|Cardinal, Archbishop of Bologna|
|Installed||19 April 1984|
|Term ended||16 December 2003|
|Other posts||Cardinal-Priest of Santi Giovanni Evangelista e Petronio|
|Ordination||23 December 1950|
by Alfredo Ildefonso Schuster, O.S.B.
|Consecration||11 January 1976|
by Giovanni Colombo
|Created cardinal||25 May 1985|
by Pope John Paul II
|Birth name||Giacomo Biffi|
|Born||13 June 1928|
|Died||11 July 2015 87) (aged|
|Motto||Ubi Fides Ibi Libertas|
|Coat of arms|
|Reference style||His Eminence|
|Spoken style||Your Eminence|
Giacomo Biffi (13 June 1928 – 11 July 2015) was an Italian Cardinal of the Roman Catholic Church. He was Archbishop Emeritus of Bologna, having served as archbishop there from 1984 to 2003. he was elevated to the cardinalate in 1985.
Biffi was born in Milan and studied at the seminaries of the Archdiocese of Milan. He was ordained to the priesthood by Cardinal Alfredo Ildefonso Schuster, O.S.B., Archbishop of Milan, on 23 December 1950. From 1951 to 1960, Biffi taught dogmatic theology at the Seminary of Milan, also publishing numerous works on theology, catechetics and meditation. He received a doctorate in theology from the Faculty of Theology at Venegono in 1955; his thesis was entitled: La colpa e la libertà nell'odierna condizione umana.
From 1960 to 1975, he did pastoral work in the Archdiocese of Milan, serving as a parish priest at Santi Martiri Anauniani in Legnano (1960–1969) and later at Sant'Andrea in Milan (1969–1975). Biffi became Episcopal Vicar for Culture in 1974, and a canon theologian of the metropolitan chapter of Milan on 1 February 1975. He also served as director of the Istituto Lombardo di Pastorale and the Commission for the Ambrosian Rite.
On 7 December 1975, Biffi was appointed Auxiliary Bishop of Milan and Titular Bishop of Fidenae by Pope Paul VI. He received his episcopal consecration on 11 January 1976 from Cardinal Giovanni Colombo, with Bishops Bernardo Citterio and Libero Tresoldi serving as co-consecrators. Within the Italian Episcopal Conference, he served on commissions for doctrine, catechetics, culture and liturgy.
Following the death of Enrico Manfredini, Biffi was named Archbishop of Bologna on 19 April 1984 and installed on the following 1 June. He was elected President of the Episcopal Conference of Emilia-Romagna on 7 July 1984. Pope John Paul II created him Cardinal-Priest of Santi Giovanni Evangelista e Petronio in the consistory of 25 May 1985. Biffi preached the Lent spiritual exercises for the pope and Roman Curia in 1989. He retired from the governance of the archdiocese in December 2003 and was succeeded by Carlo Caffarra.
Biffi was one of the cardinal electors who participated in the 2005 papal conclave that selected Pope Benedict XVI. According to a leaked diary, he received one vote on the fourth ballot.[ citation needed ] In 2008, he turned 80 and lost the right to participate in future conclaves. He died on 11 July 2015.
In 2000, Biffi told a Bologna conference that the Antichrist would most likely be a prominent philanthropist promoting the ideas of ecumenism, vegetarianism, and pacifism.Many of these predictions originate from the 19th century Russian philosopher Vladimir Solovyov, in whom Biffi is well-studied. Biffi believed that ecumenicism promotes the dilution of Catholic doctrine (a view common among conservative Catholics) and thereby encourages the acceptance of the Antichrist.
He also held views that, while conservative, are in agreement with the Catholic teaching on homosexual acts, freemasonry, and feminism.[ citation needed ] Biffi has stated that an "ideology of homosexuality" threatens to marginalize whoever disagrees with the homosexual agenda, and that Catholics must prepare for persecution by homosexual activists and their allies.
Cardinal Biffi also once said that the Italian government should favour Catholic immigrants to offset the number of Muslim immigrants to protect Italy's "national identity".He has denounced journalists as "rats".
In 2007, Biffi expounded on many of his views by publishing Memorie e digressioni di un italiano cardinale (Memoirs and digressions of an Italian cardinal).
Giuseppe Siri was an Italian Cardinal of the Catholic Church who served as Archbishop of Genoa from 1946 to 1987, and was elevated to the rank of cardinal in 1953 by Pope Pius XII. He was a close friend of Pope Pius XII, and a staunch defender of tradition. He was considered a likely candidate to succeed Pius XII, John XXIII, Paul VI, and John Paul I.
André Armand Vingt-Trois is a French cardinal of the Catholic Church. He served as Archbishop of Paris from 2005 to 2017, having previously served as Archbishop of Tours from 1999 to 2005. He was elevated to the cardinalate in 2007.
Dionigi Tettamanzi was an Italian prelate of the Roman Catholic Church, who was named a cardinal in 1998. He was Archbishop of Genoa from 1995 to 2002 and Archbishop of Milan from 2002 to 2011.
Angelo Scola is an Italian Cardinal of the Catholic Church, philosopher and theologian. He was Archbishop of Milan from 2011 to 2017. He had served as Patriarch of Venice from 2002 to 2011. He has been a cardinal since 2003 and a bishop since 1991.
Polycarp Pengo is a prelate of the Catholic Church who was Archbishop of Dar-es-Salaam, Tanzania, from 1992 to 2019. He has been a cardinal since 1998.
Marco Cé was an Italian cardinal of the Roman Catholic Church. He served as the Patriarch of Venice from 1978 to 2002 and was elevated to the cardinalate in 1979.
Armand Gaétan Razafindratandra was a Cardinal Priest of the Roman Catholic Church and Archbishop of the Roman Catholic Archdiocese of Antananarivo, Madagascar.
Carlo Caffarra was an Italian prelate of the Catholic Church. He was Archbishop of Bologna from 2003 until 2015, when he retired. His previous positions included President of the Pontifical John Paul II Institute for Studies on Marriage and Family from 1981 to 1995 and Archbishop of Ferrara-Comacchio from 1995 to 2003. He was created a Cardinal in the consistory of 24 March 2006 by Pope Benedict XVI.
Jorge (Liberato) Urosa is a Venezuelan Cardinal of the Roman Catholic Church. He was Archbishop of Caracas from 2005 to 2018. He was made a cardinal in 2006.
Giovanni Colombo was an Italian Cardinal of the Roman Catholic Church. He served as Archbishop of Milan from 1963 to 1979, and was elevated to the cardinalate in 1965.
Giacomo Lercaro was an Italian Cardinal of the Roman Catholic Church who served as Archbishop of Ravenna from 1947 to 1952, and Archbishop of Bologna from 1952 to 1968. Pope Pius XII made him a cardinal in 1953.
Kazimierz Nycz is a Polish prelate, a Cardinal of the Roman Catholic Church. He is the current Archbishop of Warsaw, having previously served as Bishop of Koszalin-Kołobrzeg from 2004 to 2007. Pope Benedict XVI elevated Archbishop Nycz to the status of Cardinal in the consistory of 20 November 2010.
Francesco Battaglini was a Roman Catholic Cardinal and Archbishop of Bologna.
Pietro Respighi S.T.D. JUD was an Italian Cardinal of the Roman Catholic Church and Archpriest of the Basilica of St. John Lateran.
Giovanni Saldarini was an Italian Cardinal and Archbishop of Turin.
Antonio Poma was an Italian Cardinal of the Catholic Church. He served as Archbishop of Bologna from 1968 to 1983, and was elevated to the cardinalate in 1969.
Blessed Andrea Ferrari - later adopting the middle name "Carlo" - was an Italian Roman Catholic prelate who served as a cardinal and as the Archbishop of Milan from 1894 until his death. Ferrari was a well-regarded pastor and theologian who led two dioceses before being appointed to the prestigious Milanese archdiocese which he led until his death. But he was later accused of Modernism which led to a strained relationship with Pope Pius X who later reconciled with Ferrari in 1912.
Victor Razafimahatratra, SJ was a Malagasy Cardinal of the Roman Catholic Church. He served as Archbishop of Antananarivo from 1976 until his death, and was elevated to the cardinalate in 1976.
Giovanni Battista Nasalli Rocca di Corneliano was an Italian Cardinal of the Catholic Church. He served as archbishop of Bologna from 1921 until his death, and was elevated to the cardinalate in 1923.
Renato Corti is an Italian cardinal and prelate of the Roman Catholic Church. He was Bishop of Novara from 1990 to 2011. Pope Francis raised Corti to the rank of cardinal at a consistory on 19 November 2016.
|Catholic Church titles|
| Archbishop of Bologna |
19 April 1984 – 16 December 2003