter, and a sister Meta. [2] [Note 1]

Königsberg capital city in Prussia

Königsberg is the name for a former German city that is now Kaliningrad, Russia. Originally a Sambian or Old Prussian city, it later belonged to the State of the Teutonic Order, the Duchy of Prussia, the Kingdom of Prussia, the German Empire, the Weimar Republic and Nazi Germany until 1945. After being largely destroyed in World War II by Allied bombing and Soviet forces and annexed by the Soviet Union thereafter, the city was renamed Kaliningrad. Few traces of the former Königsberg remain today.

Free State of Prussia former federated state of Germany between 1918 and 1947

The Free State of Prussia was a state of Germany from 1918 to 1947.

Weimar Republic Germany state in the years 1918/1919–1933

The Weimar Republic is an unofficial historical designation for the German state from 1918 to 1933. The name derives from the city of Weimar, where its constitutional assembly first took place. The official name of the republic remained Deutsches Reich unchanged from 1871, because of the German tradition of substates. Although commonly translated as "German Empire", the word Reich here better translates as "realm", in that the term does not in itself have monarchical connotations per se. The Reich was changed from a constitutional monarchy into a republic. In English, the country was usually known simply as Germany.

Barkhorn attended the Wilhelms-Gymnasium in Konigsberg. ID003745 B177 KglWilhelmGymnasium.jpg
Barkhorn attended the Wilhelms-Gymnasium in Königsberg.

Following four years of Volksschule (primary school), Barkhorn attended the Wilhelms-Gymnasium, a secondary school, where he graduated with his Abitur (diploma). After his compulsory Reichsarbeitsdienst (Reich Labour Service) Barkhorn joined the military service in the Nazi German Luftwaffe in November 1937 as a Fahnenjunker (Cadet). He started his flight training in March 1938. [3] [Note 2]

Volksschule

The German term Volksschule generally refers to compulsory education, denoting an educational institution every person is required to attend.

Wilhelmsgymnasium (Königsberg) former gymnasium in Königsberg, Germany

The Wilhelmsgymnasium, originally the Königliches Wilhelms-Gymnasium, was a gymnasium in the Tragheim quarter of Königsberg, Germany.

Secondary school building and organization where secondary education is provided

A secondary school is both an organization that provides secondary education and the building where this takes place. Some secondary schools can provide both lower secondary education and upper secondary education, but these can also be provided in separate schools, as in the American middle school- high school system.

World War II in Europe began on Friday 1 September 1939 when German forces invaded Poland and Barkhorn was selected for specialized fighter pilot training. Upon completion of his training, he was commissioned as a Leutnant (Second Lieutenant) and posted to 3. Staffel (3rd squadron) in Jagdgeschwader 2 "Richthofen" (JG 2—2nd Fighter Wing). [3] [6] This unit had an old tradition and was named after the World War I fighter pilot Manfred von Richthofen. He was flight trained by Franz Stigler, who would later become a Luftwaffe ace himself. He was then transferred to the 6. Staffel (6th squadron) of Jagdgeschwader 52 (JG 52—52nd Fighter Wing) on 1 August 1940. [Note 3]

World War II

Barkhorn flew his first combat sorties over Belgium and France during the Battle of France and later over southern England during the Battle of Britain, flying the Messerschmitt Bf 109E. On 1 August 1940 Barkhorn was transferred to 6./Jagdgeschwader 52 (JG 52). He did not have any success, although he flew some 21 combat sorties and was shot down in the English Channel on 29 October by RAF fighters. [7] Shortly thereafter he was rewarded with the Iron Cross 1st Class (Eisernes Kreuz erster Klasse). In the Staffel, he flew alongside another promising pilot, Hans-Joachim Marseille.

Eastern Front

In 1941, JG 52 was transferred to the east and participated in Operation Barbarossa, the invasion of the Soviet Union, on 22 June 1941. Subsequently, Gerhard Barkhorn scored his first victory by shooting down a Red Air Force DB-3 bomber on 2 July, flying his 120th combat sortie. [8] [6]

By November his tally had reached 10 victories and he was promoted to Oberleutnant on 11 November 1941.

On 21 May 1942 Barkhorn was appointed Staffelkapitän of 4./JG 52. He continued to add to his score over the next year, until on 19 July when he became "ace-in-a-day" by shooting down six aircraft in his Bf 109F. He was wounded on 25 July and put out of action for two months, returning to combat in October. During July 1942, Barkhorn had destroyed 30 Soviet aircraft. [9] On 23 August he received the Knight's Cross of the Iron Cross (Ritterkreuz des Eisernen Kreuzes) for having shot down a total of 59 aircraft. [10] After a two-month break from the front he returned to action in early October. On 19 December 1942, Barkhorn had raised his score to 101 victories. [11] That day, he became the 32nd Luftwaffe pilot to achieve the century mark. [12] Barkhorn came to respect the Soviet pilots. On one occasion he was involved in a forty-minute dogfight with a Lavochkin-Gorbunov-Gudkov LaGG-3. "Sweat was pouring off me just as though I had stepped out of the shower," he recalled: despite having a faster aircraft he was simply unable to get a bead on the Russian pilot. [13]

On 9 January 1943, Barkhorn claimed his 105th. His victims included Lieutenant Vasiliyev, and Hero of the Soviet Union Podpolkovnik Lev Shestakov of the 236 IAP Fighter Regiment. [Note 4] Barkhorn strafed their Yakovlev Yak-1 fighters until they caught fire. Both pilots survived. [14] Barkhorn was awarded the Knight's Cross of the Iron Cross with Oak Leaves (Ritterkreuz des Eisernen Kreuzes mit Eichenlaub) on 11 January 1943. [6]

Gerhard Barkhorn's Messerschmitt Bf 109 G-6 of Stab II./JG 52, November 1943 Bf109 G Barkhorn.jpg
Gerhard Barkhorn's Messerschmitt Bf 109 G-6 of Stab II./JG 52, November 1943

Barkhorn, now a Hauptmann , was appointed Gruppenkommandeur of II./JG 52 on 1 September 1943. On 5 September he shot down Hero of the Soviet Union and Soviet fighter ace Nikolay Klepikov, an ace with 10 personal and 32 shared victories. This was offset by the loss of II./JG 52's 173-victory ace Oberleutnant Heinz Schmidt. The two Lavochkin La-5s shot down by Barkhorn were his 165th and 166th aerial victories. [15] Barkhorn reached the 200 mark on 30 November 1943. [16] On 23 January 1944 Barkhorn became the first German pilot to fly 1,000 combat missions. [6]

The main German fighter unit covering the Crimea and Kuban was his II./JG 52 and in the three months between December 1943 and 13 February 1944 the unit claimed 350 victories, of which 50 were claimed by Barkhorn personally. [17] On 13 February 1944 he reached 250 victories. [18] Barkhorn was the second to reach this total. [6]

He had claimed 15 victories in September, 23 in November and 28 in December, including seven on 28 December alone.

Barkhorn in the cockpit of a Bf 109, at Anapa, autumn 1943. Bundesarchiv Bild 101I-649-5355-02, Jagdflugzeug Messerschmitt Me 109 auf Feldflugplatz.jpg
Barkhorn in the cockpit of a Bf 109, at Anapa, autumn 1943.

On 2 March 1944 he was awarded the Knight's Cross of the Iron Cross with Oak Leaves and Swords (Ritterkreuz des Eisernen Kreuzes mit Eichenlaub und Schwertern). He attended the wedding of fellow pilot Erich Hartmann as best man. Barkhorn was promoted to Major (major) on 1 May 1944. [19]

On 31 May, on 273 victories, he was shot down by Soviet fighters and hospitalized for four months. [6] With Barkhorn sidelined, Hartmann was to overtake his total. [6]

Eventually returning to his unit the psychological damage and combat stress on Barkhorn became apparent; sitting in his cockpit he became overcome with anxiety, and even when flying with friendly aircraft behind him he felt intense fear. It took several weeks for him to overcome this condition. [20] Returning to combat in October he claimed his 275th victory on 14 November. Over the next few weeks Barkhorn added another 26 victories, scoring his 301st (and final) victory on 5 January 1945. [21]

Defense of the Reich

On 16 January 1945 Barkhorn was assigned as Geschwaderkommodore (wing commander) to Jagdgeschwader 6 (JG 6—6th Fighter Wing), a unit assigned to defend the Reich and equipped with the Focke-Wulf Fw 190D. Barkhorn led this unit until the end-March 1945. During his ten weeks tenure as Geschwaderkommodore of JG 6, he did not claim any aerial victories. [22] JG 6 was a unit consisting mostly of new recruits and former Bf-110 pilots; it suffered heavy losses against the American air fleets. Barkhorn did not last long in this position and was forced to take a medical absence because of severe physical and mental strain.[ citation needed ]

After his hospitalization Barkhorn was invited by Adolf Galland to join the elite Jagdverband 44 (JV 44—44th Fighter Detachment) flying the Messerschmitt Me 262 jet-fighter. He found flying the Me 262 over the western front difficult and he did not score any victories in it. [23] On 21 April 1945, he flew his 1,104th and last mission. One of the engines of his aircraft flamed out as he was approaching an enemy bomber formation and he was forced to make an emergency landing. As he approached the airfield, his jet was attacked by several prowling North American P-51 Mustang fighters. Barkhorn managed to land his burning plane though he received a slight wound as a result of this action when the cockpit canopy — which on the Me 262A, flipped open to starboard, like a Bf 109's did — prior to crash landing, slammed shut on his neck. [24] Taken prisoner by the Western Allies while still in hospital, he was released from Allied captivity in September 1945.

Barkhorn claimed 301 victories in 1,100 combat missions. He was shot down nine times, bailed out once and was wounded twice. [6]

Later life and service

After Barkhorn was released as a prisoner of war, he then found work in the automobile industry. Following the decision of the Cabinet of Germany to rearm the Federal Republic of Germany, Barkhorn joined the military service of the West German Air Force in 1956. From 1 April 1957 to 31 December 1962, he commanded the Jagdbombergeschwader 31 "Boelcke" (JaBoG 31—Fighter-Bomber Wing 31). In 1964 he was posted to the staff of Luftwaffen-Erprobungskommando (Air Force Test Command) holding the rank of Colonel. [5]

From October 1964 until November 1965, Colonel Barkhorn headed the six-man West German Air Force contingent of the Tripartite Kestrel Evaluation Squadron at Royal Air Force Station West Raynham, Norfolk, England. The squadron’s mission was to evaluate the military capabilities of the VSTOL Kestrel (aka the Hawker Siddeley P1127 and forerunner of the Harrier VSTOL aircraft). The squadron consisted of military pilots and ground staff from three nations: Great Britain, USA and West Germany. In addition to being one of the squadron pilots, Barkhorn also served as one of the squadron’s two Deputy Commanders. At the conclusion of the evaluation, Barkhorn then accompanied the American contingent to the USA, where he assisted in that nation’s continuing trials of six of the Kestrels that had been shipped to the USA and renamed the XV-6A. [25]

Barkhorn was promoted to Brigadier general in 1969 and to Major general in 1973. His last position was Chief of Staff of the Second Allied Tactical Air Force, a NATO military formation under Allied Air Forces Central Europe. He retired from active service on 30 September 1975. [5]

On 6 January 1983 he and his wife were involved in a car crash near Cologne. His wife died instantly and Barkhorn, without regaining consciousness, died in hospital in Frechen/Cologne on 8 January 1983. They were buried in Tegernsee, Bavaria. [26]

Summary of career

Aerial victory claims

Matthews and Foreman, authors of Luftwaffe Aces — Biographies and Victory Claims, researched the German Federal Archives and found records for 300 aerial victory claims, plus one further unconfirmed claim. All of his aerial victories were claimed on the Eastern Front. [27]

Victory claims were logged to a map-reference (PQ = Planquadrat), for example "PQ 44793". The Luftwaffe grid map (Jägermeldenetz) covered all of Europe, western Russia and North Africa and was composed of rectangles measuring 15 minutes of latitude by 30 minutes of longitude, an area of about 360 square miles (930 km2). These sectors were then subdivided into 36 smaller units to give a location area 3 × 4 km in size. [28]

Awards

Notes

  1. His sister Meta died of appendicitis during the compulsory Reichsarbeitsdienst (Reich Labour Service). His brother Helmut was killed in action as a Fahnenjunker - Feldwebel on the first days of the Battle of France when his vehicle ran on a land mine. [3] His younger brother Dieter was killed in 1943 as Leutnant and pilot on the Western Front. [4] His father was conscripted into the Volkssturm (people's militia) and went missing in action in the Battle of Königsberg. [5]
  2. Flight training in the Luftwaffe progressed through the levels A1, A2 and B1, B2, referred to as A/B flight training. A training included theoretical and practical training in aerobatics, navigation, long-distance flights and dead-stick landings. The B courses included high-altitude flights, instrument flights, night landings and training to handle the aircraft in difficult situations.
  3. For an explanation of Luftwaffe unit designations see Organisation of the Luftwaffe during World War II.
  4. IAP—Istrebitelny Aviatsionny Polk (Fighter Aviation Regiment—Истребительный Авиационный Полк)
  5. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 The "m.H." refers to a Ilyushin Il-2 with rear gunner (mit Heckschütze).
  6. According to Prien, Stemmer, Rodeike and Bock, this claim was with 4./JG 52 as Barkhorn was Staffelkapitän of 4. Staffel until 31 August 1943. [59] Matthews and Foreman state that this claim was with Stab II./JG 52. [60]

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References

Citations

  1. Zabecki 2014, pp. 19,479.
  2. Stockert 2012, pp. 302, 306.
  3. 1 2 3 Stockert 2012, p. 302.
  4. Stockert 2012, p. 303.
  5. 1 2 3 Stockert 2012, p. 306.
  6. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 Zabecki 2014, p. 117.
  7. Weal 2004, p. 35.
  8. Weal 2001, p. 25.
  9. Bergström 2008, p. 55.
  10. Weal 2001, p. 59.
  11. Bergström 2007b, pp. 102–103.
  12. Obermaier 1989, p. 243.
  13. Harvey 2018, p. 25.
  14. Bergström 2007b, pp. 110–111.
  15. Bergström 2008, p. 27.
  16. Weal 2001, p. 72.
  17. Bergström 2008, pp. 45–46.
  18. Weal 2001, p. 73.
  19. Weal 2004.
  20. Bergström 2008, p. 56.
  21. Bergström 2008, p. 86.
  22. Weal 1998, p. 80.
  23. Weal 2006.
  24. Forsyth 2008, p. 71.
  25. Carlin 2017, pp. xvi, 8, 36, 48, 73–74, 87, 88, 99–100, 102.
  26. Stockert 2012, p. 307.
  27. Matthews & Foreman 2014, pp. 40–46.
  28. Planquadrat.
  29. Matthews & Foreman 2014, p. 40.
  30. Prien et al. 2003, p. 41.
  31. 1 2 3 4 Prien et al. 2003, p. 44.
  32. 1 2 Prien et al. 2003, p. 43.
  33. Prien et al. 2003, p. 45.
  34. Prien et al. 2003, p. 46.
  35. Prien et al. 2003, p. 47.
  36. Matthews & Foreman 2014, pp. 40–43.
  37. 1 2 3 4 5 Prien et al. 2006, p. 481.
  38. 1 2 3 4 Prien et al. 2006, p. 496.
  39. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 Prien et al. 2006, p. 497.
  40. 1 2 3 4 5 6 Prien et al. 2006, p. 482.
  41. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 Prien et al. 2006, p. 483.
  42. 1 2 3 4 Prien et al. 2006, p. 498.
  43. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 Prien et al. 2006, p. 484.
  44. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 Prien et al. 2012, p. 378.
  45. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 Prien et al. 2006, p. 485.
  46. 1 2 Prien et al. 2012, p. 379.
  47. 1 2 3 4 5 6 Prien et al. 2012, p. 382.
  48. 1 2 3 Prien et al. 2012, p. 383.
  49. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 Prien et al. 2006, p. 486.
  50. 1 2 3 4 5 Prien et al. 2012, p. 384.
  51. 1 2 Prien et al. 2012, p. 385.
  52. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 Prien et al. 2012, p. 386.
  53. 1 2 3 4 5 6 Prien et al. 2006, p. 491.
  54. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 Prien et al. 2012, p. 387.
  55. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 Prien et al. 2006, p. 492.
  56. 1 2 3 Prien et al. 2006, p. 494.
  57. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 Prien et al. 2012, p. 388.
  58. 1 2 3 4 Prien et al. 2006, p. 495.
  59. Prien et al. 2006, pp. 374, 496.
  60. Matthews & Foreman 2014, pp. 43.
  61. Matthews & Foreman 2014, p. 43–46.
  62. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 Prien et al. 2012, p. 389.
  63. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 Prien et al. 2012, p. 392.
  64. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 Prien et al. 2012, p. 393.
  65. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 Prien et al. 2012, p. 394.
  66. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 Prien et al. 2012, p. 395.
  67. 1 2 3 Berger 1999, p. 20.
  68. Patzwall 2008, p. 45.
  69. Obermaier 1989, p. 35.
  70. Patzwall & Scherzer 2001, p. 24.
  71. 1 2 MacLean 2007, p. 223.
  72. 1 2 Thomas 1997, p. 22.
  73. 1 2 3 Scherzer 2007, p. 202.
  74. Fellgiebel 2000, p. 122.
  75. Fellgiebel 2000, p. 65.
  76. Fellgiebel 2000, p. 42.

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}}

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Military offices
Preceded by
Major Johann Kogler
Commander of Jagdgeschwader 6 Horst Wessel
16 January 1945 – 9 April 1945
Succeeded by
Major Gerhard Schöpfel
Preceded by
none
Commander of Jagdbombergeschwader 31 Boelcke
September 1957 – December 1962
Succeeded by
Oberstleutnant Wilhelm Meyn