Gideon Brecher (January 12, 1797 – May 14, 1873), also known as Gedaliah ben Eliezer, was an Austrian physician and writer.
Brecher was the uncle, by marriage, to Austrian bibliographer and Orientalist Moritz Steinschneider.
Oriental studies is the academic field of study that embraces Near Eastern and Far Eastern societies and cultures, languages, peoples, history and archaeology; in recent years the subject has often been turned into the newer terms of Middle Eastern studies and Asian studies. Traditional Oriental studies in Europe is today generally focused on the discipline of Islamic studies, while the study of China, especially traditional China, is often called Sinology. The study of East Asia in general, especially in the United States, is often called East Asian studies, while the study of Israel and Jews are called Israel studies and Jewish studies respectively, although they are often considered the same field.
Moritz Steinschneider was a Bohemian bibliographer and Orientalist. He received his early instruction in Hebrew from his father, Jacob Steinschneider, who was not only an expert Talmudist, but was also well versed in secular science. The house of the elder Steinschneider was the rendezvous of a few progressive Hebraists, among whom was his brother-in-law, the physician and writer Gideon Brecher.
Brecher was born in Prossnitz, Moravia. He was the first Jew of Prossnitz to study medicine or any other professional field. Brecher received his Master of Surgery and Obstetrics in Budapest in 1824. He received his Medical Doctor's or MD degree the University of Erlangen in 1849. His thesis was Das Transcendentale, Magie und Magische Heilarten im Talmud, (Vienna, 1850).
Prostějov is a city in the Olomouc Region of the Czech Republic, in the historical region of Moravia. Today the city is known for its fashion industry and AČR special forces unit 601. skss based there. The historical core of the town has been declared for historical preservation.
Obstetrics is the field of study concentrated on pregnancy, childbirth, and the postpartum period. As a medical specialty, obstetrics is combined with gynecology under the discipline known as obstetrics and gynecology (OB/GYN) which is a surgical field.
Budapest is the capital and the most populous city of Hungary, and the tenth-largest city in the European Union by population within city limits. The city had an estimated population of 1,752,704 in 2016 distributed over a land area of about 525 square kilometres. Budapest is both a city and county, and forms the centre of the Budapest metropolitan area, which has an area of 7,626 square kilometres and a population of 3,303,786, comprising 33 percent of the population of Hungary.
Brecher's fame in Jewish literature rests principally on this work and upon his lucid commentary on the "Cuzari" of Judah ha-Levi, which appeared with the text in four parts (Prague, 1838–1840). Brecher's correspondence with Samuel David Luzzato about this commentary was also published.
In addition to many contributions to scientific and literary periodicals and collections, and some important "Gutachten" (expert opinions) on social and religious questions submitted to him by imperial and local government officials, Brecher is the author of a monograph on circumcision, Die Beschneidung der Israeliten, etc., (Vienna, 1845), with an introduction by R. Hirsch Fassel of Prossnitz, and an appendix on Circumcision Among the Semitic Nations, by Moritz Steinschneider. Brecher also wrote Die Unsterblichkeitslehre des Israelitischen Volkes, Vienna, 1857, of which a French translation appeared in the same year by Isidore Cahen; and Eleh ha-Ketubim be-Shemot, a concordance of Biblical proper names, part of which was revised and published after his death by his son Adolph Brecher.
Circumcision is the removal of the foreskin from the human penis. In the most common procedure, the foreskin is opened, adhesions are removed, and the foreskin is separated from the glans. After that, a circumcision device may be placed and then the foreskin is cut off. Topical or locally injected anesthesia is sometimes used to reduce pain and physiologic stress. For adults and children, general anesthesia is an option, and the procedure may be performed without a specialized circumcision device. The procedure is most often an elective surgery performed on babies and children for religious or cultural reasons. In other cases it may be done as a treatment for certain medical conditions or for preventative reasons. Medically it is a treatment option for problematic cases of phimosis, balanoposthitis that does not resolve with other treatments, and chronic urinary tract infections (UTIs). It is contraindicated in cases of certain genital structure abnormalities or poor general health.
Isaak Marcus (Markus) Jost was a Jewish historical writer.
Meir Friedmann was an Austrian-Hungarian Jewish scholar. His editions of the Midrash are the standard texts. His chief editions were the Sifre (1864), the Mekhilta (1870), Pesiqta Rabbathi (1880). At the time of his death he was editing the Sifra. Friedmann, while inspired with regard for tradition, dealt with the Rabbinic texts with modern scientific methods, and rendered conspicuous service to the critical investigation of the Midrash and to the history of early homilies.
Zedekiah ben Abraham Anav was an author of halakhic works and younger brother of Benjamin ben Abraham Anaw. He lived at Rome and received his Talmudic training not only in Rome but also in Germany where he was the pupil of Jacob of Würzburg and possibly also of Abigdor Cohen of Vienna.
Nehemiah Brüll was a rabbi and versatile scholar.
David ben Naphtali Fränkel or David Hirschel Fränkel, was a Jewish German rabbi.
Vidal of Tolosa was a Spanish rabbi and scholar of the latter half of the fourteenth century, and is often referred to by the sobriquet, Harav Ha-Maggid, or the Maggid Mishneh, named for his magnum opus by that name.
Isaiah di Trani ben Mali , better known as the RID, was a prominent Italian Talmudist.
Nehemiah Hiyya ben Moses Hayyun was a Bosnian Kabalist. His parents, of Sephardic descent, lived in Sarajevo, Bosnia, where probably he was born, although in later life he pretended that he was a Palestinian emissary born in Safed. He received his Talmudic education in Hebron.
Wilhelm Bacher was a Jewish Hungarian scholar, rabbi, Orientalist and linguist, born in Liptó-Szent-Miklós, Hungary to the Hebrew writer Simon Bacher. Wilhelm was himself a prolific writer, authoring or co-authoring approximately 750 works. He was a contributor to many encyclopedias, and was a major contributor to the landmark Jewish Encyclopedia throughout all its 12 volumes. Although almost all of Bacher's works were written in German or Hungarian, at the urging of Hayyim Nahman Bialik many were subsequently translated into Hebrew by Alexander Siskind Rabinovitz.
The Mekhilta le-Sefer Devarim is a halakic midrash to Deuteronomy from the school of Rabbi Ishmael which is no longer extant. No midrash by this name is mentioned in Talmudic literature, nor do the medieval authors refer to such a work. Although Maimonides says in his introduction to the Yad ha-ḤazaḲah, "R. Ishmael explained from 'we-eleh shemot' to the conclusion of the Torah, that is, the Mekilta," he did not see this midrash, which also includes Deuteronomy, since he does not quote any Mekilta passages to that book of the Pentateuch in his Sefer ha-Miẓwot, although he draws upon the halakic midrashim in discussing most of the commandments. Maimonides probably knew, therefore, merely through an old tradition which he had heard that such a midrash by R. Ishmael existed.
Machir ben Abba Mari was the author of a work entitled Yalkut ha-Makiri, but about whom not even the country or the period in which he lived is definitively known. Moritz Steinschneider supposes that Machir lived in Provence; but the question of his date remains a subject of discussion among modern scholars. Strack & Stemberger (1991) indicate that the work was most probably composed in the late 13th or 14th century.
Herz Homberg was an Austrian-Jewish educator and writer.
Henry Malter was an American rabbi and scholar.
Moritz Güdemann was an Austrian rabbi and historian. He served as chief rabbi of Vienna.
Michael Creizenach was a German Jewish educator, mathematician, theologian, and proponent of the Reform movement.
Eliakim ben Meshullam was a German rabbi, Talmudist and payyeṭan.
Samuel Baeck, also spelled Samuel Bäck was a German rabbi and father of Leo Baeck.
Fanny Neuda was a Jewish writer best known for her popular collection of prayers, Stunden der Andacht (1855). She was born in Lomnice (Lobnig), Moravia to the family of Rabbi Yehudah Schmiedl. After marrying Abraham Neuda (1812–1854), she moved to Loštice, where her husband served as rabbi. After Abraham Neuda's death in 1854, her book of prayers became widely published. She died at the age of 75 years in the spa town of Merano. In 2015, a plaque honoring her was unveiled in Loštice.
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Isidore Singer was an editor of The Jewish Encyclopedia and founder of the American League for the Rights of Man.