Gherman Titov

Last updated
Gherman Titov
Gherman Titov (1962).jpg
Titov in 1962
Born
Gherman Stepanovich Titov

(1935-09-11)11 September 1935
Died20 September 2000(2000-09-20) (aged 65)
Resting place Novodevichy Cemetery, Moscow
Nationality Russian
Citizenship Soviet
Occupation Pilot
Awards Hero of the Soviet Union
Space career
Cosmonaut
Rank General-Colonel, Soviet Air Force
Time in space
1d 01h 18m
Selection Air Force Group 1
Missions Vostok 2
Signature
Gherman Titov Signature.svg

Gherman Stepanovich Titov (Russian : Герман Степанович Титов; 11 September 1935 – 20 September 2000) was a Soviet cosmonaut who, on 6 August 1961, [1] became the second human to orbit the Earth, aboard Vostok 2, preceded by Yuri Gagarin on Vostok 1. He was the fourth person in space, counting suborbital voyages of US astronauts Alan Shepard and Gus Grissom. A month short of 26 years old at launch, he remains the youngest person to fly in space. [2]

Contents

Titov's flight finally proved that humans could live and work in space. He was the first person to orbit the Earth multiple times (a total of 17), the first to pilot a spaceship and to spend more than a day in space. He was also the first to sleep in orbit and to suffer from space sickness (becoming the first person to vomit in space). [3]

Titov made the first manual photographs from orbit, thus setting a record for modern space photography. He also was the first person to film the Earth using a professional quality Konvas-Avtomat movie camera, which he used for ten minutes. [4] [5]

In his subsequent life Titov continued to work for the Soviet space program, and played a major role in the Spiral project where he trained to become the first pilot of an orbital spaceplane. However, after the death of Yuri Gagarin in a military aircraft accident in 1968, the Soviet government decided it could not afford to lose its second cosmonaut, and so Titov's career as test pilot ended.

Titov served in the Soviet Air Force, attaining the rank of colonel-general. In his final years in post-Soviet Russia he became a Communist politician. Despite having been chosen second, after Gagarin, to fly into space, it was Titov who later proposed the Soviet Government regularly celebrate Cosmonautics Day on April 12, the day of Gagarin's flight.

Biography

Titov was born in the village of Verkhneye Zhilino in the Altai Krai and went to school at the Stalingrad Military Aviation School. After graduating as an air force pilot, he was selected for cosmonaut training in 1960.

He flew the Vostok 2 mission launched on 6 August 1961. It lasted for 25.3 hours and he performed 17 orbits of the Earth. His call sign was Eagle (Russian : Орёл). He landed close to the town of Krasny Kut in Saratov Oblast, Russia. A month short of 26 years old at launch, he remains the youngest person to fly in space. [6] [7] Titov was a member of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union, as were almost all the Soviet cosmonauts.

Titov was a fine sportsman, and keen on gymnastics:

Service in the Air Force made us strong, both physically and morally. All of us cosmonauts took up sports and PT seriously when we served in the Air Force. I know that Yuri Gagarin was fond of ice hockey. He liked to play goal keeper. Gherman Titov was a gymnastics enthusiast, Andriyan Nikolayev liked skiing, Pavel Popovich went in for weight lifting. I don't think I am wrong when I say that sports became a fixture in the life of the cosmonauts.

He was the first person to suffer from space sickness (motion sickness in space) and was also the first person to sleep in space. He slept for roughly one orbit and was surprised to wake with his arms floating in the air because of the absence of normal gravity. He returned to sleep after he had his arms under a security belt and slept 30 minutes more than predicted by the flight plan. He stated, "Once you have your arms and legs arranged properly, space sleep is fine.... I slept like a baby". [9]

Titov appears with U.S. President John F. Kennedy and American astronaut John Glenn, 1962 Titov jfk glenn.jpg
Titov appears with U.S. President John F. Kennedy and American astronaut John Glenn, 1962

Though he had been suffering from space sickness during his orbit, Titov celebrated upon landing. His celebration is described as "a fit of euphoria" after landing, and on his return flight to Kubishev for debriefing, he alarmed the medical staff by opening and downing a beer, in complete violation of the rules. [10]

After landing, Titov was sent to hospital for further testing to ensure that he was not sick. After his mission, he reportedly engaged in behaviours that could be considered unacceptable for someone working within the space programme. [10] He is reported to have been enthralled in his love of women, excessive drinking, and fast cars, which caused some to theorise that his behaviour had potentially been another side effect of the space sickness he experienced from zero gravity. Further testing revealed that not to be the case. [10]

During a widely-publicised 1962 visit to Seattle to tour the Century 21 World's Fair, Titov was asked by reporters how his space flight affected his philosophy of life. He replied: "Sometimes people are saying that God is out there. I was looking around attentively all day but I didn't find anybody there. I saw neither angels nor God". [11] The utterance was used in Soviet anti-religion propaganda, but it was misattributed to Yuri Gagarin. [12]

Following his space flight, Titov assumed various senior positions in the Soviet space programme until his retirement in 1992. In 1995, he was elected to the State Duma as a member of the Communist Party of the Russian Federation. He died of cardiac arrest in his sauna at the age of 65 in Moscow. [13] He was buried in the Novodevichy Cemetery.

Awards and legacy

Titov on a Russian stamp RU072 10.jpg
Titov on a Russian stamp

Gherman Titov was awarded the title Hero of the Soviet Union, two Orders of Lenin, and numerous medals and foreign orders. He was bestowed the title of the Hero of Socialist Labor of Bulgaria, Hero of Labour of Vietnam, and Hero of Mongolia. Titov crater on the far side of the Moon and an island in Halong Bay are named after him, Ti Tốp Island.

On 6 August 2011, the 50th anniversary of Titov's flight, the reconstructed and expanded Gherman Titov Museum was opened in his native village of Polkovnikovo, Altai Krai. [14]

The Titov Space Centre is named after him.

Cultural references

In Arthur C. Clarke's 1982 book, 2010: Odyssey Two (and the 1984 film adaptation 2010 ), the opening scene features a conversation between Dimitri Moisevitch of the Soviet Space Council and Dr. Heywood Floyd. When Moisevitch informs Floyd that the Soviets will be travelling to Jupiter on their new spaceship, the Cosmonaut Alexei Leonov , Floyd is initially puzzled, claiming that he thought the ship was to be named after Gherman Titov. In the book, Moisevitch just mentioned that it had been changed to Leonov; in the film, he replies that Titov has fallen out of favour, though he does not elaborate.

BBC Radio 4's Afternoon Play on 12 April 2011, Titanium, features Titov as narrator during the training and flight of Yuri Gagarin. It was part of a week to celebrate the 50th anniversary of Gagarin's flight.

Honours and awards

Titov, Nikita Khrushchev and Yuri Gagarin at Red Square in Moscow, 20 November 1961 Titov, Khruschev, Gagarin 1961.jpg
Titov, Nikita Khrushchev and Yuri Gagarin at Red Square in Moscow, 20 November 1961
Russia and the USSR
Titov on a Moldovan stamp Stamps of Moldova, 020-11.jpg
Titov on a Moldovan stamp
Foreign awards

Related Research Articles

Vostok 1 First human spaceflight in history

Vostok 1 was the first spaceflight of the Vostok programme and the first human spaceflight in history. The Vostok 3KA space capsule was launched from Baikonur Cosmodrome on April 12, 1961, with Soviet cosmonaut Yuri Gagarin aboard, making him the first human to cross into outer space.

Yuri Gagarin Soviet pilot and cosmonaut, first human in space

Yuri Alekseyevich Gagarin  was a Soviet pilot and cosmonaut who became the first human to journey into outer space, achieving a major milestone in the Space Race; his capsule, Vostok 1, completed one orbit of Earth on 12 April 1961. Gagarin became an international celebrity and was awarded many medals and titles, including Hero of the Soviet Union, his nation's highest honour.

Vladimir Komarov Soviet cosmonaut, and aeronautical engineer, and test pilot

Vladimir Mikhaylovich Komarov was a Soviet test pilot, aerospace engineer, and cosmonaut. In October 1964, he commanded Voskhod 1, the first spaceflight to carry more than one crew member. He became the first Soviet cosmonaut to fly in space twice when he was selected as the solo pilot of Soyuz 1, its first crewed test flight. A parachute failure caused his Soyuz capsule to crash into the ground after re-entry on 24 April 1967, making him the first human to die in a space flight.

Vostok 2

Vostok 2 was a Soviet space mission which carried cosmonaut Gherman Titov into orbit for a full day on August 6, 1961 to study the effects of a more prolonged period of weightlessness on the human body. Titov orbited the Earth over 17 times, exceeding the single orbit of Yuri Gagarin on Vostok 1 − as well as the suborbital spaceflights of American astronauts Alan Shepard and Gus Grissom aboard their respective Mercury-Redstone 3 and 4 missions. Indeed, Titov's number of orbits and flight time would not be surpassed by an American astronaut until Gordon Cooper's Mercury-Atlas 9 spaceflight in May 1963.

Andriyan Nikolayev Soviet cosmonaut

Andriyan Grigoryevich Nikolayev was a Soviet cosmonaut. In 1962, aboard Vostok 3, he became the third Soviet cosmonaut to fly into space. Nikolayev was an ethnic Chuvash.

Pavel Popovich Soviet pilot and cosmonaut

Pavel Romanovich Popovich was a Soviet cosmonaut.

Valery Bykovsky Soviet cosmonaut

Valery Fyodorovich Bykovsky was a Soviet cosmonaut who flew on three space flights: Vostok 5, Soyuz 22, and Soyuz 31. He was also backup for Vostok 3 and Soyuz 37.

Vostok (spacecraft)

The Vostok was a type of spacecraft built by the Soviet Union. The first human spaceflight was accomplished with Vostok 1 on April 12, 1961, by Soviet cosmonaut Yuri Gagarin.

Vostok programme

The Vostok programme was a Soviet human spaceflight project to put the first Soviet citizens into low Earth orbit and return them safely. Competing with the United States Project Mercury, it succeeded in placing the first human into space, Yuri Gagarin, in a single orbit in Vostok 1 on April 12, 1961. The Vostok capsule was developed from the Zenit spy satellite project, and its launch vehicle was adapted from the existing R-7 Semyorka intercontinental ballistic missile (ICBM) design. The name "Vostok" was treated as classified information until Gagarin's flight was first publicly disclosed to the world press.

Vladimir Georgiyevich Titov

Vladimir Georgiyevich Titov is a retired Russian Air Force Colonel and former cosmonaut. He has participated in four spaceflight missions. The catastrophic explosion of a Soyuz rocket in 1983 led to him being one of only four people to use a launch escape system. He is married to Alexandra Kozlova, they have two children.

Vladimir Ilyushin Soviet and Russian test pilot

Major General Vladimir Sergeyevich Ilyushin was a Soviet general and test pilot, and the son of aerospace engineer Sergei Ilyushin. He spent most of his career as a test pilot for the Sukhoi OKB Ilyushin was also a rugby union administrator who was inducted into the World Rugby Hall of Fame in 2013.

Titov or Titova is a Russian last name which may refer to people:

Grigory Nelyubov

Grigory Grigoryevich Nelyubov was one of the original 20 Soviet cosmonauts, who was dismissed from the Soviet space program in 1963 for drunk and disorderly conduct. His existence in the program was kept secret until the advent of Soviet glasnost in the late 1980s. He committed suicide on 18 February 1966.

Cosmonautics Day Russian holiday

Cosmonautics Day is an anniversary celebrated in Russia and some other former USSR countries on 12 April. In Poland an "International Day of Aviation and Cosmonautics" is celebrated on the same day. In 2011, at the 65th session of the United Nations General Assembly, 12 April was declared as the International Day of Human Space Flight in dedication of the first manned space flight made on 12 April 1961 by the 27-year-old Russian Soviet cosmonaut Yuri Gagarin. Gagarin circled the Earth for 1 hour and 48 minutes aboard the Vostok 1 spacecraft.

Nikolai Kamanin

Nikolai Petrovich Kamanin was a Soviet aviator, awarded the title of Hero of the Soviet Union in 1934 for the rescue of SS Chelyuskin crew from an improvised airfield on the frozen surface of the Chukchi Sea near Kolyuchin Island.

Valentin Varlamov

Valentin Stepanovich Varlamov was a Russian jet pilot who was selected for Air Force Group 1, the first intake of 20 cosmonaut candidates in 1960. After his disqualification from the space program on medical grounds, he was an instructor at the cosmonaut training centre outside Moscow.

Irina Solovyova, born on September 6, 1937, is a retired Soviet cosmonaut active from 1962-1969. Solovyova was born in Kireyevsk, Tula in Russia and she is known for being one out of the five females chosen to join the Soviet Union's all-female space squad. She is married to a man named Sergei A. Kiselyov. She also has two children named Aleksei and Yelena.

<i>Gagarin: First in Space</i>

Gagarin: First in Space a.k.a.. First man In Space is a 2013 Russian docudrama biopic about the first man in space, Yuri Gagarin, and the 1961 mission of Vostok 1. It was released by Central Partnership theatrically in Russia on June 6, 2013, and in the United Kingdom on DVD on June 23, 2014 by Entertainment One. The film's running time of 108 minutes approximates the time it took Gagarin to go around the Earth before returning. It stars Yaroslav Zhalnin as Soviet fighter pilot and cosmonaut Yuri Gagarin. The film received mixed reviews, with some critics praising the film's acting, direction and storytelling with others touching on the film's "cheap-looking" visual effects. The film received criticism for its state funding and ignoring the aftermath of the flight.

International Day of Human Space Flight

The International Day of Human Space Flight is the annual celebration, held on 12 April, of the anniversary of the first human space flight by Yuri Gagarin (USSR). It was proclaimed at the 65th session of the United Nations General Assembly on 7 April 2011, a few days before the 50th anniversary of the flight.

Vostok 3 and 4

Vostok 3 and Vostok 4 were Soviet space program flights in August 1962, intended to determine the ability of the human body to function in conditions of weightlessness, test the ground control capability to launch and manage two separate, concurrent flights, and test the endurance of the Vostok 3KA spacecraft over longer flights. Cosmonaut Andriyan Nikolayev orbited the Earth 64 times in Vostok 3 over nearly four days in space, August 11–15, 1962, a feat which would not be matched by NASA until the Gemini program (1965–1966). Pavel Popovich was launched on Vostok 4 on August 12, and made 48 Earth orbits. The two capsules were launched on trajectories that brought the spacecraft within approximately 6.5 km (4.0 mi) of each another.

References

  1. Cosmonaut. Russian Orbits Globe 17 Times, 1961/08/07 (1961). Universal Newsreel. 1961. Retrieved February 22, 2012.
  2. Титов Герман Степанович [Gherman Stepanovich Titov] (in Russian). Герои Страны. Retrieved 2011-04-19.
  3. Guinness World Records 2013, Page 027. ISBN   9781904994879
  4. "Titov". Encyclopedia Astronautica . Retrieved 18 February 2014.
  5. "The first pictures of Earth marks 50 years" . Retrieved 18 February 2014.
  6. BBC News (August 6, 2007). "1961: Russian cosmonaut spends day in space". BBC News . Retrieved October 4, 2007.
  7. Zak, Anatoly (2000). "Russia Cosmonaut Gherman Titov Dies". Space.com. Archived from the original on January 26, 2001. Retrieved October 4, 2007.
  8. Bykovsky quoted in Gavrilin, p26-7
  9. English version of Titov's biography.
  10. 1 2 3 Evans, Ben. Escaping the Bonds of Earth: The Fifties and the Sixties. Springer-Praxis Publishing. p. 36. ISBN   978-0-387-79093-0.
  11. Soviet Cosmonaut Gherman Titov visits Seattle's Century 21 Exposition on May 5 and May 6, 1962 HistoryLink.org. Essay 10104.
  12. "I am proud to be accused of having introduced Yury Gagarin to Orthodoxy". Interfax-religion.com. 12 April 2006. Archived from the original on 13 April 2014. Retrieved 30 March 2008.
  13. Умер второй космонавт планеты Герман Титов Lenta.ru, 2000-09-21. (Russian)
  14. The Memorial Museum of Gherman Titov is opened in Altai Krai after a large scale reconstruction (in Russian)
  15. 1 2 Grover, Preston (August 9, 1961). "Moscow Gives Wild Reception to Titov". Stevens Point Journal. Stevens Point, Wisconsin. Associated Press. p. 1 via Newspapers.com.
  16. "Титов Герман Степанович". Герои Страны (in Russian). Archived from the original on 28 April 2021. Retrieved 28 April 2021.

Further reading