German Air Force

Last updated
German Air Force
Luftwaffe
Bundeswehr Logo Luftwaffe with lettering.svg
Founded9 January 1956;64 years ago (1956-01-09)
Country Germany
Branch Air force
Role Aerial warfare
Size27,674 (March 2020) [1]
465 aircraft [2]
Part of Bundeswehr
Air Force Command Gatow
Nickname(s)Team Luftwaffe [3]
Motto(s)Immer im Einsatz (Always in action) [3]
Anniversaries9 January 1956
Engagements Operation Deliberate Force
Website www.luftwaffe.de
Commanders
Inspector of the Air Force Generalleutnant Ingo Gerhartz
Ceremonial chief Generalleutnant Dieter Naskrent
Colonel of
the Regiment
Generalmajor Günter-Erhard Giesa
Notable
commanders
Insignia
Roundel Roundel of Germany - Type 1 - Border.svg
Fin flash Flag of Germany.svg
Aircraft flown
Attack Tornado IDS
Electronic
warfare
Tornado ECR
Fighter Eurofighter Typhoon
Helicopter AS532, H145M, CH-53
Trainer Grob G-120, T-6 Texan II, T-38 Talon
Transport Global Express 5000, A310, A400M, A319, A340, C-160, C-130J

The German Air Force (German : Luftwaffe, lit.  'air weapon', German pronunciation: [ˈlʊftvafə] ( Loudspeaker.svg listen )) is the aerial warfare branch of the Bundeswehr , the armed forces of Germany. With a strength of 27,674 personnel (March 2020), [1] it is the third largest air force within the European Union, after the Italian Air Force and French Air Force. The German Air Force (as part of the Bundeswehr) was founded in 1956 during the era of the Cold War as the aerial warfare branch of the armed forces of then West Germany. After the reunification of West and East Germany in 1990, it integrated parts of the air force of the former German Democratic Republic, which itself had been founded in 1956 as part of the National People's Army. There is no organizational continuity between the current German Air Force and the former Luftwaffe of the Wehrmacht founded in 1935, which was completely disbanded in 1945/46 after World War II. The term Luftwaffe that is used for both the historic and the current German air force is the German-language generic designation of any air force.

Contents

The commander of the German Air Force is Lieutenant General Ingo Gerhartz. As of 2015, the German Air Force uses eleven air bases, two of which host no flying units. Furthermore, the Air Force has a presence at three civil airports. In 2012, the German Air Force had an authorized strength of 28,475 active soldiers and 4,914 reservists. [4]

History

This Canadair CL-13 is preserved at the Military History Museum in Berlin. Airforce Museum Berlin-Gatow 43.JPG
This Canadair CL-13 is preserved at the Military History Museum in Berlin.

After World War II, German aviation was severely curtailed, and military aviation was completely forbidden after the Luftwaffe of the Third Reich had been disbanded in August 1946 by the Allied Control Commission. This changed in 1955 when West Germany joined NATO, as the Western Allies believed that Germany was needed to counter the increasing military threat posed by the Soviet Union and its Warsaw Pact allies. Therefore, on 9 January 1956, a new German Air Force called Luftwaffe was founded as a branch of the new Bundeswehr .

Many well-known fighter pilots of the Wehrmacht 's Luftwaffe joined the new post-war air force and underwent refresher training in the US before returning to West Germany to upgrade on the latest U.S.-supplied hardware. These included Erich Hartmann, Gerhard Barkhorn, Günther Rall and Johannes Steinhoff. Steinhoff became commander-in-chief of the Luftwaffe, with Rall as his immediate successor. Another pilot of World War II, Josef Kammhuber, also made a significant career in the post-war Luftwaffe, retiring in 1962 as Inspekteur der Luftwaffe (Chief Inspector of the Air Force).

Despite the partial reliance of the new air force on airmen who had served in the Wehrmacht's air arm, there was no organizational continuity between the old and the new Luftwaffe. This is in line with the policy of the Bundeswehr on the whole, which does not consider itself a successor of the Wehrmacht and does not follow the traditions of any other previous German military organization.

First years

The first volunteers of the Luftwaffe arrived at the Nörvenich Air Base in January 1956. In the same year, the Luftwaffe was provided with its first aircraft, the US-made Republic F-84 Thunderstreak. At first, the Luftwaffe was divided into two operational commands, one in Northern Germany, aligned with the British-led Second Allied Tactical Air Force, and the other in Southern Germany, aligned with the American-led Fourth Allied Tactical Air Force.

In 1957, the Luftwaffe took command of the Army Air Defence Troops located in Rendsburg and began the expansion of its own air defence missile capabilities. The first squadron to be declared operational was the Air Transport Wing 61 at Erding Air Base, followed by the 31st Fighter-Bomber Squadron at Büchel Air Base. In 1958, the Luftwaffe received its first conscripts. In 1959, the Luftwaffe declared the 11th Missile Group in Kaufbeuren armed with MGM-1 Matador surface-to-surface tactical nuclear cruise missiles operational. The same year Jagdgeschwader 71 (Fighter Wing 71) equipped with Canadair CL-13 [5] fighters became operational at Ahlhorner Heide Air Base. All aircraft sported—and continue to sport—the Iron Cross on the fuselage, harking back to the pre-March 1918 days of World War I, while the national flag of West Germany is displayed on the tail.

Cold War

In 1963, the Luftwaffe saw its first major reorganization. The two operational Air Force Group Commands – Command North and Command South were both split into two mixed Air Force divisions containing flying and air defence units and one Support division. Additionally, a 7th Air Force division was raised in Schleswig-Holstein containing flying units, missile units, support units and the German Navy's naval aviation and placed under command of Allied Forces Baltic Approaches.

In 1960, the Luftwaffe received it first Lockheed F-104 Starfighter jets. The Starfighter remained in service for the entire duration of the Cold War, with the last being taken out of service in 1991. The Luftwaffe received 916 Starfighters, 292 of which crashed, resulting in the deaths of 116 pilots. The disastrous service record of the Starfighter led to the Starfighter crisis in 1966 as a reaction to 27 Starfighter crashes with 17 casualties in 1965 alone. The West German public referred to the Starfighter as the Witwenmacher (widow-maker), fliegender Sarg (flying coffin), Fallfighter (falling fighter) and Erdnagel (tent peg, literally "ground nail").

On 25 August 1966, the German Defence Minister Kai-Uwe von Hassel relieved the Inspekteur der LuftwaffeGeneralleutnant Werner Panitzki, and transferred Colonel Erich Hartmann, commanding officer of the 71st Fighter Squadron, as both had publicly criticized the acquisition of the Starfighter as a "purely political decision". On 2 September 1966, Johannes Steinhoff, with Günther Rall as deputy, became the new Inspekteur der Luftwaffe. Steinhoff and his deputy Günther Rall noted that the non-German F-104s proved much safer. The Americans blamed the high loss rate of the Luftwaffe F-104s on the extreme low-level and aggressive flying of German pilots rather than any faults in the aircraft. [6] Steinhoff and Rall went to America to learn to fly the Starfighter under Lockheed instruction and noted some specifics in the training (a lack of mountain and foggy-weather training), combined with handling capabilities (rapidly initiated, high G turns) of the aircraft that could cause accidents. Steinhoff and Rall therefore changed the training regimen for the F-104 pilots, and the accident rates fell to those comparable or better than other air forces. They also brought about the high level of training and professionalism seen today throughout the Luftwaffe, and the start of a strategic direction for Luftwaffe pilots to engage in tactical and combat training outside of Germany. However, the F-104 never lived down its reputation as a "widow-maker", and was replaced by the Luftwaffe with the McDonnell Douglas F-4 Phantom II fighter and the Panavia Tornado fighter-bomber in many units much earlier than in other national air forces.

An Alpha Jet A in 1996 German Air Force (41+71) Dassault-Dornier Alpha Jet A.jpg
An Alpha Jet A in 1996
One of 212 Panavia Tornado IDSs delivered to the Luftwaffe Panavia Tornado IDS of Luftwaffe, static display, Radom AirShow 2005, Poland.jpg
One of 212 Panavia Tornado IDSs delivered to the Luftwaffe

On Steinhoff's initiative, the Luftwaffe opened the German Air Force Command USA/Canada (Deutsches Luftwaffenkommando USA/Kanada) in Fort Bliss, where the Luftwaffe trained its missile and air defence troops, and pilots received their basic training. At the same time, the Luftwaffe opened a Tactical Training Command in Beja, Portugal, where pilots were trained in Close Air Support missions.

Between 1967 and 1970, the Luftwaffe undertook a major reorganization of its forces. The two operational commands were disbanded and the four mixed Air Force divisions were divided into two flying divisions and two air defence divisions. The remainder of the units were divided into functional commands:

Over the next decade, the Luftwaffe received large amounts of new equipment, including in 1968 the first C-160 Transall transport planes, in 1974 the F-4 Phantom II fighter-bombers, in 1978 the first Alpha Jet Version A light attack jets and in 1979 the first of 212 Panavia Tornado fighters.

In 1986, the air defense forces began to replace their Nike Hercules missile systems with state of the art surface-to-air missile systems: first to arrive was the MIM-104 Patriot system, followed one year later by Roland short range missile system.

Nuclear sharing

Germany is participating in NATO's nuclear sharing concept. Nuclear sharing is a concept that involves member countries without nuclear weapons of their own in the planning for the use of nuclear weapons by NATO, and in particular provides for the armed forces of these countries to be involved in delivering these weapons in the event of their use.

Soon after its founding, the German Air Force began to train with the US Seventeenth Air Force in handling, arming and delivering nuclear weapons. At first, the F-104 Starfighter was intended to be used solely as a nuclear delivery platform, armed with nuclear air-to-air and air-to-surface missiles, as well as nuclear bombs. The Tornado was the second air force plane fielded that was capable of delivering nuclear ammunition, although it was limited to delivering B61 nuclear bombs.

From 1965 through 1970, Missile Wings 1 and 2 fielded 16 Pershing 1 missile systems with nuclear warheads under U.S. Army custody. In 1970, the system was upgraded to Pershing 1a with 72 missiles. Although not directly affected by the 1988 Intermediate-Range Nuclear Forces Treaty, the Luftwaffe unilaterally removed the Pershing 1a missiles from its inventory in 1991, and the missiles were destroyed. At the end of the Cold War, more than 100,000 soldiers served in the Luftwaffe.

The United States still lends nuclear weapons for hypothetical use by the Luftwaffe under the nuclear sharing agreement. In 2007, 22 B61 nuclear bombs were still kept in Germany, stored at the Büchel Air Base for use with Tornado IDS fighter-bombers of Jagdbombergeschwader 33. The American nuclear weapons formerly stored at Nörvenich Air Base, Ramstein Air Base and Memmingen Air Base were all withdrawn from Germany during the mid-and-late-1990s.

By international treaties between Germany and the "Big Four" powers in Europe (that formerly occupied Germany), East Germany is a nuclear-free zone. The Big Four powers are the United States, Russia, the United Kingdom, and France, and with the latter three having no nuclear weapons in Germany anymore.

Reunification

GDR Air Force plane marking Emblem of aircraft of NVA (East Germany).svg
GDR Air Force plane marking
FRF Air Force plane marking Roundel of Germany - Type 1 - Border.svg
FRF Air Force plane marking
A Luftwaffe MiG-29 MiG-29 Fulcrum.jpg
A Luftwaffe MiG-29

After German reunification in October 1990, the aircraft and personnel of the former GDR air force, the Luftstreitkräfte der NVA were taken. The remnants of the East German Air Force were placed under the newly formed 5. Luftwaffendivision (5th Air Force Division) in Strausberg. In 1993, the division was renamed 3. Luftwaffendivision, moved to Gatow in Berlin and in 1995 assigned to NATO. By 1990, the East German plane markings had been replaced by the Air Force Iron Cross, the first time Soviet-built aircraft had served in a NATO air force. However, as the Luftstreitkräfte der NVA were supplied exclusively with Eastern Bloc-produced aircraft, such as the Sukhoi Su-17, MiG-21, MiG-23 and MiG-29 fighters, most of the equipment was not compatible with the West German NATO equipment and therefore taken out of service and sold or given to new members of NATO in Eastern Europe, such as Poland and the Baltic states.

An exception to this was the Jagdfliegergeschwader 3 "Vladimir Komarov" (Fighter Wing 3 "Vladimir Komarov") in Preschen Air Base. The Jagdfliegergeschwader 3 flew brand new MiG-29 fighters. On 1 June 1993, the wing was renamed Jagdgeschwader 73 (Fighter Wing 73) and on 1 October 1994 completed its move to its new home at Laage Air Base. The pilots of JG 73 were some of the most experienced MiG-29 pilots in the world. One of their primary duties was to serve as aggressor pilots, training other pilots in dissimilar combat tactics. The United States sent a group of fighter pilots to Germany during the Red October exercise to practice tactics against the aircraft they were most likely to meet in real combat. The MiG-29s of JG 73 were fully integrated into the Luftwaffe's air defence structure and the first Soviet Bloc aircraft to be declared operational within NATO. [7] With the introduction of the Eurofighter Typhoon imminent, the decision was taken to withdraw the MiG-29. All German MiG-29s, save one, were sold to Poland for the symbolic price of €1 apiece. On 9 August 2004, the last MiG-29s landed in Poland where they continue to serve in the 41st Tactical Squadron of the Polish Air Force.

Operations in the Balkans

A Luftwaffe Tornado ECR carrying an AGM-88-HARM missile during the air campaign over Kosovo in 1999 AGM-88 and AIM-9 on Tornado.jpg
A Luftwaffe Tornado ECR carrying an AGM-88-HARM missile during the air campaign over Kosovo in 1999

The Luftwaffe experienced combat action for first time since World War II during September 1995 [8] in the course of Operation Deliberate Force, when six IDS Tornado fighter-bombers, equipped with forward looking infrared devices, and escorted by eight ECR Tornados, supported NATO's artillery missions on positions of the Bosnian Serbs around Sarajevo, Bosnia & Herzegovina. [9] [10]

In March 1999, the Luftwaffe became involved in direct combat role as part of the Kosovo War along with the other NATO powers. This event was noted as significant in the British press with The Sun running the headline "Luftwaffe and the RAF into battle side by side". [11] The Luftwaffe sent in Fighter Bomber Wing 32, equipped with ECR Tornados, which flew missions to suppress enemy air defences in and around Kosovo.

These fighter-bombers were equipped with an electronic countermeasures pod, one AIM-9 Sidewinder air-to-air missile for self-defence, and an AGM-88 HARM air-to-ground missile (anti-radar). The bomber wing flew 2108 hours and 446 sorties, firing 236 HARM missiles at hostile targets. No manned Luftwaffe planes were lost in combat during this campaign. [12]

2000s

In 2005 and 2008, Luftwaffe F-4F Phantom II fighter planes took part in the Baltic Air Policing operation (of NATO), and these fighters were supplemented in 2009 by units flying the Typhoon. [13] [14]

In 2006, to support military operations in Afghanistan, the Luftwaffe sent over several Panavia Tornado reconnaissance planes from Aufklärungsgeschwader 51 "Immelmann" (the 51st Reconnaissance Wing "Immelmann"), stationed in Mazar-i-Sharif, Northern Afghanistan. [15] There have also been assorted German Army helicopters flying from the Luftwaffe Air Base in Mazar-i-Sharif. Also, Luftwaffe C-160 Transall have flown transport plane missions in and around Afghanistan.

A Luftwaffe Eurofighter Typhoon (single-seater version) 2010-06-11 Eurofighter Luftwaffe 31+21 EDDB 02.jpg
A Luftwaffe Eurofighter Typhoon (single-seater version)

Since the 1970s, the West German (and, post reunification, German) Luftwaffe (as well as many other European air forces) has actively pursued the construction of European internationally made warplanes, such as the Panavia Tornado and the Eurofighter Typhoon introduced into the Luftwaffe in 2006.

On 13 January 2004, the Minister of Defence, Peter Struck, announced major changes in the future of the German armed forces. A major part of this announcement was a plan to cut the number of fighter planes from 426 in early 2004, to 265 by 2015. Assuming that the plans to order 180 Typhoons is carried out in full, and all of the F-4 Phantoms are removed from service, this would cut the number of Tornado fighter-bombers down to just 85. [16]

In the past, the Bundesmarine's naval air wing (the Marineflieger) received 112 Tornado IDS planes. However, during late 2004, the last unit of Bundesmarine Tornados was disbanded. The entire maritime combat role was assigned to the Luftwaffe, one unit of which has had its Tornado fighters equipped to carry Kormoran II missiles and American HARM missiles.

2010s

A Luftwaffe Eurofighter Typhoon 30+68 with the painting "60 years of Luftwaffe", 2016 30+68 German Air Force Eurofighter Typhoon EF2000 ILA Berlin 2016 06.jpg
A Luftwaffe Eurofighter Typhoon 30+68 with the painting "60 years of Luftwaffe", 2016

As of 2014, a significant proportion of Germany's military aircraft was reported to be unserviceable. It has been reported that the Sea Lynx helicopters have experienced cracking in their tails, that around half of the Eurofighters and Tornados are not currently airworthy, and that the aging C-160 fleet remains in limited service while awaiting the introduction of the Airbus A400M, the first of which was delivered in December 2014. [17] Ursula von der Leyen admitted that, due to the poor state of the Bundeswehr's equipment, Germany was no longer able to fulfill its NATO commitments. [18]

The German Air Force was one of the founding members of the European Air Transport Command headquartered in Eindhoven - The Netherlands and most of the Transport & Tanker assets have been transferred under EATC management. Replacement of the current four Airbus A310 MRTT by the Airbus A330 MRTT was approved in 2018 by joining the acquisition of four by the Royal Netherlands Air Force.

Future plans are the replacement of the ageing Sikorsky CH-53 Sea Stallion, which were acquired in the 1970s, by 40-70 Boeing CH-47 Chinook or Sikorsky CH-53K King Stallion from 2022 onwards.

The Luftwaffe participated in the Israeli Air Force exercise “Blue Flag”, the country's largest international air combat exercise, designed to simulate extreme combat scenarios. The German Air Force's six Eurofighter Typhoon fighter jets were from Tactical Air Force Squadron 73 Steinhoff from Rostock. It is the first German participation in the Blue Flag exercise. [19]

In 2018, the Air Force issued a request for information from manufacturers about four potential aircraft to replace the aging Panavia Tornados - the Eurofighter Typhoon, F-15 Advanced Eagle, F/A-18E/F Super Hornet and F-35 Lightning. [20] In January 2019, it was announced that the F-35 Lightning had been dropped from the shortlist, with the Eurofighter Typhoon and Boeing F/A-18 Super Hornet under consideration. In April 2020, Germany selected F/A-18E/F Super Hornets, 15 EA-18G Growlers and 55 Eurofighter Typhoons as replacements for the Tornado fleet. [21] The Super Hornet was selected due to its compatibility with nuclear weapons and availability of an electronic attack version. As of March 2020, the Super Hornet is not certified for the B61 nuclear bombs, but Dan Gillian, head of Boeing's Super Hornet program, previously stated that "We certainly think that we, working with the U.S. government, can meet the German requirements there on the [German's] timeline." [22]

Due to the problems with the A400M, and in service limitations, the German Air Force will acquire three C130J Super Hercules Transport and three KC-130J Tanker Aircraft (delivery planned 2020-2021), [23] which will be jointly operated with the French Air Force's two C-130J and two KC-130J Aircraft (delivery planned 2018-2019). [24]

Structure

A German Air Force MIM-104 Patriot system Patriot System 2.jpg
A German Air Force MIM-104 Patriot system
Buchel Air Base Buchel Fliegerhorst.jpg
Büchel Air Base

The current commander of the German Air Force is Lieutenant General Ingo Gerhartz. The Inspector of the Air Force (Inspekteur der Luftwaffe) is the commander of Air Force Command (Kommando Luftwaffe), a body created in 2013 by the merger of the Air Force Office (Luftwaffenamt), German Air Staff (Führungsstab der Luftwaffe), and Air Force Forces Command (Luftwaffenführungskommando). Similar to the Air Staff of the United States Air Force, the German Air Force Command is a force providing command, not an operational command. The Air Force Command is tasked with ensuring the combat readiness of the German Air Force combat units, which during operations would either be commanded by a NATO command or the Joint Operations Command of the Bundeswehr. The Air Force command directly controls three higher commands. [25]

The creation of the Air Force Command was part of a reorganization of the Bundeswehr as a whole, announced by Thomas de Maizière in 2011, which also involved the Air Force shrinking to 23,000 soldiers and thus undergoing major restructuring at all levels. In addition to the higher command authorities, the three air divisions, the Air Force Training Command, and Air Force Weapon Systems Command, were disbanded. The three surface-to-air missile units will merge into a single wing in Husum in Northern Germany. The wing fields 14 MIM-104 Patriot and 4 MANTIS systems. The three air transport wings will be merged into a single wing based at Wunstorf Air Base, which will field 40 A400M Atlas transport planes. The Luftwaffe will field three Multirole Eurofighter Wings, each with two squadrons for a total of 143 Eurofighter Typhoon. [26] A fighter-bomber wing fielding Panavia Tornado IDS planes remains in service at Büchel Air Base. The Reconnaissance Wing 51 will remain in service at Schleswig Air Base and add one drone squadron to its Panavia Tornado ECR squadron. [27]

The Kommando Luftwaffe has two main elements subordinate to it:

Individual Air Force units are either part of the Air Force Operational Forces Command or the Support Forces Command. They only fall under the command of the Air Operations Center when on deployment or attached to EU or NATO organizations.

Air Operations Center

Relief Map of Germany.svg
Blue 0080ff pog.svg
German Air Force radar stations, and control and reporting centers:
Red ff0000 pog.svg HR-3000 (HADR) radar station
Blue 0080ff pog.svg GM 406F radar station
Orange pog.svg RRP-117 radar station
Lightgreen pog.svg Control and Reporting Center

The main subordinate elements of the Air Operations Center are:

Air Force Forces Command

The main subordinate elements of the Air Force Operational Forces Command are:

Directly subordinated institutions:

Subordinated flying units:

Subordinated ground based units:

Subordinated support units:

North American training centers

Luftwaffe Panavia Tornados at CFB Goose Bay Luftwaffe Goose Bay.jpg
Luftwaffe Panavia Tornados at CFB Goose Bay

In light of the destroyed infrastructure of West Germany post–World War II, the restrictions on aircraft production placed on Germany and the later restrictive flying zones available for training pilots, the reconstructed Luftwaffe trained most of its pilots tactically away from Germany, mainly in the United States and Canada where most of its aircraft were sourced.

During the 1960s and 1970s, a very large number of Luftwaffe jet crashes—the Luftwaffe suffered a 36 percent crash rate for F-84F Thunderstreaks and an almost 30 percent loss of F-104 Starfighters—created considerable public demand for moving Luftwaffe combat training centers away from Germany.

As a result, the Luftwaffe set up two tactical training centres: one, like those of many of the NATO forces, at the Royal Canadian Air Force base at Goose Bay; and the second in a unique partnership with the United States Air Force at Holloman Air Force Base in New Mexico (F-104 pilots had already been trained at Luke Air Force Base, Arizona, since 1964). Both facilities provide access to large unpopulated areas, where tactical and combat training can take place without danger to large populations.

F-4Es of the 1st GAFTS F-4Es 1GAFTS 9FS Holloman 1992.JPEG
F-4Es of the 1st GAFTS

On 1 May 1996, the Luftwaffe established the German Air Force Tactical Training Center (TTC) in concert with the United States Air Force 20th Fighter Squadron at Holloman Air Force Base in New Mexico, which provides aircrew training in the F-4F Phantom II. The TTC serves as the parent command for two German air crew training squadrons. The F-4 Training Squadron oversees all German F-4 student personnel affairs and provides German instructor pilots to cooperate in the contracted F-4 training program provided by the U.S. Air Force (20th Fighter Squadron). A second TTC unit, the Tornado Training Squadron, provides academic and tactical flying training, by German air force instructors, for German Tornado aircrews.

The first contingent of Tornado aircraft arrived at Holloman in March 1996. More than 300 German air force personnel are permanently assigned at Holloman to the TTC, the only unit of its kind in the United States. The German Air Force Flying Training Center activated on 31 March 1996, with German Air Force Chief of Staff Gen. Portz and U.S. Air Force Chief of Staff Gen. Michael Ryan present. The Luftwaffe has since stationed up to 800 personnel at Holloman for training exercises, due to limited training space in Europe.

In September 2004, the Luftwaffe announced a reduction in its training program by about 20%. By the end of 2006, 650 Luftwaffe personnel and 25 Tornado aircraft were assigned to Holloman.

Air bases

In 2018, the Air Force uses 16 air bases, six of which host no flying units. Furthermore, the Air Force has a presence at two civil airports:

Name [32] [33] Major Tenants ICAO-Code [32] [33] IATA-Code [34] Runways Code [32] [33] YearNearest City [32] State
Direction [32] [33] Cover [32] [33] Size [32] [33]
Berlin Tegel Airport Executive Transport Wing EDDTTXL08L/26RAsphalt3022x451948 Berlin Berlin
08R/26LAsphalt2427x45
Büchel Air Base Tactical Wing 33 ETSB03/21Asphalt2507x451955 Büchel Rhineland-Palatinate
Cologne Bonn Airport Executive Transport Wing EDDKCGN14L/32RAsphalt3815x601938 Cologne North Rhine-Westphalia
06/24Concrete2459x45
14R/32LAsphalt1863x45
Erding Air Base Maintenance Regiment 1ETSE08/26Concrete2521x301935 Erding Bavaria
Hohn Air Base Air Transport Wing 63 ETNH08/26Concrete2440x30 Hohn Schleswig-Holstein
Holzdorf Air Base Helicopter Wing 64 ETSH09/27Asphalt2419x301974 Holzdorf Saxony-Anhalt
Landsberg-Lech Air Base ETSA07/25Concrete2066x301935 Landsberg Bavaria
Lechfeld Air Base German-led multinational

A400M wing to be formed. [35] [36]

ETSL03/21Concrete2678x301912 Klosterlechfeld Bavaria
Neuburg Air Base Tactical Wing 74 ETSN09/27Asphalt2440x301960 Neuburg Bavaria
Nörvenich Air Base Tactical Wing 31 ETNNQOE07/25Asphalt2439x451954 Nörvenich North Rhine-Westphalia
Rostock-Laage Airport Tactical Wing 73 ETNLRLG10/28Concrete2500x451984 Laage Mecklenburg-Vorpommern
Schleswig Air Base Tactical Wing 51 ETNSWBG05/23Asphalt2439x30 Schleswig Schleswig-Holstein
Wittmundhafen Air Base Tactical Wing 71 ETNT08/26Asphalt2440x301951 Wittmund Lower Saxony
Wunstorf Air Base Air Transport Wing 62 ETNW08/26Asphalt1877x46,51936 Wunstorf Lower Saxony
03/21Asphalt1699x47,5
08/26Grass1088x40

Personnel

In 2012, the Air Force had an authorized strength of 44,565 active soldiers and 4,914 reservists. [4] The civil personnel within the Air Force is being reduced to 5,950 officials and employees. Most of the civilian employees work in maintenance and the Air Force Fire Department. On 20 September 2011 defense minister Thomas de Maizière announced that the Air Force would shrink to 23,000 soldiers. [37]

Training

The Luftwaffe has set up a total of 5 training institutions, namely the Offizierschule der Luftwaffe, Unteroffizierschule der Luftwaffe, Luftwaffenausbildungsbataillon, Fachschule der Luftwaffe and Technische Ausbildungszentrum der Luftwaffe, for training catering both personnel in active service and civilians willing to enter the Luftwaffe. [38]

Symbols, emblems and uniform

Roundel and serial number

A preserved Fokker D.VII with the original-style Balkenkreuz of 1918 World War I Fokker aircraft-bi-plane in knowlton quebec.jpg
A preserved Fokker D.VII with the original-style Balkenkreuz of 1918
German Air Force dress uniform Trageweise (Heer + Luftwaffe) (Luftwaffenfarben).svg
German Air Force dress uniform

Originally German Air Force aircraft carried an Iron Cross — appearing to be closely modeled on that used by the 1916-17 era Imperial German Luftstreitkräfte through the spring of 1918, but no longer having the white border around the crosses' "ends" (thusly resembling the orthogonal white "flanks" of the earlier, 1918-1945 era Balkenkreuz national marking) — as an identifying feature on all four wing positions and on both sides on the rear of the fuselage and a small tricolor schwarz-rot-gold German flag painted on the vertical stabilizer. Each aircraft also carried a serial number consisting of 2 letters, which identified the service and combat wing, followed by three numbers identifying the squadron and the number of the plane within the squadron, almost graphically resembling the USAF's own buzz numbers of the same period.

This system was changed in 1968. The large Iron Cross and serial numbers have since been replaced on all aircraft by a four number registration code, appearing somewhat in the manner of the earlier alphanumeric Geschwaderkennung combat wing code characters used by their World War II predecessor — separated by an Iron Cross in the middle: the first two numbers identify the type of aircraft and the second two numbers are a sequential for each type. When writing the registration number the Iron Cross is written as a "+". I.e. the Tornado IDS of the Air Force are numbered from 43+01 to 46+22, while the Tornado ECR of the Air Force are numbered from 46+23 to 46+57. The numbers from 30+01 to 33+99 are being used for the Eurofighter.

Uniform

The ranks of the Air Force are identical to the ranks of the German Army. The Air Force field dress is the same as the army field dress. The dress uniform of the Air Force is dark blue with gold-yellow wings as collar patches. As headdress a dark blue side cap or dark blue peaked cap can be worn. Members of the German Air Force Regiment wear a dark blue beret.

Aircraft

Current inventory

A Eurofighter Typhoon during exercise Frisian Flag Eurofighter Luftwaffe (26437961262).jpg
A Eurofighter Typhoon during exercise Frisian Flag
A CH-53G in flight over ILA Berlin 2016 84+99 German Army Sikorsky CH-53G Super Stallion ILA Berlin (cropped).jpg
A CH-53G in flight over ILA Berlin 2016
A Luftwaffe A400M on its maiden flight 54+08 Luftwaffe A400M Maiden Flight -(cropped).jpg
A Luftwaffe A400M on its maiden flight
AircraftOriginTypeVariantIn serviceNotes
Combat Aircraft
Panavia Tornado Germany multirole IDS 68 [39] employs variable-sweep wing design
Eurofighter Typhoon Germanymultirole137 [40] [41]
Electronic Warfare
Panavia Tornado Germany SEAD ECR 30 [41]
Tanker
Airbus A310 MRTT France aerial refueling / transport4 [41]
Transport
Airbus A310 France VIP transport A310-3041 [41]
Airbus A319 France VIP transportA319CJ2 [42]
Airbus A321 France VIP transport A321-200 1 on order [43]
Airbus A340 France VIP transport A340-300 2 [44]
Airbus A400M France / Spain tactical airlift 2822 on order [41]
Global Express Canada VIP transport Global 5000 4 [45]
Transall C-160 France transport C-160D 29 [46]
Helicopter
Sikorsky CH-53 United States heavy lift CH-53G/GA/GS 79 [41]
Eurocopter EC145 Germanylight utility H145M 15 [47] use for Special Operations Forces
Eurocopter AS532 FranceVIP transportAS532 U23 [48]
Trainer aircraft
Panavia Tornado Germanyconversion trainer IDS 6 [41]
UAVs
IAI Heron TP Israel surveillance3 [49]

Four Airbus A330 MRTT’s are on order to support NATO’s Multinational Multi-Role Tanker Transport Fleet, which includes Germanys contribution to the program. [50]

See also

Related Research Articles

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Eurofighter Typhoon 1994 multi-role combat aircraft family by Eurofighter; primary fighter of British, German and other air forces

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Panavia Tornado Family of multi-role combat aircraft

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Panavia Tornado ADV Series of interceptor aircraft

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Holloman Air Force Base US Air Force base near Alamogordo, New Mexico, United States

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Taktisches Luftwaffengeschwader 74 military unit

Taktisches Luftwaffengeschwader 74, formerly known as Jagdgeschwader 74 , is an aviation unit of the German Air Force, based on Neuburg Air Base in Bavaria since 1961. On 1 October 2013, the unit was renamed in the course of adaptations to the new structure of the German Air Force.

Taktisches Luftwaffengeschwader 73 "Steinhoff", formerly known as Jagdgeschwader 73, is a fighter wing of the German Air Force. The wing is based in north-eastern Germany at Rostock-Laage Airport near Rostock. Its role includes general air defence as well as training for the Eurofighter Typhoon.

20th Fighter Squadron

The 20th Fighter Squadron is an inactive United States Air Force (USAF) squadron. It was most recently part of the 49th Fighter Wing at Holloman Air Force Base, New Mexico, where it operated the McDonnell F-4 Phantom II aircraft, conducting training and air superiority missions. It was inactivated on 20 December 2004.

Lechfeld Air Base military air base in Germany

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Nörvenich Air Base military airport in Germany

Nörvenich Air Base is a German Air Force air base in Germany.

Fourth Allied Tactical Air Force

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Taktisches Luftwaffengeschwader 31

Taktisches Luftwaffengeschwader 31 "Boelcke", formerly known as Jagdbombergeschwader 31, is a fighter-bomber wing of the German Air Force (Luftwaffe). The wing is based in west Germany at Nörvenich Air Base. Its role are Air Interdiction, Offensive Counter Air and Close Air Support. The wing flies the Eurofighter Typhoon.

Jagdbombergeschwader 32

Jagdbombergeschwader 32 was a fighter-bomber wing of the German Air Force (Luftwaffe). The wing was based in the south of Germany at Lechfeld Airbase and flew Tornado IDS and Tornado ECR planes in the Suppression of Enemy Air Defenses role.

Taktisches Luftwaffengeschwader 33

Taktisches Luftwaffengeschwader 33, formerly known as Jagdbombergeschwader 33 is a fighter-bomber wing of the German Air Force (Luftwaffe). The wing is based in west Germany at Büchel Air Base. Its role are Air Interdiction, Offensive Counter Air and Close Air Support. The wing flies the Panavia Tornado IDS.

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Selected bibliography

Hundreds of books, magazines and articles have been written about the Luftwaffe. A select few are listed here.