Gertrude Mary Cox | |
---|---|

Born | |

Died | October 17, 1978 78) | (aged

Education | B.S. Mathematics, 1929 M.S. Statistics, 1931 D.Sc. Statistics (Honorary), 1958 |

Alma mater | Iowa State College, University of California at Berkeley |

Known for | First woman elected into the International Statistical Institute; president of the American Statistical Association; experimental statistics. |

Awards | Fellow of the American Statistics Association (1944) Fellow of the Institute of Mathematical Statistics (1944) Member of the International Statistics Institute (1949) Honorary member of the Société Adolphe Quetelet (1954) Honorary fellow of the Royal Statistical Society (1959) University of North Carolina's Oliver Max Gardner Award (1959) International Award for Distinguished Service to Agriculture (awarded by Gamma Sigma Delta, 1960) Honorary Life Membership of the Biometric Society (1964) Member of the National Academy of Sciences (1975)## Contents |

Scientific career | |

Fields | Statistics, Mathematics |

Institutions | Professor of Statistics, North Carolina State University; Director of Statistics, Research Triangle Institute |

Thesis | "A Statistical Investigation of a Teacher's Ability as Indicated by the Success of His Students in Subsequent Courses" (1931) |

Academic advisors | George Snedecor |

**Gertrude Mary Cox** (January 13, 1900 – October 17, 1978) was an American statistician and founder of the department of Experimental Statistics at North Carolina State University. She was later appointed director of both the Institute of Statistics of the Consolidated University of North Carolina and the Statistics Research Division of North Carolina State University. Her most important and influential research dealt with experimental design; In 1950 she published the book *Experimental Designs,* on the subject with W. G. Cochran, which became the major reference work on the design of experiments for statisticians for years afterwards. In 1949 Cox became the first woman elected into the International Statistical Institute and in 1956 was President of the American Statistical Association.

Gertrude Cox was born in Dayton, Iowa on January 13, 1900.^{ [1] } She studied at Perry High School in Perry, Iowa, graduating in 1918. At this time she decided to become a deaconess in the Methodist Church and worked towards that end.^{ [2] } However, in 1925, she decided to continue her education at Iowa State College (which was renamed Iowa State University in 1959) in Ames where she studied mathematics and statistics and was awarded a B.S. in 1929 and a Master's degree in statistics in 1931.^{ [2] }

From 1931 to 1933 Cox undertook graduate studies in psychological statistics at the University of California at Berkeley, then returned to Iowa State College to assist in establishing the new Statistical Laboratory.^{ [3] } Here she worked on the design of experiments.

In 1939 Cox was appointed assistant professor of statistics at Iowa State College.^{ [4] } In 1940 Cox was appointed professor of statistics at North Carolina State College (now North Carolina State University) at Raleigh. There she headed the new department of Experimental Statistics, the first female head of any department at this institution.^{ [3] } In 1945 she became director of the Institute of Statistics of the Consolidated University of North Carolina, and the Statistics Research Division of the North Carolina State College which was run by William Gemmell Cochran. In the same year of 1945 Cox became the editor of *Biometrics Bulletin* and of * Biometrics * and she held this editorship for 10 years. When prolific statistician and eugenicist Ronald Fisher founded the International Biometric Society in 1947, Cox was one of the founding members.^{ [4] }

In 1960 she took up her final post as Director of Statistics at the Research Triangle Institute in Durham, North Carolina. She held this post until she retired in 1965.^{ [4] } After retirement, then worked as a consultant to promote the development of statistical programs in Egypt and Thailand.^{ [2] }^{ [5] }

In 1950 she published a joint work with William Cochran, *Experimental Designs*,^{ [6] } which became the major reference work on the design of experiments for statisticians for years afterwards.

Cox received many honors. In 1949 she became the first woman elected into the International Statistical Institute. In 1956 she was elected President of the American Statistical Association while in 1975 she was elected to the National Academy of Sciences. She was also a Fellow of the Institute of Mathematical Statistics.^{ [7] }

The University of North Carolina system named her an O. Max Gardner Award recipient in 1959. North Carolina State University honored Cox by naming Cox Hall in her honor in 1970, and awarding her a Watauga Medal in 1977. The Caucus of Women in Statistics also established a Gertrude M. Cox Scholarship fund in recognition of her work in 1986.^{ [3] }

**George Waddel Snedecor** was an American mathematician and statistician. He contributed to the foundations of analysis of variance, data analysis, experimental design, and statistical methodology. Snedecor's *F*-distribution and the George W. Snedecor Award of the American Statistical Association are named after him.

**William Gemmell Cochran** was a prominent statistician. He was born in Scotland but spent most of his life in the United States.

**George Edward Pelham Box** FRS was a British statistician, who worked in the areas of quality control, time-series analysis, design of experiments, and Bayesian inference. He has been called "one of the great statistical minds of the 20th century".

**David John Finney**, was a British statistician and Professor Emeritus of Statistics at the University of Edinburgh. He was Director of the Agricultural Research Council's Unit of Statistics from 1954 to 1984 and a former President of the Royal Statistical Society and of the Biometric Society. He was a pioneer in the development of systematic monitoring of drugs for detection of adverse reactions. He turned 100 in January 2017 and died on 12 November 2018 at the age of 101 following a short illness.

**Statistics** is the theory and application of mathematics to the scientific method including hypothesis generation, experimental design, sampling, data collection, data summarization, estimation, prediction and inference from those results to the population from which the experimental sample was drawn. This article lists statisticians who have been instrumental in the development of theoretical and applied statistics.

**Damaraju Raghavarao** (1938–2013) was an Indian-born statistician, formerly the Laura H. Carnell professor of statistics and chair of the department of statistics at Temple University in Philadelphia.

**Oscar Kempthorne** was a British statistician and geneticist known for his research on randomization-analysis and the design of experiments, which had wide influence on research in agriculture, genetics, and other areas of science.

**Kathryn Mary Chaloner** was a British-born American statistician.

**Calvin Zippin** is a cancer epidemiologist and biostatistician, and Professor Emeritus in the Department of Epidemiology and Biostatistics at the University of California School of Medicine in San Francisco (UCSF). He is a Fellow of the American Statistical Association, the American College of Epidemiologyand the Royal Statistical Society of Great Britain. His doctoral thesis was the basis for the *Zippin Estimator*, a procedure for estimating wildlife populations using data from trapping experiments. He was a principal investigator in the Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results (**SEER**) program of the National Cancer Institute (NCI) which assesses the magnitude and nature of the cancer problem in the United States. In 1961, he created training programs for cancer registry personnel, which he conducted nationally and internationally. He carried out research on the epidemiology and rules for staging of various cancers. He received a Lifetime Achievement and Leadership Award from the NCI in 2003.

**Marie Davidian** is an American biostatistician known for her work in longitudinal data analysis and precision medicine. She is the J. Stuart Hunter Distinguished Professor of Statistics at North Carolina State University. She was president of the American Statistical Association for 2013.

**Donna Jean Brogan** is an American statistician and professor emeritus of statistics at Emory University. Brogan has worked in biostatistical research in the areas of women's health, mental health and psychosocial health statistics, statistics on breast cancer, and analysis of complex survey data.

**Erin E. Blankenship** is an American statistician interested in nonlinear models and environmental statistics, and known for her work in statistics education. She is a professor of statistics at the University of Nebraska–Lincoln.

**Dorothy Morrow Gilford** was an American statistician who headed the Division of Mathematical Sciences at the Office of Naval Research, the National Center for Education Statistics, and the Conference Board of the Mathematical Sciences. She was the editor of *The Aging Population in the Twenty-First Century: Statistics for Health Policy*.

**Nell Sedransk** is an American statistician who directed the National Institute of Statistical Sciences (NISS). She continues to work at NISS, and is a research professor of statistics at North Carolina State University. Her research interests include Bayesian inference and experimental design for complex experiments, and includes participation in a study of reading comprehension.

**Nancy Flournoy** is an American statistician. Her research in statistics concerns the design of experiments, and particularly the design of adaptive clinical trials; she is also known for her work on applications of statistics to bone marrow transplantation, and in particular on the graft-versus-tumor effect. She is Curators' Distinguished Professor Emeritus of Statistics at the University of Missouri.

**Jane F. Gentleman** is an American-Canadian statistician, the second female president of the Statistical Society of Canada, and the first winner of the Janet L. Norwood Award For Outstanding Achievement By A Woman In The Statistical Sciences.

**Snehalata V. Huzurbazar** is an American statistician, known for her work in statistical genetics, and also interested in applications of statistics to geology. She is a professor of biostatistics, and chair of the biostatistics department, at the West Virginia University School of Public Health.

**Ralph Ernest Comstock** was an American statistician and geneticist known for his work in quantitative genetics.

**Sharon Lynn Lohr** is an American statistician. She is an Emeritus Dean’s Distinguished Professor of Statistics at Arizona State University, and an independent statistical consultant. Her research interests include survey sampling, design of experiments, and applications of statistics in education and criminology.

- ↑ Anderson, Richard L (1990),
*Gertrude Mary Cox, 1900-1978: A Biographical Memoir*(PDF), National Academies Press, archived from the original (PDF) on 2015-03-26, retrieved 2018-04-25 - 1 2 3 Riddle, Larry (2014),
*Biographies of Women Mathematicians: Gertrude Mary Cox*, Agnes Scott College, retrieved 2018-04-25 - 1 2 3 Wayne, Tiffany K. (2011).
*American women of science since 1900*. Santa Barbara, Calif.: ABC-CLIO. pp. 324–325. ISBN 9781598841589. - 1 2 3 Bailey, Martha J. (1994).
*American Women in Science*. Santa Barbara: ABC-CLIO. p. 72. ISBN 0-87436-740-9. - ↑ "Cox biography".
*www-groups.dcs.st-and.ac.uk*. University of St Andrews, Scotland. Retrieved 26 April 2018. - ↑ Cochran, William G.; Cox, Gertrude M. (1950).
*Experimental Designs*. New York: Wiley. - ↑
*Honored Fellows*, Institute of Mathematical Statistics, archived from the original on 2014-03-02, retrieved 2017-11-24

- Gertrude Mary Cox Collection, 1918-1983 (North Carolina State University Libraries)
- "Gertrude Cox", Biographies of Women Mathematicians, Agnes Scott College
- Guide to the Gertrude Cox Letters to Julie McVay 1963-1971
- MacTutor biography
- ASA: Gertrude M. Cox
- NC State University Gertrude Cox Award

*This article incorporates material from Gertrude Cox on PlanetMath, which is licensed under the Creative Commons Attribution/Share-Alike License.*

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