Gian Vincenzo Pinelli (1535 – 31 August 1601) was an Italian humanist, born in Naples and known as a savant and a mentor of Galileo. His literary correspondence put him at the center of a European network of virtuosi. He was also a noted botanist, bibliophile and collector of scientific instruments.
He died in Padua, where he is commemorated by Vincenzo Pinelli, and by the Aroid genus Pinellia .
His enormous library was probably the greatest in 16th-century Italy, consisting of around 8,500 printed works at the moment of his death, plus hundreds of manuscripts. When he died, in 1601, Nicolas Fabri de Peiresc was in his house and spent some of the following months studying his library and taking notes from its catalogues. Pinelli's secretary, Paolo Gualdo, wrote and published (1607) a biography of Pinelli which is also the portrait of the perfect scholar and book-collector.
His collection of manuscripts, when it was purchased from his estate in 1608 for the Biblioteca Ambrosiana, filled 70 cases. Pinelli stood out among the early bibliophile collectors who established scientific bases for the methodically assembled private library, aided by the comparatively new figure—in the European world— of the bookseller.
His love of books and manuscripts, and his interest in optics, labored under a disability: a childhood mishap had destroyed the vision of one eye, forcing him to protect his weak vision with green-tinted lenses. Cautious and withdrawn by nature, detesting travel whether by road or canal boat, wracked by the gallstones that eventually killed him, he found solace in the library he amassed over a period of fifty years (Nuovo 2003).
Leonardo's treatise on painting, Trattato della Pittura , was transcribed in the Codex Pinellianusca. 1585, perhaps expressly for Pinelli who made annotations in it. Pinelli's codex was the source for the Barberini codex from which it was eventually printed, ostensibly edited by Raphael du Fresne, in 1651 . Pinelli's interest in the new science of optics was formative for Galileo Galilei, for whom Pinelli opened his library in the 1590s, where Galileo read the unpublished manuscripts, consisting of lecture notes and drafts of essays on optics, of Ettore Ausonio, a Venetian mathematician and physician, and of Giuseppe Moleto, professor of mathematics at Padua (Dupre).
Beside his Greek and Latin libraries of manuscripts his collection included the original Arabic manuscript from which was translated and printed the Descrizione dell'Africa of Leo Africanus.
He was among Europe's early botanists, and also collected mathematical instruments. He had taken musical instruction from the great madrigalist Philippe de Monte, with whom he continued a correspondence. He kept his amanuensis Camillus Venetus (Zanettus) busy.
In the field of botany, he collected herbs in his garden and corresponded with the father of Italian botany, Luca Ghini, who pioneered the techniques of drying and pressing plant material for a herbarium and whose papers he transcribed after Ghini's death, while the botanists who would be considered Ghini's heirs, like Andrea Mattioli and Ulisse Aldrovandi, clamored for them.
Pinelli's voluminous correspondence with the French humanist and book collector Claude Dupuy was published in 2001.
Cesena is a city and comune in the Emilia-Romagna region, served by Autostrada A14, and located near the Apennine Mountains, about 15 kilometres from the Adriatic Sea. The total population is 97,137.
Vincenzo Scamozzi was an Italian architect and a writer on architecture, active mainly in Vicenza and Republic of Venice area in the second half of the 16th century. He was perhaps the most important figure there between Andrea Palladio, whose unfinished projects he inherited at Palladio's death in 1580, and Baldassarre Longhena, Scamozzi's only pupil.
The Biblioteca Ambrosiana is a historic library in Milan, Italy, also housing the Pinacoteca Ambrosiana, the Ambrosian art gallery. Named after Ambrose, the patron saint of Milan, it was founded in 1609 by Cardinal Federico Borromeo, whose agents scoured Western Europe and even Greece and Syria for books and manuscripts. Some major acquisitions of complete libraries were the manuscripts of the Benedictine monastery of Bobbio (1606) and the library of the Paduan Vincenzo Pinelli, whose more than 800 manuscripts filled 70 cases when they were sent to Milan and included the famous Iliad, the Ilias Picta.
Nicolas-Claude Fabri de Peiresc, often known simply as Peiresc, or by the Latin form of his name Peirescius, was a French astronomer, antiquary and savant, who maintained a wide correspondence with scientists, and was a successful organizer of scientific inquiry. His research included a determination of the difference in longitude of various locations in Europe, around the Mediterranean, and in North Africa.
The Accademia della Crusca, generally abbreviated as La Crusca, is a Florence-based society of scholars of Italian linguistics and philology. It is the most important research institution of the Italian language, as well as the oldest linguistic academy in the world.
The Piazza Fontana bombing was a terrorist attack that occurred on 12 December 1969 when a bomb exploded at the headquarters of Banca Nazionale dell'Agricoltura in Piazza Fontana in Milan, Italy, killing 17 people and wounding 88. The same afternoon, three more bombs were detonated in Rome and Milan, and another was found unexploded.
The Ambrosian Iliad or Ilias Picta is a 5th-century illuminated manuscript on vellum, which depicts the entirety of Homer's Iliad, including battle scenes and noble scenes. It is considered unique due to being the only set of ancient illustrations that depict scenes from the Iliad. The Ambrosian Iliad consists of 52 miniatures, each labeled numerically. It is thought to have been created in Alexandria, given the flattened and angular Hellenistic figures, which are considered typical of Alexandrian art in late antiquity, in approximately 500 AD, possibly by multiple artists. The author(s) first drew the figures nude and then painted the clothes on, much like in Greek vase painting. In the 11th century, the miniatures were cut out of the original manuscript and pasted into a Siculo-Calabrian codex of Homeric texts.
The Rossi Codex is a music manuscript collection of the 14th century. The manuscript is presently divided into two sections, one in the Vatican Library and another, smaller section in the Northern Italian town of Ostiglia. The codex contains 37 secular works including madrigals, cacce and, uniquely among trecento sources, monophonic ballatas. The codex is of great interest for trecento musicologists because for many years it was considered the earliest source of fourteenth-century Italian music. Although other pre-1380 sources of secular, polyphonic, Italian music have now been identified, none are nearly so extensive as the Rossi Codex.
The isle of Gatighan was a way station of the Armada de Molucca under Captain-General Ferdinand Magellan on their way to Cebu in Central Philippines. The location of Gatighan has not been conclusively determined.
The Chronograph of 354, also known as the Calendar of 354, is a compilation of chronological and calendrical texts produced in 354 AD for a wealthy Roman Christian named Valentinus by the calligrapher and illustrator Furius Dionysius Filocalus. The original illustrated manuscript is lost, but several copies have survived. It is the earliest dated codex to have full page illustrations. The term Calendar of Filocalus is sometimes used to describe the whole collection, and sometimes just the sixth part, which is the Calendar itself. Other versions of the names are occasionally used. The text and illustrations are available online.
The National Central Library of Florence is a public national library in Florence, the largest in Italy and one of the most important in Europe, one of the two central libraries of Italy, along with the Biblioteca Nazionale Centrale of Rome.
Claude Dupuy (1545–1594), a Parisian jurist, humanist and bibliophile, was a leading figure in the circle of French legal humanists and historians that gathered around Jacques Cujas and Jacques-Auguste de Thou. Dupuy (Puteanus) assembled a great library of manuscripts that was inherited by his sons Pierre, a noted scholar himself, and Jacques, but when Jacques died in 1657, the books and manuscripts entered the Royal Collection and are now in the Bibliothèque Nationale, Paris. Codices from his library are identifiable under the title Codex Puteanus. Among his most celebrated manuscripts are the St. Paul's Epistles in Greek and Latin ; a collection of Tironian notes. His ninth-century Statius, his Tertullian Apologeticum and his fifth century codex of Livy's Third Decade were among the group of his manuscripts that came from the Abbey of Corbie, acquired by foul means or fair. "Claude Dupuy was not interested in illuminated manuscripts; he looked for good and correct texts, elegantly written. He read, and sometimes annotated them." He died too young to publish the results of his research, but his long correspondence with Gian Vincenzo Pinelli has been edited by Anna Maria Raugei.
The poet Petrarch arranged to leave his personal library to the city of Venice, but it never arrived. The Venetian tradition that this was the founding of the Biblioteca Marciana is an anachronism; it was founded a century later.
The Codex Atlanticus is a 12-volume, bound set of drawings and writings by Leonardo da Vinci, the largest single set. Its name indicates the large paper used to preserve original Leonardo notebook pages, which was used for atlases. It comprises 1,119 leaves dating from 1478 to 1519, the contents covering a great variety of subjects, from flight to weaponry to musical instruments and from mathematics to botany. This codex was gathered in the late 16th century by the sculptor Pompeo Leoni, who dismembered some of Leonardo's notebooks in its formation. It is now in the Biblioteca Ambrosiana in Milan.
Bartolomeo Maranta, also Bartholomaeus Marantha was an Italian physician, botanist, and literary theorist.
Giovanni Francesco Sagredo was a Venetian mathematician and close friend of Galileo. He was also a friend and correspondent of English scientist William Gilbert. He is remembered today mainly because he appears as one of the figures in Galileo's controversial work the Dialogue Concerning the Two Chief World Systems (1632).
Ismaël Boulliau was a 17th-century French astronomer and mathematician who was also interested in history, theology, classical studies, and philology. He was an active member of the Republic of Letters, an intellectual community that exchanged ideas. An early defender of the ideas of Copernicus, Kepler and Galileo, Ismael Bullialdus has been called "the most noted astronomer of his generation". One of his books is Astronomia Philolaica (1645).
Thomas Seget was a Scottish poet who wrote in Latin.
Jean Hurault de Boistaillé (1517–1572) was a French nobleman and government official. In 1558 he was an emissary of the king Henry II, then ambassador of France in Constantinople and Venice (1562–1564). He played an important role in getting military support from the Ottoman Empire in the Italian War of 1551–1559. He was a bibliophile and collector of manuscripts and incunabula. He died in England in 1572 during his diplomatic mission.
Joseph Goedenhuyze or Goedenhuize was a Flemish botanist and naturalist, active in the court of the Grand Duchy of Tuscany. He was also known by the Italian name Giuseppe Casabona or more rarely Giuseppe Benincasa