Ghurid dynasty

Last updated

Ghurid Sultanate

before 879–1215
Map of the Ghurid dynasty at its greatest extent under Ghiyath al-Din Muhammad
Capital Firozkoh [1]
Herat [2]
Ghazni (1170s–1215) [3]
Lahore (1186–1215; winter)
Common languages Persian (court) [4]
before 1011:
Buddhism [5]
From 1011:
Sunni Islam [6]
Government Hereditary monarchy
Amir Suri (first)
Ala al-Din Ali (last)
before 879
Preceded by
Succeeded by
Ghaznavid Empire 975 - 1187 (AD).PNG Ghaznavids
Seljuk Empire locator map.svg Great Seljuq Empire
Blank.png Gurjara-Pratihara
Blank.png Chandelas
Delhi Sultanate Delhi Sultanate Flag (catalan atlas).png
Khwarazmian dynasty Khwarezmian Empire 1190 - 1220 (AD).PNG

The Ghurids or Ghorids (Persian : سلسله غوریان; self-designation: شنسبانی, Shansabānī) were a dynasty of Iranian descent from the Ghor region of present-day central Afghanistan, but the exact ethnic origin is uncertain. [7] The dynasty converted to Sunni Islam from Buddhism, [5] [6] after the conquest of Ghor by the Ghaznavid sultan Mahmud of Ghazni in 1011. The dynasty overthrew the Ghaznavid Empire in 1186 when Sultan Mu'izz ad-Din Muhammad of Ghor conquered the last Ghaznavid capital of Lahore. [8]

Persian language Western Iranian language

Persian, also known by its endonym Farsi, is a Western Iranian language within the Indo-Iranian branch of the Indo-European language family. It is a pluricentric language primarily spoken in Iran, Afghanistan and Tajikistan, Uzbekistan and some other regions which historically were Persianate societies and considered part of Greater Iran. It is written right to left in the Persian alphabet, a modified variant of the Arabic script.

Iranian peoples diverse Indo-European ethno-linguistic group

The Iranian peoples, or the Iranic peoples, are a diverse Indo-European ethno-linguistic group.

Sunni Islam denomination of Islam

Sunni Islam is the largest denomination of Islam, followed by 85–90% of the world's Muslims. Its name comes from the word sunnah, referring to the behaviour of the Islamic prophet Muhammad. The differences between Sunni and Shia Muslims arose from a disagreement over the succession to Muhammad and subsequently acquired broader political significance, as well as theological and juridical dimensions.


At their zenith, the Ghurid empire encompassed Khorasan in the west and reached northern India as far as Bengal in the east. [9] Their first capital was Firozkoh in Mandesh, Ghor, which was later replaced by Herat, [2] and finally Ghazni. [3] Lahore was used as an additional capital in the late Ghurid period, especially during winters. The Ghurids were patrons of Persian culture and heritage. [10]

Greater Khorasan historical region of Persia

Khorasan, sometimes called Greater Khorasan, is a historical region lying northeast of Greater Iran, including part of Central Asia and Afghanistan. The name simply means "East, Orient" and loosely includes the territory of the Sasanian Empire northeast of Persia proper. Early Islamic usage often regarded everywhere east of so-called Jibal or what was subsequently termed 'Iraq Ajami', as being included in a vast and loosely-defined region of Khorasan, which might even extend to the Indus Valley and Sindh. During the Islamic period, Khorasan along with Persian Iraq were two important territories. The boundary between these two was the region surrounding the cities of Gurgan and Qumis. In particular, the Ghaznavids, Seljuqs and Timurids divided their empires into Iraqi and Khorasani regions.

India Country in South Asia

India, also known as the Republic of India, is a country in South Asia. It is the seventh-largest country by area, the second-most populous country, and the most populous democracy in the world. Bounded by the Indian Ocean on the south, the Arabian Sea on the southwest, and the Bay of Bengal on the southeast, it shares land borders with Pakistan to the west; China, Nepal, and Bhutan to the northeast; and Bangladesh and Myanmar to the east. In the Indian Ocean, India is in the vicinity of Sri Lanka and the Maldives; its Andaman and Nicobar Islands share a maritime border with Thailand and Indonesia.

Bengal Region in Asia

Bengal is a geopolitical, cultural and historical region in South Asia, specifically in the eastern part of the Indian subcontinent at the apex of the Bay of Bengal. Geographically, it is made up by the Ganges-Brahmaputra delta system, the largest such formation in the world; along with mountains in its north bordering the Himalayan states of Nepal and Bhutan and east bordering Burma.

Abu Ali ibn Muhammad (reigned 1011–1035) was the first Muslim king of the Ghurid dynasty to construct mosques and Islamic schools in Ghor.

Abu Ali ibn Muhammad was the king of the Ghurid dynasty. He succeeded his father Muhammad ibn Suri in 1011, after the latter was deposed by Mahmud of Ghazni, who then sent teachers to teach about Islam in Ghor. Abu Ali was one of those who converted to Islam during that period. After his conversion to Islam from Buddhism, he began constructing mosques and madrassas. In ca. 1035, Abu Ali was overthrown by his nephew Abbas ibn Shith.

The Ghurids were succeeded in Khorasan and Persia by the Khwarazmian dynasty, and in northern India by the Mamluk dynasty of the Delhi Sultanate.

Khwarazmian dynasty Dynasty of greater Iran

The Khwarazmiandynasty was a Persianate Sunni Muslim dynasty of Turkic mamluk origin. The dynasty ruled large parts of Central Asia and Iran in the approximate period of 1077 to 1231, first as vassals of the Seljuqs and the Qara-Khitan, and later as independent rulers, up until the Mongol invasion of Khwarezmia in the 13th century. The dynasty spanned 2.3 million square kilometers.

Delhi Sultanate Successive Islamic dynasties that ruled large parts of the Indian subcontinent (1206–1526)

The Delhi Sultanate was an Islamic empire based in Delhi that stretched over large parts of the Indian subcontinent for 320 years (1206–1526). Five dynasties ruled over the Delhi Sultanate sequentially: the Mamluk dynasty (1206–90), the Khalji dynasty (1290–1320), the Tughlaq dynasty (1320–1414), the Sayyid dynasty (1414–51), and the Lodi dynasty (1451–1526). The sultanate is noted for being one of the few powers to repel an attack by the Mongols ,, caused the decline of Buddhism in East India and Bengal, and enthroned one of the few female rulers in Islamic history, Razia Sultana, who reigned from 1236 to 1240.


In the 19th century some European scholars, such as Mountstuart Elphinstone, favoured the idea that the Ghurid dynasty relate to today's Pashtun people [11] [12] [13] but this is generally rejected by modern scholarship and, as explained by Morgenstierne in the Encyclopaedia of Islam, is for "various reasons very improbable". [14] Instead, the consensus in modern scholarship (incl. Morgenstierne, Bosworth, Dupree, Gibb, Ghirshman, Longworth Dames and others) holds that the dynasty was most likely of Tajik origin. [15] [16] [17] Bosworth further points out that the actual name of the Ghurid family, Āl-e Šansab (Persianized: Šansabānī), is the Arabic pronunciation of the originally Middle Persian name Wišnasp. [18]

Mountstuart Elphinstone Governor of Bombay, Scottish historian

The Hon Mountstuart Elphinstone FRSE was a Scottish statesman and historian, associated with the government of British India. He later became the Governor of Bombay where he is credited with the opening of several educational institutions accessible to the Indian population. Besides being a noted administrator, he wrote books on India and Afghanistan.

<i>Encyclopaedia of Islam</i> Encyclopaedia dealing with the Islam

The Encyclopaedia of Islam (EI) is an encyclopaedia of the academic discipline of Islamic studies published by Brill. It is considered to be the standard reference work in the field of Islamic studies. The first edition was published in 1913–1938, the second in 1954–2005, and the third was begun in 2007.

Clifford Edmund Bosworth English historian and orientalist

Clifford Edmund Bosworth FBA was an English historian and Orientalist, specialising in Arabic and Iranian studies.

The Ghuristan region remained primarily populated by Buddhists till the 12th century. It was then Islamised and gave rise to the Ghurids. [lower-alpha 1] [5]

Buddhism World religion, founded by the Buddha

Buddhism is the world's fourth-largest religion with over 520 million followers, or over 7% of the global population, known as Buddhists. Buddhism encompasses a variety of traditions, beliefs and spiritual practices largely based on original teachings attributed to the Buddha and resulting interpreted philosophies. Buddhism originated in ancient India as a Sramana tradition sometime between the 6th and 4th centuries BCE, spreading through much of Asia. Two major extant branches of Buddhism are generally recognized by scholars: Theravada and Mahayana.


The Ghurids' native language was apparently different from their court language Persian. Abu'l-Fadl Bayhaqi, the famous historian of the Ghaznavid era, wrote on page 117 in his book Tarikh-i Bayhaqi: "Sultan Mas'ud left for Ghoristan and sent his learned companion with two people from Ghor as interpreters between this person and the people of that region." However, like the Samanids and Ghaznavids, the Ghurids were great patrons of Persian literature, poetry, and culture, and promoted these in their courts as their own. Contemporary book writers refer to them as the "Persianized Ghurids". [19]

There is nothing to confirm the recent surmise that the inhabitants of Ghor were originally Pashto-speaking, and claims of the existence of Pashto poetry (as in Pata Khazana) from the Ghurid period are unsubstantiated. [20] [15]


Early history

A certain Ghurid prince named Amir Banji, was the ruler of Ghor and ancestor of the medieval Ghurid rulers. His rule was legitimized by the Abbasid caliph Harun al-Rashid. Before the mid-12th century, the Ghurids had been bound to the Ghaznavids and Seljuks for about 150 years. Beginning in the mid-12th century, Ghor expressed its independence from the Ghaznavid Empire. In 1149 the Ghaznavid ruler Bahram-Shah of Ghazna poisoned a local Ghurid leader, Qutb al-Din Muhammad, who had taken refuge in the city of Ghazni after having a quarrel with his brother Sayf al-Din Suri. In revenge, Sayf marched towards Ghazni and defeated Bahram-Shah. However, one later year, Bahram returned and scored a decisive victory against Sayf, who was shortly captured and crucified at Pul-i Yak Taq. Baha al-Din Sam I, another brother of Sayf, set out to avenge the death of his two brothers, but died of natural causes before he could reach Ghazni. Ala al-Din Husayn, one of the youngest of Sayf's brothers and newly crowned Ghurid king, also set out to avenge the death of his two brothers. He managed to defeat Bahram-Shah, and then had Ghazna sacked and burned and put the city into fire for seven days and seven nights. It earned him the title of Jahānsūz, meaning "the world burner". [21] The Ghaznavids retook the city with Seljuq help, but lost it to Oghuz Turks. [21]

In 1152, Ala al-Din Husayn refused to pay tribute to the Seljuks and instead marched an army from Firozkoh but was defeated and captured at Nab by Sultan Ahmed Sanjar. [22] Ala al-Din Husayn remained a prisoner for two years, until he was released in return for a heavy ransom to the Seljuqs. Meanwhile, a rival of Ala al-Din named Husayn ibn Nasir al-Din Muhammad al-Madini had seized Firozkoh, but was murdered at the right moment when Ala al-Din returned to reclaim his ancestral domain. Ala al-Din spent the rest of his reign in expanding the domains of his kingdom; he managed to conquer Garchistan, Tukharistan, and Bamiyan, and later gave Bamiyan and Tukharistan to Fakhr al-Din Masud, starting the Bamiyan branch of the Ghurids. Ala al-Din died in 1161, and was succeeded by his son Sayf al-Din Muhammad, who shortly died two years later in a battle.

The Ghurids at their zenith

Sayf al-Din Muhammad was succeeded by his cousin Ghiyath al-Din Muhammad, who was the son of Baha al-Din Sam I, and proved himself to be a capable king. Right after Ghiyath's ascension, he, with the aid of his loyal brother Mu'izz al-Din Muhammad, killed a rival Ghurid chief named Abu'l Abbas. Ghiyath then defeated his uncle Fakhr al-Din Masud who claimed the Ghurid throne and had allied with the Seljuq governor of Herat, and Balkh. [23]

In 1173, Mu'izz al-Din Muhammad reconquered the city of Ghazna and assisted his Ghiyath in his contest with Khwarezmid Empire for the lordship of Khorasan. Mu'izz al-Din Muhammad captured Multan and Uch in 1175 and annexed the Ghaznavid principality of Lahore in 1186. He was alleged by contemporary historians to exact revenge for his great grandfather Muhammad ibn Suri. After the death of his brother Ghiyath in 1202, he became the successor of his empire and ruled until his assassination in 1206 near Jhelum by Khokhar tribesmen (in modern-day Pakistan). [24]

Decline and fall

A confused struggle then ensued among the remaining Ghūrid leaders, and the Khwarezmids were able to take over the Ghūrids' empire in about 1215. Though the Ghūrids' empire was short-lived, Mu'izz al-Din Muhammad's conquests strengthened the foundations of Muslim rule in India. On his death, the importance of Ghazni and Ghor dissipated, and they were replaced by Delhi as power centre in India during the rule of his Mamluk successors. [25]

Cultural influences

The Ghurids were great patrons of Persian culture and literature and lay the basis for a Persianized state in India. [26] [27] However, most of the literature produced during the Ghurid era has been lost. They also transferred Iranian architecture to India. [28]

Out of the Ghurid state grew the Delhi Sultanate which established the Persian language as the official court language of the region – a status it retained until the late Mughal era in the 19th century.

Titular Name(s)Personal NameReign
Amir Suri
امیر سوری
9th-century – 10th-century
Muhammad ibn Suri
محمد بن سوری
10th-century – 1011
Abu Ali ibn Muhammad
ابوعلی بن محمد
Abbas ibn Shith
عباس بن شیث
1035 – 1060
Muhammad ibn Abbas
محمد بن عباس
1060 – 1080
Qutb al-din Hasan
قطب‌ الدین حسن
1080 – 1100
Izz al-Din Husayn
عز الدین حسین
Sayf al-Din Suri
سیف‌ الدین سوری
Baha al-Din Sam I
بهاء الدین سام
Sultan al-Muazzam
سلطان المعظم
Ala al-Din Husayn
علاء الدین حسین
Sayf al-Din Muhammad
سیف‌ الدین محمد
Sultan Abul-Fateh
سلطان ابوالفتح
Ghiyath al-Din Muhammad
غیاث‌ الدین محمد
Sultan Shahāb-ud-din Muhammad Ghori
سلطان شهاب‌ الدین محمد غوری
Mu'izz al-Din Muhammad
معز الدین محمد
Ghiyath al-Din Mahmud
غیاث‌ الدین محمود
Baha al-Din Sam III
بهاء الدین سام
Ala al-Din Atsiz
علاء الدین دراست
Ala al-Din Ali
علاء الدین علی
Khwarazmian conquest

Bamiyan Branch

Titular Name(s)Personal NameReign
Fakhr al-Din Masud
فخرالدین مسعود
Shams al-Din Muhammad ibn Masud
شمس‌ الدین محمد بن مسعود
Abbas ibn Muhammad
عباس بن محمد
Baha al-Din Sam II
بهاء الدین سام
Jalal al-Din Ali
جلال‌ الدین علی
Khwarazmian conquest

Ghurid family tree

Amir Suri
Muhammad ibn Suri
Abu Ali ibn Muhammad
Abbas ibn Shith
Muhammad ibn Abbas
Qutb al-din Hasan
Izz al-Din Husayn
Sayf al-Din Suri
Shuja al-Din Muhammad
Qutb al-Din Muhammad
Baha al-Din Sam I
Nasir al-Din Muhammad Kharnak
Ala al-Din Husayn
Fakhr al-Din Masud
Ala al-Din Ali
Ghiyath al-Din Muhammad
Mu'izz al-Din Muhammad
Shams al-Din Muhammad
Sayf al-Din Muhammad
Ala al-Din Atsiz
Abbas ibn Muhammad
Baha al-Din Sam II
Ghiyath al-Din Mahmud
Jalal al-Din Ali
Ala al-Din Muhammad
Baha al-Din Sam III

Rulers of Ghurid Dynasty

Amir Suri 9th Century
Muhammad ibn Suri 1007 - 1011
Abu Ali ibn Muhammad 1011 - 1035
Abbas ibn Shith 1035 - 1060
Muhammad ibn Abbas 1060 - 1080
Qutb al-din Hasan 1080 - 1100
Izz al-Din Husayn 1100 - 1146
Sayf al-Din Suri 1146 - 1149
Baha al-Din Sam I 1149
Ala al-Din Husayn 1149 - 1161
Sayf al-Din Muhammad 1161 - 1163
Ghiyath al-Din Muhammad 1163 - 1203
Mu'izz al-Din Muhammad 1172 - 1203
1203 - 1206
Ghiyath al-Din Mahmud 1206 - 1212
Baha al-Din Sam III 1212 - 1213
Ala al-Din Atsiz 1213 - 1214
Ala al-Din Ali 1214 - 1215

See also


  1. The rise to power of the Ghurids at Ghur, a small isolated area located in the mountain vastness between the Ghaznavid empire and the Seljukids, was an unusual and unexpected development. The area was so remote that till the 11th century, it had remained a pagan enclave surrounded by Muslim principalities. It was converted to Islam in the early part of the 12th century after Mahmud raided it, and left teachers to instruct the Ghurids in the precepts of Islam. Even then it is believed that a variety of Mahayana Buddhism persisted in the area till the end of the century [5]

Related Research Articles

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Sur, also known as Suri, Zur and Zuri, are a historical Pashtun tribe living primarily in Afghanistan and Pakistan. They supposedly trace their descent to the Ghorids, a dynasty originating from Mandesh in the Ghor region of modern-day central Afghanistan although scholars hold that the Ghorid dynasty was most likely of Tajik origin. The founder of the Suri Empire in India, Sher Shah Suri, belonged to the Sur tribe. They ruled the Suri Empire from 1540 until they were removed from power in 1555 after the Battle of Sirhind by Humayun and the Persian army, who re-established the Mughal Empire.

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Sayf al-Din Muhammad was the king of the Ghurid dynasty from 1161 to 1163. He was the son and successor of Ala al-Din Husayn.

Ghiyath al-Din Mahmud, was Sultan of the Ghurid Empire from 1206 to 1212. He was the nephew and successor of Mu'izz al-Din Muhammad.

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Fakhr al-Din Masud, was the first ruler of the Ghurid branch of Bamiyan, ruling from 1152 to 1163.

Ala al-Din Ali, also known as Zia al-Din, was the last Sultan of the Ghurid dynasty from 1214 to 1215. He was the cousin and successor of Ala al-Din Atsiz.

Jalal al-Din Ali

Jalal al-Din Ali was the last ruler of the Ghurid branch of Bamiyan, ruling from 1206 to 1215.

Izz al-Din Husain ibn Kharmil al-Ghuri, commonly known after his father as Ibn Kharmil, was an Iranian military leader of the Ghurid dynasty, and later the semi-independent ruler of Herat and its surrounding regions.

Baha al-Din Sam II

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Abu'l-Muzaffar Khusrau Malik ibn Khusrau-Shah, better simply known as Khusrau Malik, was the last Sultan of the Ghaznavid Empire, ruling from 1160 to 1186. He was the son and successor of Khusrau-Shah.


  1. Firoz Koh in Ghur or Ghor (a region to the west of Ghazni), the Ghurids' summer capital
  2. 1 2 Firuzkuh: the summer capital of the Ghurids, by David Thomas, pg. 18.
  3. 1 2 The Grove Encyclopedia of Islamic Art & Architecture: Three-volume set, by Jonathan Bloom, Sheila Blair, pg. 108.
  4. The Development of Persian Culture under the Early Ghaznavids, C.E. Bosworth, Iran, Vol. 6, (1968), 35;;"Like the Ghaznavids whom they supplanted, the Ghurids had their court poets, and these wrote in Persian"
  5. 1 2 3 4 Satish Chandra, Medieval India:From Sultanat to the Mughals-Delhi Sultanat (1206-1526), Part 1, (Har-Anand Publications, 2006), 22.
  6. 1 2 The Ghurids, K.A. Nizami, History of Civilizations of Central Asia, Vol.4, Part 1, ed. M.S. Asimov and C.E. Bosworth, (Motilal Banarsidass Publishers, 1999), 178.
  7. C. E. Bosworth: GHURIDS. In Encyclopaedia Iranica. 2001 (last updated in 2012). Online edition.
  8. Kingdoms of South Asia – Afghanistan in Far East Kingdoms: Persia and the East
  9. Encyclopedia Iranica, Ghurids, Edmund Bosworth, Online Edition 2001, ()
  10. Finbarr Barry Flood, Objects of Translation: Material Culture and Medieval "Hindu-Muslim" Encounter, (Princeton University Press, 2009), 13.
  11. Elphinstone, Mountstuart. The History of India. Vol. 1. J. Murray, 1841. Web. 29 Apr. 2010. Link: "...the prevalent and apparently the correct opinion is, that both they and their subjects were Afghans. " & "In the time of Sultan Mahmud it was held, as has been observed, by a prince whom Ferishta calls Mohammed Soory (or Sur) Afghan." p.598-599
  12. A short history of India: and of the frontier states of Afghanistan, Nipal, and Burma, Wheeler, James Talboys, (LINK): "The next conqueror after Mahmud who made a name in India, was Muhammad Ghori, the Afghan."
  13. Balfour, Edward. The Cyclopædia of India and of Eastern and Southern Asia, Commercial Industrial, and Scientific: Products of the Mineral, Vegetable, and Animal Kingdoms, Useful Arts and Manufactures. 3rd ed. Vol. 2. London: Bernard Quaritch, 1885. Web. 29 Apr. 2010. Link: "IZ-ud-DIN Husain, the founder of the Ghori dynaasty, was a native of Afghansitan. The origin of the house of Ghor has, however, been much discussed, – the prevailing opinion being that both they and their subjects were an Afghan race. " p.392
  14. G. Morgenstierne (1999). "AFGHĀN". Encyclopaedia of Islam (CD-ROM Edition v. 1.0 ed.). Leiden, The Netherlands: Koninklijke Brill NV.
  15. 1 2 M. Longworth Dames; G. Morgenstierne; R. Ghirshman (1999). "AFGHĀNISTĀN". Encyclopaedia of Islam (CD-ROM Edition v. 1.0 ed.). Leiden, The Netherlands: Koninklijke Brill NV. "... there is no evidence for assuming that the inhabitants of Ghūr were originally Pashto-speaking (cf. Dames, in E I1). If we are to believe the Paṭa Khazāna (see below, iii), the legendary Amīr Karōṝ, grandson of Shansab, (8th century) was a Pashto poet, but this for various reasons is very improbable ..."
  16. Encyclopaedia Iranica, "Ghurids", C.E. Bosworth, (LINK): ". . . The Ghurids came from the Šansabānī family. The name of the eponym Šansab/Šanasb probably derives from the Middle Persian name Wišnasp (Justi, Namenbuch, p. 282). . . . The chiefs of Ḡūr only achieve firm historical mention in the early 5th/11th century with the Ghaznavid raids into their land, when Ḡūr was still a pagan enclave. Nor do we know anything about the ethnic stock of the Ḡūrīs in general and the Šansabānīs in particular; we can only assume that they were eastern Iranian Tajiks. . . . The sultans were generous patrons of the Persian literary traditions of Khorasan, and latterly fulfilled a valuable role as transmitters of this heritage to the newly conquered lands of northern India, laying the foundations for the essentially Persian culture which was to prevail in Muslim India until the 19th century. . . ."
  17. Encyclopaedia of Islam, "Ghurids", C.E. Bosworth, Online Edition, 2006: "... The Shansabānīs were, like the rest of the Ghūrīs, of eastern Iranian Tājik stock ..."
  18. Encyclopaedia Iranica, "Ghurids", C.E. Bosworth, (LINK); with reference to Justi, "Namenbuch", p. 282
  19. Finbarr Barry Flood, Objects of Translation: Material Culture and Medieval "Hindu-Muslim" Encounter, (Princeton University Press, 2009), 13.
  20. Encyclopaedia of Islam, "Ghurids", C.E. Bosworth, Online Edition, 2006: "... There is nothing to confirm the recent surmise that the Ghūids were Pashto-speaking [...] the Paṭa Khazāna "Treasury of secrets", claims to include Pashto poetry from the Ghūid period, but the significance of this work has not yet been evaluated ..."
  21. 1 2 Encyclopedia Iranica, Ghaznavids, Edmund Bosworth, Online Edition 2007, (LINK Archived 15 August 2009 at the Wayback Machine )
  22. Ghurids, C.E. Bosworth, Encyclopedia of Islam, Vol.2, Ed. Bernard Lewis, C. Pellat and J. Schacht, (E.J.Brill, 1991), 1100.
  23. The Iranian World, C.E. Bosworth, The Cambridge History of Iran, Vol. 5, ed. J. A. Boyle, John Andrew Boyle, (Cambridge University Press, 1968), 163.
  24. Balaji Sadasivan, The Dancing Girl: A History of Early India, (ISEAS Publishing, 2011), 147.
  25. Ira M. Lapidus, A History of Islamic Societies 2nd ed. Cambridge University Press 2002
  26. Ghurids, C.E.Bosworth, Encyclopaedia Iranica, (15 December 2001);
  27. Persian Literature in the Safavid Period, Z. Safa, The Cambridge history of Iran: The Timurid and Safavid periods, Vol.6, Ed. Peter Jackson and Laurence Lockhart,(Cambridge University Press, 1986), 951;"...Ghurids and Ghurid mamluks, all of whom established centres in India where poets and writers received ample encouragement.".
  28. Encyclopedia Iranica, "Delhi Sultanate", Catherine B. Asher,"Although parts of the Indian subcontinent had experienced the impact of Persian culture since the invasion by the Ghaznavid sultan Maḥmūd in the 10th century, Delhi was little affected before 1192, when the Ghurid general Qoṭb-al-Dīn Aybak defeated Prithvi Raj Chauhan, the last Hindu ruler of the city. By 1193 Aybak had taken Delhi itself and had established Islam as the new state religion; the Friday sermon (ḵoṭba) was read in the name of the Ghurid ruler Moʿezz-al-Dīn Moḥammad...[...].. Persian influence on the architecture of the newly established Ghurid splinter state in Delhi was manifest in the very types of buildings constructed, particularly mausolea."


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Associated Historical Names for the Region