Germanos Karavangelis

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Germanos Karavangelis
Germanos Karavaggelis2.jpg
Born(1866-06-16)June 16, 1866
DiedFebruary 11, 1935

Germanos Karavangelis (Greek : Γερμανός Καραβαγγέλης, also transliterated as Yermanos and Karavaggelis or Karavagelis, 1866–1935) was born in Stipsi, Lesbos.

Greek language Language spoken in Greece, Cyprus and Southern Albania

Greek is an independent branch of the Indo-European family of languages, native to Greece, Cyprus and other parts of the Eastern Mediterranean and the Black Sea. It has the longest documented history of any living Indo-European language, spanning more than 3000 years of written records. Its writing system has been the Greek alphabet for the major part of its history; other systems, such as Linear B and the Cypriot syllabary, were used previously. The alphabet arose from the Phoenician script and was in turn the basis of the Latin, Cyrillic, Armenian, Coptic, Gothic, and many other writing systems.


He was a metropolitan bishop of Kastoria, in communion with the Ecumenical Patriarchate of Constantinople, from 1900 until 1907, appointed in the name of the Greek state by the ambassador of Greece Nikolaos Mavrokordatos [1] and was one of the main coordinators of the Greek Struggle for Macedonia that had an aim to defend the Greek and Greek Orthodox clerical interests against the Turks and the Bulgarians in then Ottoman Turkish-ruled Macedonia.

Metropolitan bishop ecclesiastical office

In Christian churches with episcopal polity, the rank of metropolitan bishop, or simply metropolitan, pertains to the diocesan bishop or archbishop of a metropolis.

Kastoria Place in Greece

Kastoria is a city in northern Greece in the region of Western Macedonia. It is the capital of Kastoria regional unit. It is situated on a promontory on the western shore of Lake Orestiada, in a valley surrounded by limestone mountains. The town is known for its many Byzantine churches, Byzantine and Ottoman-era domestic architecture, fur clothing industry, and trout.

Ecumenical Patriarchate of Constantinople autocephalous church of Eastern Orthodox Christianity

The Ecumenical Patriarchate of Constantinople is one of the fourteen to sixteen autocephalous churches that together compose the Eastern Orthodox Church. It is headed by the Ecumenical Patriarch of Constantinople, currently Bartholomew I, Archbishop of Constantinople.

During the Macedonian struggle, Karavangelis directed the Greek response to supporters of the Bulgarian cause, the Internal Macedonian Revolutionary Organization (VMRO) and the Exarchate. [2] At the time Karavangelis would travel in rural areas, and portrayed a fierce romanticized image of himself dressed with a dark raincoat, a bandolier on side of his shoulder and a gun on the other with a scarf tied around his clerical hat. [2] Karavangelis viewed Bulgarian influence within the area as a threat to Greek interests. He advocated for close relations and interaction among Turks and Greeks in the region, only in the context of when it was needed. [2] Karavangelis viewed the rivalry between the Patriarchate and Exarchate as without religious dimensions and that the main concern preoccupying Balkan states was the post-Ottoman future of in the region after the empire was removed from Macedonia. [2] Greece at the time sent more funds, men and arms to individuals such as Karavangelis in Macedonia. [2] [3]

Internal Macedonian Revolutionary Organization revolutionary national liberation movement in Ottoman territories in Europe in the late 19th and early 20th centuries

The Internal Macedonian Revolutionary Organization was a revolutionary national liberation movement in the Ottoman territories in Europe, that operated in the late 19th and early 20th centuries.

Bulgarian Exarchate

The Bulgarian Exarchate was the official name of the Bulgarian Orthodox Church before its autocephaly was recognized by the Ecumenical See in 1945 and the Bulgarian Patriarchate was restored in 1953.

He organized armed groups composed mainly of Greek army officers, volunteers brought from Crete, Peloponnese and other parts of Greek populated areas, [1] as well as recruited local Macedonian Greeks [1] such as the chieftain Vangelis Strebreniotis from the village of Srebreni (now Asprogeia), and Konstantinos Kottas, a former member of Internal Macedonian Revolutionary Organization (IMRO) from the village of Rulya (later renamed Kottas by the Greek authorities in his honour).

Crete The largest and most populous of the Greek islands

Crete is the largest and most populous of the Greek islands, the 88th largest island in the world and the fifth largest island in the Mediterranean Sea, after Sicily, Sardinia, Cyprus, and Corsica. It bounds the southern border of the Aegean sea. Crete lies approximately 160 km (99 mi) south of the Greek mainland. With an area of 8,336 km2 (3,219 sq mi) and a coastline of 1,046 km, Crete is a recognisable feature of the islands of Greece.

Peloponnese Traditional region of Greece

The Peloponnese or Peloponnesus is a peninsula and geographic region in southern Greece. It is connected to the central part of the country by the Isthmus of Corinth land bridge which separates the Gulf of Corinth from the Saronic Gulf. During the late Middle Ages and the Ottoman era, the peninsula was known as the Morea, a name still in colloquial use in its demotic form.

In 1905, Orthodox priest Kristo Negovani in his native village conducted the divine liturgy in the Albanian Tosk dialect and for his efforts was murdered on orders from Bishop Karavangelis who had condemned during mass the use of Albanian. [4]

Kristo Negovani Albanian activist and religious leader

Papa Kristo Negovani, born Kristo Harallambi and also known as Kristo Negovani, was an Albanian nationalist figure, religious leader and writer.

Karavangelis succeeded to strengthen Greek aspirations in Macedonia and thus helped the later incorporation of the major part of Macedonia by Greece in the Balkan Wars, for which he is praised as a national hero of the Greek Struggle for Macedonia ("makedonomachos"). He is the author of the book of memoirs "The Macedonian Struggle" (Greek : Ο Μακεδονικός Αγών).

Balkan Wars Two wars on Balkan Peninsula 1912-1913, leading to the Balkan Crisis of 1914 and start of WWI

The Balkan Wars consisted of two conflicts that took place in the Balkan Peninsula in 1912 and 1913. Four Balkan states defeated the Ottoman Empire in the first war. The main victor of the four, Bulgaria, fought and pushed back all four original combatants of the first war along with halting a surprise attack from Romania from the north in the second war. The conflicts ended catastrophically for the Ottoman Empire, which lost the bulk of its territory in Europe. Austria-Hungary, although not a combatant, became relatively weaker as a much enlarged Serbia pushed for union of the South Slavic peoples. The war set the stage for the Balkan crisis of 1914 and thus served as a "prelude to the First World War".

See also

Eastern Orthodox Church titles
Preceded by
Bishop of Pera
1896 1900 [5]
Succeeded by
Preceded by
Athanasios Kapouralis
Metropolitan of Kastoria
1900 1908
Succeeded by
Ioakeim Vaxevanidis
Preceded by
Anthemios Alexoudis [6]
Metropolitan of Amaseia
5 February 1908 27 October 1922 [7]
Succeeded by
Spyridon Vlachos
Preceded by
Spyridon Vlachos [7]
Metropolitan of Ioannina
1922 1924
Succeeded by
Spyridon Vlachos [7]
Preceded by
Exarch of Hungary and Central Europe
(Metropolis of Austria) [note 1]
Titular Metropolitan of Amaseia [note 2]

12 August 1924 10 February 1935 [7]
Succeeded by


  1. Since 1924 all of the Greek parishes in the territories of Austria, Hungary and Italy came under the jurisdiction of the Patriarchate of Constantinople. However it was only in 1963 that the Greek Orthodox Metropolis of Austria was formally organized.
  2. "Metropolitan Germanus was condemned to death in absentia by the Turkish authorities on June 7, 1921 and subsequently could not return to Turkey. He remained in Vienna as Exarch of Central Europe of the Ecumenical Patriarchate during the period 19241935." [7]

Related Research Articles

Bulgarian Orthodox Church national church

The Bulgarian Orthodox Church is an autocephalous Orthodox Church. It is the oldest Slavic Orthodox Church with some 6 million members in the Republic of Bulgaria and between 1.5 and 2.0 million members in a number of European countries, the Americas, Australia, New Zealand and Asia. It was recognized as an independent Church by the Patriarchate of Constantinople in AD 870, becoming Patriarchate in 918/919.

Pavlos Melas Greek soldier

Pavlos Melas was an officer of the Hellenic Army, and he was among the first who organized and participated in the Greek Struggle for Macedonia.

Macedonian Struggle

The Macedonian Struggle or Greek Armed Propaganda in Macedonia was a series of social, political, cultural and military conflicts between Greek and Bulgarian subjects living in Ottoman Macedonia between 1893 and 1908. The conflict was part of a wider rebel war in which revolutionary organizations of Greeks, Bulgarians and Serbs all fought over Macedonia. Gradually the Greek & Bulgarian bands gained the upper hand, but the conflict was ended by the Young Turk Revolution in 1908.

Bulgarian Greek Catholic Church

The Bulgarian Greek Catholic Church is a Byzantine Rite sui juris particular Church in full union with the Roman Catholic Church.

Nestorio Place in Greece

Nestorio (Greek: Νεστόριο, Nestório; Macedonian: Нестрам ; Bulgarian: Нестрам and/or Нѐсрам is a village and a municipality in the Kastoria regional unit of Macedonia, Greece. Nestorio is approximately 28 km southwestwards of Kastoria, at the banks of the river Aliakmon.

Ohrana were armed collaborationist detachments organized by the former Internal Macedonian Revolutionary Organization (IMRO) structures, composed of Bulgarians in Nazi-occupied Greek Macedonia during World War II and led by officers of the Bulgarian Army. Bulgaria was interested in acquiring Thessalonica and Western Macedonia, under Italian and German occupation and hoped to sway the allegiance of the 80,000 Slavs who lived there at the time. The appearance of Greek partisans in those areas persuaded the Axis to allow the formation of these collaborationst detachments. However, during late 1944, when the Axis appeared to be losing the war, many Slavophone Nazi collaborators, Ohrana members and VMRO regiment volunteers fled to the opposite camp by joining the newly founded communist SNOF. The organization managed to recruit initially 1,000 up to 3,000 armed men from the Slavophone community that lived in the western part of Greek Macedonia.

Museum for the Macedonian Struggle (Thessaloniki) museum in Greece

The Museum for the Macedonian Struggle is located in the centre of the city Thessaloniki in Central Macedonia, Greece. It occupies a neo-classical building designed by the renowned architect Ernst Ziller and built in 1893. In its six ground-floor rooms the museum graphically illustrates the modern and contemporary history of Greek Macedonia. It presents the social, economic, political and military developments that shaped the presence of Hellenism in the region. This approach enables the visitor to form a global picture, not only of the revolutionary movements in the area, but also of the rapidly changing society of the southern Balkans and its agonizing struggles to balance between tradition and modernization.

The Metropolis of Kastoria is one of the metropolises of the New Lands in Greece that are within the jurisdiction of the Ecumenical Patriarchate of Constantinople but de facto are administered for practical reasons as part of the Church of Greece under an agreement between the churches of Athens and Constantinople.

Kottas macedonian revolutionary

Kote Hristov, known simply as Kote or Kottas, was a Bulgarian insurgent leader in Western Macedonia.

Lazar Poptraykov Bulgarian writer and revolutionary

Lazar Poptraykov was a Bulgarian revolutionary (komitadji) and poet. He was one of the leaders of the Internal Macedonian-Adrianople Revolutionary Organization (IMARO) in the region of Kastoria (Kostur) during the Ilinden Uprising. He is considered a Macedonian in the Republic of Macedonia.

Lazaros or Lazos Tsamis, was a Greek merchant of Vlach origin, who participated in the Macedonian Struggle and later as volunteer leader in the struggle for Northern Epirus.

Gregory (Orologas) Greek Orthodox metropolitan bishop

Saint Gregory (Orologas) of Kydonies the Ethno-Hieromartyr, also Gregory of Cydoniae, 1864–1922, was a Greek Orthodox metropolitan bishop in the early 20th century in northwest Anatolia, in the Ottoman Empire.

Stavros Rigas, also known by his nom de guerre "Kapetan Kavodoros" (Καβοντόρος), was an officer of the Hellenic Army who participated in the Greek Struggle for Macedonia.

Bulgarian Millet

Bulgarian Millet or Bulgar Millet was an ethno-religious and linguistic community within the Ottoman Empire from the mid-19th to early 20th century. The semi-official term Bulgarian millet, was used by the Sultan for the first time in 1847, and was his tacit consent to a more ethno-linguistic definition of the Bulgarians as a nation. Officially as a separate Millet in 1860 were recognized the Bulgarian Uniates, and then in 1870 the Bulgarian Orthodox Christians. At that time the classical Ottoman Millet-system began to degrade with the continuous identification of the religious creed with ethnic identity and the term millet was used as a synonym of nation. In this way, in the struggle for recognition of a separate Church, the modern Bulgarian nation was created. The establishment of the Bulgarian Exarchate in 1870, meant in practice official recognition of a separate Bulgarian nationality, and in this case the religious affiliation became a consequence of national allegiance. The founding of an independent church, along with the revival of Bulgarian language and education, were the crucial factors that strengthened the national consciousness and revolutionary struggle, that led to the creation of an independent nation-state in 1878.

Macedonian Committee

The Macedonian Committee, formally the Hellenic Macedonian Committee, was a Greek irredentist organization with the aim of liberating Macedonia from the Ottoman Empire. It formed in 1903 under the leadership of wealthy publisher Dimitrios Kalapothakis; its members included Ion Dragoumis and Pavlos Melas. The committee organized the sending of guerrilla fighters to Macedonia—the so-called Makedonomachoi—during the Macedonian Struggle (1904–1908).

Petros Hatzitasis Greek soldier

Petros Hatzitasis (1872-1932) was a Greek chieftain from Florina who contributed to the Macedonian Struggle.

Antonios Zois Greek soldier

Antonios Zois was a Macedonian fighter, a chieftain from Monastir (Bitola) in what is now North Macedonia.

Slavic speakers in Ottoman Macedonia ethnolinguistic group

Slavic-speakers inhabiting the Ottoman-ruled region of Macedonia had settled in the area since the Slavic migrations during the Middle Ages and formed a distinct ethnolinguistic group. While Greek was spoken in the urban centers and in a coastal zone in the south of the region, Slav-speakers were settled in its rural hinterland and were predominantly occupied in agriculture. Habitually known and identifying as "Bulgarian" on account of their language, they were considered as "Rum", members of the community of Orthodox Christians according to the Ottoman millet system.


  1. 1 2 3 ‹See Tfd› (in Greek) Γερμανού Καραβαγγέλη. "Ο Μακεδονικός Αγών (Απομνημονεύματα), Εταιρία Μακεδονικών Σπουδών, Ίδρυμα Μελετών Χερσονήσου του Αίμου".Θεσσαλονίκη. 1959.
  2. 1 2 3 4 5 Glenny, Misha. The Balkans: Nationalism, War, and the Great Powers, 1804-1999 . London: Granta Books, 1999. p. 206. "in the [Macedonian] villages genuinely committed to the [Bulgarian] Exarchate of VMRO, the Greeks behaved like vengeful bullies, executing suspected renegades and holding the [Greek] Patriarchate version of the Mass at gunpoint (...). This Greek blacklash was orchestrated by the gun-toting bishop of Kastoria, Germanos Karavangelis. This extraordinary figure, (...) 'had a Männlicher slung over one shoulder, a bandolier over the other, a belt round his middle from which hung his holster carrying a large pistol and a knife'. Karavangelis appeared consciously to cultivate an image of threatening romanticism. The bishop considered Bulgarian influence in the region to be the greatest threat to Greek national interests. He therefore advocated close friendship and cooperation between the Greeks and Turks of Macedonia, but only as an expedient. Karavangelis was fully aware that there was no religious aspect to the struggle between the Exarcate and the Patriarchate --he admitted openly that the only issue in Macedonia was the future contours of the Balkan states once the Turks had been thrown out."
  3. Citing Douglas Dankin, The Greek struggle in Macedonia 1897-1913, Thessaloniki, 1966, p. 126.
  4. Blumi, Isa (2011). Reinstating the Ottomans, Alternative Balkan Modernities: 1800–1912. New York: Palgrave MacMillan. p. 167. ISBN   9780230119086. "Negovani’s actions caused institutional responses that ultimately intensified the contradictions facing the church and its imperial patron. In the end, Papa Kristo Negovani was murdered for his acts of defiance of the explicit orders of Karavangjelis, the Metropolitan of Kastoria, who condemned the use of Toskërisht during mass."
  5. ‹See Tfd› (in Greek) Τάσος Αθ. Γριτσόπουλος. "Γερμανός. Ὁ Καραβαγγέλης." Θρησκευτική και Ηθική Εγκυκλοπαίδεια (ΘΗΕ). Τόμος 4 (Βυζάντιον-Διοκλής). Αθηναι – Αθαν. Μαρτινος, 1964. σελ. 400–402.
  6. ‹See Tfd› (in Greek) Αλεξούδης, Άνθιμος. Academic Dictionaries and Encyclopedias - Dictionary of Greek. 2013. Retrieved 25 August 2014.
  7. 1 2 3 4 5 Kiminas 2009, pp. 97.


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