|Giant-cell tumor of the tendon sheath|
|Histopathology of giant-cell tumor of the tendon sheath arising in hand finger. Hematoxylin and eosin stain.|
|Specialty|| Oncology, rheumatology |
Giant-cell tumor of the tendon sheath, also known as giant-cell synovioma and localized nodular tenosynovitis, cm in diameter, and is most commonly attached to the tendons of the fingers, hands, and wrists, with a predilection for the flexor surfaces. Giant-cell tumor of tendon sheaths most often affect the wrist and fingers of males and females from the ages of 20-50 . These tumors are typically painless and can cause cortical erosion. Surgery to remove the tumor is a common treatment, though there is a risk of recurrence which is related to the mitotic count .is a firm lesion, measuring 1 to 3
The flexor digitorum profundus is a muscle in the forearm of humans that flexes the fingers. It is considered an extrinsic hand muscle because it acts on the hand while its muscle belly is located in the forearm.
Flexor digitorum superficialis is an extrinsic flexor muscle of the fingers at the proximal interphalangeal joints.
Tenosynovitis is the inflammation of the fluid-filled sheath that surrounds a tendon, typically leading to joint pain, swelling, and stiffness. Tenosynovitis can be either infectious or noninfectious. Common clinical manifestations of noninfectious tenosynovitis include de Quervain tendinopathy and stenosing tenosynovitis
A ganglion cyst is a fluid-filled bump associated with a joint or tendon sheath. They most often occur at the back of the wrist followed by the front of the wrist. Onset is often over months. Typically there are no further symptoms. Occasionally pain or numbness may occur. Complications may include carpal tunnel syndrome.
A malignant peripheral nerve sheath tumor (MPNST) is a form of cancer of the connective tissue surrounding nerves. Given its origin and behavior it is classified as a sarcoma. About half the cases are diagnosed in people with neurofibromatosis; the lifetime risk for an MPNST in patients with neurofibromatosis type 1 is 8–13%. MPNST with rhabdomyoblastomatous component are called malignant triton tumors.
The palmaris longus is a muscle visible as a small tendon between the flexor carpi radialis and the flexor carpi ulnaris, although it is not always present. It is absent in about 14 percent of the population; however, this number varies greatly in African, Asian, and Native American populations. Absence of the palmaris longus does not have an effect on grip strength.
Giant-cell tumor of the bone (GCTOB), is a relatively uncommon tumor of the bone. It is characterized by the presence of multinucleated giant cells. Malignancy in giant-cell tumor is uncommon and occurs in about 2% of all cases. However, if malignant degeneration does occur, it is likely to metastasize to the lungs. Giant-cell tumors are normally benign, with unpredictable behavior. It is a heterogeneous tumor composed of three different cell populations. The giant-cell tumour stromal cells (GCTSC) constitute the neoplastic cells, which are from an osteoblastic origin and are classified based on expression of osteoblast cell markers such as alkaline phosphatase and osteocalcin. In contrast, the mononuclear histiocytic cells (MNHC) and multinucleated giant cell (MNGC) fractions are secondarily recruited and comprise the non-neoplastic cell population. They are derived from an osteoclast-monocyte lineage determined primarily by expression of CD68, a marker for monocytic precursor cells. In most patients, the tumors are slow to develop, but may recur locally in as many as 50% of cases.
In human anatomy, the extensor indicis [proprius] is a narrow, elongated skeletal muscle in the deep layer of the dorsal forearm, placed medial to, and parallel with, the extensor pollicis longus. Its tendon goes to the index finger, which it extends.
A schwannoma is a usually benign nerve sheath tumor composed of Schwann cells, which normally produce the insulating myelin sheath covering peripheral nerves.
Granular cell tumor is a tumor that can develop on any skin or mucosal surface, but occurs on the tongue 40% of the time.
The posterior compartment of the forearm contains twelve muscles which are chiefly responsible for extension of the wrist and digits, and supination of the forearm. It is separated from the anterior compartment by the interosseous membrane between the radius and ulna.
In the human body, the carpal tunnel or carpal canal is the passageway on the palmar side of the wrist that connects the forearm to the hand.
Pigmented villonodular synovitis (PVNS), also known as intra-articular giant-cell tumor of the tendon sheath, is a joint disease characterized by inflammation and overgrowth of the joint lining, becoming benign tumors. It usually affects the hip or knee. It can also occur in the shoulder, ankle, elbow, hand or foot. In PVNS patients, the lining of the joint, called the synovium, becomes swollen and grows foreign bodies. This growth harms the bone next to the joint. The lining also makes extra fluid that can cause swelling and make movement painful, limiting range of motion. PVNS is idiopathic, it doesn't seem to run in families or be caused by certain jobs or activities, although it has been associated with prior injury. Surgery can help, although there is a high reoccurrence rate. Depending on the type of PVNS, localized or diffused, the reoccurrence rate differs with localized being easier to resect generally. If the pain remains then radiation therapy or chemotherapy may help. In the worst cases the joint must be replaced or amputated.
The common synovial sheath for the flexor tendons or the ulnar bursa is a synovial sheath in the carpal tunnel of the human hand.
Villonodular synovitis is a type of synovial swelling.
A solitary neurofibroma may be 2 to 20mm in diameter, is soft, flaccid, and pinkish-white, and frequently this soft small tumor can be invaginated, as if through a ring in the skin by pressure with the finger, a maneuver called "button-holing."
Pilomatricoma, is a benign skin tumor derived from the hair matrix. These neoplasms are relatively uncommon and typically occur on the scalp, face, and upper extremities. Clinically, pilomatricomas present as a subcutaneous nodule or cyst with unremarkable overlying epidermis that can range in size from 0.5-3.0 cm, but the largest reported case was 24 cm.
Fibroma of tendon sheath is a benign tumor that presents as a small subcutaneous nodule that slowly increases in size. The tumors often have a multinodular growth pattern, with individual nodules being composed of bland, slender, spindle-shaped cells (myofibroblasts) in a dense, fibrous matrix.” A common microscopic finding is the presence of elongated, slit-like blood vessels. The lesions nearly always arise in the distal portions of the extremities. They often occur on the fingers, hands, toes, or feet. Although they are benign, they may recur in up to 40% of cases.
Garrod's pads are a cutaneous condition characterized by calluses on the dorsal aspect of the interphalangeal joints, i.e. the back side of the finger joints. They are often seen in violin, viola, and cello players, along with fiddler's neck and other dermatologic conditions peculiar to string musicians. Although Garrod’s pads are conventionally described as appearing on the proximal interphalangeal joint, Rimmer & Spielvogel document an instance on the distal interphalangeal joint of a cellist.
Acral myxoinflammatory fibroblastic sarcoma is a rare low-grade sarcoma. It is most commonly found in the extremities but has been reported elsewhere in the body.
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