Ghoryakhel

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The Ghoryakhel (Pashto : غورياخېل) is a Pashtun supertribe which consists of tribes led by the son of Kand, son of Kharshbun, son of Sarban, and son of Qais Abdur Rashid, who lived in Ghwara Marghay Arghistan Qandahar but mostly settled in Ghazni on the basin of Tarnak River and Nangarhar, Logar, Kabul, Kunar, Paktia,Kunduz of Afghanistan. Daudzai are also been living in Kabul, Afghanistan which is the largest Pashtun tribe living in Kabul.

Contents

This tribe has also settled in Pakistan, Khyber-Pakhtunkhwa, Peshawar, Charsada, Mardan, Nowshehra, Khyber, Kurram, Mohmand, Malakand, Swat Districts and settled between 15th and 16th century. The largest tribe belonging to the Ghoryakhel confederacy is Momand [ disambiguation needed ] and second largest his brother Daudzai [ disambiguation needed ], son of Daulatyar while other tribes belonging to the confederacy include, Mulagori, Shilmani, Halimzai, Zakhil known by Zakhilwal, Tarakzai, Khawezai. [1] Hazarbuz.The legendary Pashto Poet Rahman Baba also belonged to Momand tribe of Ghoryakhel.

According to the Pata Khazana Pashtun History Book written by Abdulhai, Habibi Kharshbun and Sharkhbun are brothers, who Kharshbun had three sons, Kand, Zamand and Kasi, while Sharkhbun had six sons, Urmar, Babar, Baraich, Miana, Tareen and Sheerani. Kand had two sons, Ghoryakhel and Khakhykhel. Zamand had five sons, of which Muhammadzai and Kheshgi being the more popular among them. Kasi had eleven sons. Shinwari and Zhamaryani are the most popular.

Ghoryakhel had four sons: 1st son Khalil; 2nd son Daulatyar; 3rd Zeerani;and 4th Chamkani, who is the youngest son. Many historians mention in different Pashto and Dari books about Zeerani Pashtun tribe settled in Nangarhar Province, Laghman Province, Badakhshan Province in Afghanistan and majority people speak Dari and Pashto languages because of close relation and cross marriages with Tajiks. Daulatyar had two sons Momand [ disambiguation needed ], Daudzai [ disambiguation needed ], and other tribes like Mulagori, Shilmani, Halimzai, Zakhil known by Zakhilwal, Tarakzai, Khawezai.

Wars with the British

Ghoryakhel was the key tribe who fought against the British.After the Capture of Peshawar the British tried to subdue the Ghoryakhels in Peshawar due to their continuously raids on the Sikhs and After Sikhs it continues in the time of British in July 1864 The British Marched to Tappa Mohmand and Attacked Dawizai which was repulsed by the Ghoryakhels in 1865 the British sacked the village of AhmadKhel and BazidKhel. In the same year the Ghoryakhels Looted the British Troops by attacking their Posts and Base in Saddar and returned to home. These small skirmishes were happening until 2nd Anglo-Afghan War in which Ghoryakhel again supported the Emirate of Afghanistan. The demarcation of the Durrand line In 1893 was rejected by the GhoryaKhels which further angry the British Raaj. The first major battle was fought in the fields of Bahadur Kalay In January 1895 in which Pashtun tribemens defeated the British and maintained their independence the British withdrew to the fort Bala hisar. In 1897 the Ghoryakhels attacked the Walled City Peshawar though unsuccessful and returned.In the same year the Ghorya khel sent their tribemens to Saragarhi to aid Afridi tribe and Orakzai. In 1898 the second battle of Badar Kalay was fought in which British Indian Punjab regiment was again defeated with the loses of 500 on the other hand Pashtun lost their 79 mens. These raids continued until the 3rd Anglo-Afghan War in which the Ghoryakhels sided with the Afghanistan and fought from the Afghanistan side against the British in this battle the chief of the Daudzai clan Mustamir Shah fought bravly in the compaigne of Parachinar Mustamir Shah was one of the key general from Afghan side.It is said that 4000 British Troops attacked Afghans where Afghan positions were Too Weak Afghan troops numbering 564 but Mustamir Shah got the upperhand on the British sides Whenever British attack the Afghans. He fought with his mens side by side which boosted their moral and He diffused 4 British attacks proving his war Capiblity but the treaty of Rawalpindi between Afghanistan and British Raaj upset the Ghoryakhels. In 1924 the Battle of Sheenday (Ghorya khel victory) ,1926 sack of Jahangir Abad (British victory), 1926 Surizai compaign (Britsh victory),1926 Urmar Compaign 1927 Azakhel operation.

Battle of Sarband

After the Arresting of the Bacha Khan and a Massacre in Qissa Khwani done by the British the GhoryaKhel and Afridi Collision forces met with the British Indian troops in Sarband,Peshawar. The British troops formed their line from Pishtakhara to Sarband while on the front side the Pashtuns lined their tribemens from Sheikh Muhammadi,Peshawar to Suleiman Khel. The British numbering 2431 Raaj troops Majority Sikhs and the Pashtuns tribes numbering 1452 (estimated numbers) Tribemens the Battle begans at Morning When the Tribesmens were offering Morning Dawn prayer the British Indian troops Opened fire on the Pashtuns the Pashtun reserve guards successfully defended their main tribal Army. The battle continued at 11 Am a Pashtun tribemen from Ghoryakhel Crossed the Hill and Exploded the dynamites on the Post on the Hills Capturing the key area in the battlefield in Sheikh Muhammadi. Fighting continue until the main Commander of the British Raaj troops was killed after the Zuhar Prayers. The Moral of the British Indian troops felled down and a they were seeing the Opportunity of retreat at 3PM a Sand storm came which allowed the Indian Raaj troops to retreat at 3:30 PM The British Raaj Army was totally routed.

Results

The Results of the Battle was Bacha Khan was released, Ghoryakhel tribe maintained their Independent life, No territorial Changes Internationally, British losses 2000+ soldiers while the Pashtun loses were less than 30 men.

Aftermath

The British never attacked the Ghoryakhels as in major battle. While the Ghoryakhel maintained their Tribal Freedom and didn't stopped to raid the British.The Pashtun raiders gave too damage to the Britsh specially During the World War II.

Compaign of Mohmand

Click on the link given below

https://en.m.wikipedia.org/wiki/Mohmand_campaign_of_1935

Tribal Wars and migration

Ghoryakhel tribe was the powerful Afghan tribe. The first recorded Ghoryakhel tribe is that of Niazi. In arsh Darweza, it is said that once in the area of the Niazi, a Ghoryakhel man was killed in the mosque when the news approached to the Tribal chief of the Ghorya Khel Amaan Shah declared war on the Niazi. The Battle was fought in today's Paktia, Afghanistan in which Niazi were decisively defeated and were swooped out of Afghanistan. the Ghoryakhel conquered Paktia. In 15CE, Yousafzai migrated to Swabi and other regions. At the end of 15CE, many tribes migrated to today's KPK and thus this area was called Pukhtunkhwa. The Ghorya khel chasing a tribe first to Kandhar, then to Quetta, then to Zhob and Karak where a battle was fought, and again Ghorya khel were victorious. Seeing the riches of the Peshawar, they returned to their lands and prepared for a battle to conquer Peshawar. In response, a massive tribal army of the Yousafzai, Niazi, Jadoon, Mohammadzai,UthmanKhel, Dilzaak, Tarakai, Omarzai, Khwazakhel, Surizai, Tanoli,Lodhi and Hindkowan people was prepared to battle in the outskirts of Peshawar. Ghorya Khel, under their tribal chiefs Zmaray and Khukhah, crossed the Khyber pass where they were welcomed by the Shinwari and Afridi tribes. In late November, they reached Jamrud, where a battle was fought. In this battle, the allied forces were defeated and lost their 30,000 men. Ghorya Khel entering into Peshawar chasing the Niazi as they were their old enemies and swipe out them to Mianwali. Akhund describes that when this news reached other tribes most of them said, "They were mad or fools that they confronted the Ghoryakhels If they were not Muslims then every men of their against tribe in this battle would be killed. By God, It was punishment to them". In future, the Ghoryakhels and Yousafzai and allies fought 27 battles in which 16th battles were won by Yousafzai which was a little skirmish while 26 battles were won by the Ghoryakhel from 1st to 15th and from 17th to 27th. The most important battle was during the chief of Yousafzai Gaju Khan and Chief of Ghoryakhel Hyeose in which 10,000 Yousafzai were defeated by the 4000 Ghoryakhel conquering today's Mohmand agency. Gaju Khan feared from Ghorya khel and never fought a war against the Ghoryakhels. After this battle, the Khattak and Ghoryakhel made an alliance and conquered Nowshera from Yousafzai and Kheshgi tribes.

History

Pashtuns are said to be Scythians or Hephthalites or Israelites or early Parthians, etc. Meanwhile, Pashtuns are classified as Eastern Iranian group of the Indo-Iranian people. The language that Pashtuns (Pukhtuns, Pakhtuns, Afghans) speak Pashto (Pukhto or Pakhto) is classified as Eastern Iranian languageor a Saka language and itself to be the part of the larger Indo-European language.Hitler mentioned Pashtuns in his book as Europeans and called them Germans of the East and is accepted by most of the historians. Ghorya Khel is pure Afghan tribe.They have been lived in Ghor,Kandahar,Zabul and Farah. while the concept of the son of kand is disagreed by many historians that it is just a story. If it is, then Kands grandfather Qais Abdur Rasheed have also his tribes men, then who were the historians that deny that it is just a story. If you want to learn more about the history of Pashtun you can do so by clicking on this link Pashtuns.

Prominent Figures

Hussain Bakhsh Kausar Ghoryakhel was a prominent leader of Abdul Ghaffar Khan Khudai Khidmatgars hailed from Peshawar. He was a preeminent linguist and philologist of the 20th century in the greater Pashtun territories. He died in Peshawar in the 1990s. [2]

Sheikh Kamal-uddin Daudzai was also from Ghorya Khel tribe Daudzai son of Daulatyar and brother of Mohmand who revolted against the Mughals with many others tribesmen of Ghorya Khel tribe along with him. Sheikh Kamal Daudzai killed many Mughals in the battle of Peshawar. After this battle, the Mughal position in Pukhtunkhwa and Afghanistan became weak. As the Mughals were no more than the puppets of the Daudzai's. After this defeat, Shah Jehan was totally shocked and tried to regain complete Mughal supremacy but failed several times by only holding the area of the Gandhari people (Hindkowans).Aurangzeb Alamgir, after becoming the new Padishah, confronted the Pashtuns in the northwest and was defeated by the Pashtuns. Darya Khan Afridi, Aimal Khan Mohmand, Mubarak Khalil and Rostam Khan Daudzai were the main figures in this battle. Mughal loses were estimated from 20000 to 40000 troops, while the Pashtun loses were less than 5000. Like the other tribes, Ghoryakhel also never accepted the Ranjeet Singh rule and killed about 10000 Sikh in little skirmishes. Meanwhile the Sikhs controlled the forts and Hindkowan walled city; also, the British fought the Battle of Sarband in response to the arresting of Bacha Khan. Mohammad Omar Daudzai, Rahman Baba Afghanistan National Peot along with Khushal Baba, Abdul Hameed Mohmand, Aimal khan Mohmand Known for the Wars against Mughals, Gul Badshah, Abdul Sattar Ghoryakhel, Rostam Farrokhzad according to Sir Hensky, Mardanshah of the Battle of Nahavand between Sassanids and Rashidun caliphate, Almas Khalil etc are some prominent figures in Pashtun society. Ghoryakhel had one brother Khakhykhel and he had three sons Tarak, Mak, Mand. Tarak was popular as a Tarkalani, Mak was popular with Gigyani tribe, and Mand had two sons Yousaf and Umer. Later Yousaf was known as Yousafzai and Umer was known as Mandanr.

According to Sir Olaf Caroe mentioned in his book (The Pathans), that the Maseed or Mehsud most powerful in non-Afghan tribes, and the Ghoryakhel are the most powerful in Afghan tribes. Ghoryakhel and Khakhykhel are the largest Pashtoon Sarbani tribes in northwest or Khyber Pukhtoonkhwa of Pakistan and Afghanistan.

Ghoryakhel Tribes

Daulatyar

See also

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References

  1. Ibrahim Sheikh Ghauri شېخ ابراهيم غوري. Khyber.ORG.
  2. Ghoriakhel. Khyber Tribe Listing. Accessed November 1, 2012.


http://www.queensroyalsurreys.org.uk/reg_in_india/india33_1.shtml