Gilbert Wakefield

Last updated
Gilbert Wakefield Gilbert Wakefield.jpg
Gilbert Wakefield

Gilbert Wakefield (17561801) was an English scholar and controversialist. He moved from being a cleric and academic, into tutoring at dissenting academies, and finally became a professional writer and publicist. In a celebrated state trial, he was imprisoned for a pamphlet critical of government policy of the French Revolutionary Wars; and died shortly after his release.

Contents

Early life and background

He was born 22 February 1756 in Nottingham, the third son of the Rev. George Wakefield, then rector of St Nicholas' Church, Nottingham but afterwards at Kingston-upon-Thames, and his wife Elizabeth. [1] [2] He was one of five brothers, who included George, a merchant in Manchester. [3]

His father was from Rolleston, Staffordshire, and came to Cambridge in 1739 as a sizar. [4] He had support in his education from the Hardinge family, of Melbourne, Derbyshire, his patrons being Nicholas Hardinge and his physician brother. [5] [6] In his early career he was chaplain to Margaret Newton, in her own right 2nd Countess Coningsby. [4] George Hardinge, son of Nicholas, after Gilbert's death pointed out that the living of Kingston passed to George Wakefield in 1769, under an Act of Parliament specifying presentations to chapels of the parish, only because he had used his personal influence with his uncle Charles Pratt, 1st Baron Camden the Lord Chancellor, and Jeremiah Dyson. [5]

Education and Fellowship

Wakefield had some schooling in the Nottingham area, under Samuel Berdmore and then at Wilford under Isaac Pickthall. [7] He then made good progress at Kingston Free School under Richard Wooddeson the elder (died 1774), father of Richard Wooddeson the jurist. [1] [8]

Wakefield was sent to university young, because Wooddeson was retiring from teaching. An offer came of a place at Christ Church, Oxford, from the Rev. John Jeffreys (1718–1798); but his father turned it down. [9] He went to Jesus College, Cambridge on a scholarship founded by Robert Marsden: the Master Lynford Caryl was from Nottinghamshire, and a friend of his father. [10] He matriculated in 1772, and graduated B.A. as second wrangler in 1776. He was a Fellow of the college from 1776 to 1779, and was ordained deacon in the Church of England in 1778. [11]

Wakefield associated with John Jebb and Robert Tyrwhitt. [1] William Bennet, senior tutor of Emmanuel College, became a long-term friend from this time, as Wakefield put it in 1799, "amidst all the differences of opinion". [12]

The Rev. George Wakefield died in 1776, aged 56. [13] The situation of Gilbert's younger brother Thomas, then still an undergraduate at Jesus College but also ordained priest and a curate to his father at Kingston, was anomalous, at least in the view of George Hardinge. [5] [14] [15] His younger brother Henry Hardinge, at this point signed up at Peterhouse but yet to matriculate, became vicar of Kingston in 1778. [16] Thomas Wakefield was at St Mary Magdalene, Richmond for the rest of his life, dying in 1806; and Gilbert was buried there. [17] In the first edition of his autobiography, Gilbert was critical of Hardinge's legal moves to dislodge Thomas from this Richmond chapel, to which the presentation had been with his father (under Act of Parliament). The matter ended up in the Court of Common Pleas, which ruled for Thomas Wakefield. [18] The 1802 edition tacitly omitted slurs to which Hardinge objected. Hardinge blamed an unnamed malevolent person, and his parting shot was that Thomas as a boy "had been intended for trade". [5]

Curacies

In 1778 Wakefield was a curate at St Mary's Church, Stockport, under the Rev. John Watson, an antiquarian. [1] [19] He was interested in becoming head of Brewood School, but baulked at again signing up to the 39 Articles. [20]

Wakefield then was a curate in Liverpool. There he preached on abolitionism, and against privateering, which was badly received at this time in the Anglo-French War (1778–1783). [1] [11] [21] He commented in his autobiography that Liverpool was the "headquarters" of the Atlantic slave trade, that the American Revolutionary War with the French war impeded slaving, and the upsurge with privateering, which he saw as aggravating war, was a consequence. [22]

From 1778 Wakefield began to question the scriptural foundation of the orthodox teaching of the Church of England; and he expressed political views by modifying the language in prayers he read in Liverpool against the American revolutionaries. [23] He married in 1779, bringing his fellowship to an end. [1]

Dissenting tutor

Wakefield left the ministry, and in mid-1779 became classical tutor at Warrington Academy, recommended by Jebb. [1] [24] The Academy closed in 1783, in Wakefield's view from financial troubles. [25] He commented also that at least a third of the students during his time there were from Church of England families, rather than being from a dissenting background. [26]

Wakefield's theology had become a nonconforming Unitarianism. John Hunt in his Religious Thought in England classed him with Edward Evanson, among prominent Unitarians leaving the Church of England, and as having in common that "they can scarcely be regarded as representing anybody but themselves". [27] He had attracted the attention of Theophilus Lindsey; who made qualifications of his approval of someone he considered a "true scholar". In 1783 Lindsey explained to William Turner his reasons for not supporting Wakefield as a replacement for the ailing William Leechman at Glasgow. Wakefield at Warrington still attended services of the Church of England; and he hoped "time will mellow his dispositions, and lessen the high opinion he has of himself". [28]

Robert Malthus, a pupil of Wakefield at the Academy, continued with him for a year after the Warrington closure. [29] Residing at Bramcote outside Nottingham, and then in Richmond, Surrey where his brother Thomas was at St Mary Magdalene's chapel, Wakefield found no more students. [1] At the chapel, on the day in 1784 appointed for a thanksgiving for the end of the American war, he preached an anti-colonial sermon. [30] [31] It was quoted by Thomas Clarkson in his history of abolitionism, together with accounts of two contemporary works, the Essays, Historical and Moral of George Gregory, and the Essay on the Treatment and Conversion of the African Slaves in the British Sugar Colonies by James Ramsay. [32]

Wakefield lived in Nottingham from 1784 to 1790. [33] Here he was able to find private pupils. One was Robert Hibbert, from a slave-holding family in Jamaica, who went on to Cambridge. He was a Unitarian, on good terms with William Frend, and founded the Hibbert Trust. He was also at odds with his cousin George Hibbert. George Hibbert was Wakefield's patron, whom Wakefield thanked in his autobiography; but it was Robert who gave financial support when he was imprisoned. [34] [35]

In 1790, Wakefield was appointed to the New College, Hackney, where Thomas Belsham had been recruited the year before, and Joseph Priestley arrived the year after. It was a contentious trio of hirings. [36] Wakefield's application was strengthened by a character reference from George Walker, minister at the High Pavement Chapel in Nottingham and a friend. [37]

Among Wakefield's pupils at Hackney was John Jones. [38] His time at the New College was short: he left in 1791, on the grounds of disillusion with public worship. [1] The subsequent controversy showed Wakefield in "one of the most extreme positions" maintained in Rational Dissent. [39]

Writer and pamphleteer

Wakefield from then on lived by his pen, and was a prolific author. [1] He was a passionate defender of the French Revolution. The final issue, in 1798, of the Anti-Jacobin contained a satirical poem "New Morality", calling on opposition newspapers, poets and radicals including John Thelwall, Priestley and Wakefield to "praise Lepaux", i.e. Louis Marie de La Révellière-Lépeaux, a leader of the French Directory. [40]

William Burdon replied to a remark of Thomas James Mathias:

Whenever I think of the name of Gilbert Wakefield, and look at the list of his works, (for I would not undertake to read them all), I feel alternate sorrow and indignation. [41]

Burdon wrote:

To the name and character of Gilbert Wakefield, I am desirous to shew every possible respect, as a zealous, though sometimes an imprudent defender of the rights of human nature. [42]

In 1794 Wakefield expressed admiration for the Manchester radical Thomas Walker. [43] Acquainted socially, they were both guests at a London radical dinner given on 3 January 1795 by Thomas Northmore, others there being John Disney, William Godwin, Thomas Brand Hollis and "Bard" Iolo Morganwg. [44]

Of the 1798 quickly-written wartime squib that provoked a prosecution of Wakefield, Marilyn Butler wrote:

Very lively and very impertinent, Wakefield's pamphlet exemplified both the ability of radical writers to make a point, and their alienation from the temper of the mass of the British people in a national crisis. [45]

Pamphlets of the 1790s

Imprisonment and death

Memorial in St Mary Magdalene, Richmond to Gilbert Wakefield, placed there by the Rev. Thomas Wakefield, parish priest there and his brother St Mary Magdalene's, Richmond, Gilbert Wakefield (d 1801) memorial.jpg
Memorial in St Mary Magdalene, Richmond to Gilbert Wakefield, placed there by the Rev. Thomas Wakefield, parish priest there and his brother

The controversial pamphlet A Reply to some Parts of the Bishop of Landaff's Address (1798) saw both Wakefield and his publisher, Joseph Johnson, taken to court for seditious libel. A work alluding to the concentration of poverty in the area centred on Hackney, [66] it was written in response to An Address to the People of Great Britain (1798), by Richard Watson, Bishop of Llandaff. Watson argued that national taxes should be raised to pay for the war against France and to reduce the national debt.

For selling the Reply, Johnson was fined £50 and sentenced to six months imprisonment in King's Bench Prison in February 1799. Later in the year, Wakefield appeared before Lord Kenyon in the Court of King's Bench, conducting his own defence, with Sir John Scott. His trial followed on directly after that of the bookseller John Cuthell, with the same jury. Much of the prosecution case was read from the Reply. Wakefield made a systemic and personalised attack on the lack of justice in the court and process. He had checked the pamphlet for libellous content with a barrister. The judge summed up in support of Scott, and the jury returned a guilty verdict without retiring. [67]

Wakefield was imprisoned in Dorchester gaol for two years for seditious libel. Among his visitors there was Robert Southey in 1801. [68] He was released from prison on 29 May 1801, and died in Hackney on 9 September 1801, a victim of typhus fever. [1] His library was put up for auction by Leigh, Sotherby & Co. in March 1802. [69]

Scholarship

A new translation of those parts only of the New Testament, which are wrongly translated in our common version (1789) was followed in 1791 by Wakefield's Translation of the New Testament, with Notes, in three volumes. In his memoirs Wakefield records that the work was laborious, particularly in the comparison of the Oriental versions with the Received Text; but was "much more profitable to me than all my other publications put together". [70] A revised edition followed in 1795.

Wakefield also published editions of various classical writers, and among his theological writings are Early Christian Writers on the Person of Christ (1784), Silva Critica (1789–95), and illustrations of the Scriptures.

Memoirs and letters

Family

Wakefield married in 1779 Anne Watson (died 1819), niece of the incumbent John Watson at Stockport St Mary where he had been a curate. They had five sons and two daughters. [1] [71]

Their daughter Anne, in poor health, went to stay with Peter Crompton and his wife at Eton House, on the edge of Liverpool, shortly before Gilbert was imprisoned. [84] George, the eldest son, went to Dorchester Grammar school, under Henry John Richman who was on good terms with Wakefield. [85] [86] At this time William Shepherd took care of his younger brother Gilbert. [85] [87] One of the daughters, to whom Wakefield's gaoler's son had been paying unwelcome attentions, went to stay with William Roscoe. [88]

See also

Related Research Articles

<span class="mw-page-title-main">William Coxe (historian)</span>

William Coxe was an English historian and priest who served as a travelling companion and tutor to nobility from 1771 to 1786. He wrote numerous historical works and travel chronicles. Ordained a deacon in 1771, he served as a rector and then archdeacon of Bemerton near Salisbury from 1786 until his death.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Samuel Wilberforce</span> Anglican Bishop of Oxford

Samuel Wilberforce, FRS was an English bishop in the Church of England, and the third son of William Wilberforce. Known as "Soapy Sam", Wilberforce was one of the greatest public speakers of his day. He is now best remembered for his opposition to Charles Darwin's theory of evolution at a debate in 1860.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Samuel Romilly</span> British politician

Sir Samuel Romilly, was a British lawyer, politician and legal reformer. From a background in the commercial world, he became well-connected, and rose to public office and a prominent position in Parliament. After an early interest in radical politics, he built a career in chancery cases, and then turned to amelioration of the British criminal law.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Thomas Gisborne</span> English Anglican priest and poet

Thomas Gisborne was an English Anglican priest and poet. He was a member of the Clapham Sect, who fought for the abolition of the slave trade in England.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Jeremiah Joyce</span>

Jeremiah Joyce (1763–1816) was an English Unitarian minister and writer. He achieved notoriety as one of the group of political activists arrested in May 1794.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Legh Richmond</span>

Legh Richmond (1772–1827) was a Church of England clergyman and writer. He is noted for tracts, narratives of conversion that innovated in the relation of stories of the poor and female subjects, and which were subsequently much imitated. He was also known for an influential collection of letters to his children, powerfully stating an evangelical attitude to childhood of the period, and by misprision sometimes taken as models for parental conversation and family life, for example by novelists, against Richmond's practice.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Charles Sumner (bishop)</span>

Charles Richard Sumner was a Church of England bishop.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Thomas Belsham</span>

Thomas Belsham was an English Unitarian minister

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Theophilus Lindsey</span> 18th/19th-century English Unitarian

Theophilus Lindsey was an English theologian and clergyman who founded the first avowedly Unitarian congregation in the country, at Essex Street Chapel.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Alexander Crombie</span>

Alexander Crombie FRS (1760–1840) was a Scottish Presbyterian minister, schoolmaster and philosopher.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">John Lee (Attorney-General)</span>

John Lee, KC, was an English lawyer, politician, and law officer of the Crown. He assisted in the early days of Unitarianism in England.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">John Bacon Sawrey Morritt</span> British politician

John Bacon Sawrey Morritt was an English traveller, politician and classical scholar.

William Burdon (1764–1818) was an English academic, mineowner and writer.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">John Tweddell</span>

John Tweddell (1769–1799) was an English classical scholar and traveller.

Felix Vaughan was an English barrister, known for his role as defence counsel in the treason trials of the 1790s.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">William Hamilton Reid</span>

William Hamilton Reid was a British poet and hack writer. A supporter of radical politics turned loyalist, he is known for his 1800 pamphlet exposé The Rise and Dissolution of the Infidel Societies in this Metropolis. His later views turned again towards radicalism.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Henry William Coulthurst</span>

Henry William Coulthurst (1753–1817) was an English cleric and academic.

Henry Hoare (1807–1866) was an English banker, a partner in Hoare's Bank. One of numerous family members of the name, he is called Henry Hoare of Staplehurst, after his Kent estate. He is now known as a lay activist for the Church of England, particularly concerned with the revival of Convocation, dormant since the early 18th century.

John Edwards (1768–1808) was an English nonconformist minister and political radical. He is best known as the successor of Joseph Priestley at the New Meeting House, Birmingham.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">John Owen (1766–1822)</span>

John Owen (1766–1822) was an English Anglican priest, a secretary on its foundation of the British and Foreign Bible Society.

References

  1. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 Graver, Bruce E. "Wakefield, Gilbert (1756–1801)". Oxford Dictionary of National Biography (online ed.). Oxford University Press. doi:10.1093/ref:odnb/28418.(Subscription or UK public library membership required.)
  2. Turner, William (1843). Lives of Eminent Unitarians. Vol. II. The Unitarian Association. pp. 239–278.
  3. Wakefield, Gilbert (1792). Memoirs of the Life of Gilbert Wakefield. J. Deighton. p. i.
  4. 1 2 "George Wakefield (WKFT739G)". A Cambridge Alumni Database. University of Cambridge.
  5. 1 2 3 4 Nichols, John (1814). Literary Anecdotes of the Eighteenth Century. Vol. VIII. author. p. 515.
  6. "Gideon Hardinge (HRDN684G)". A Cambridge Alumni Database. University of Cambridge.
  7. Sutton, John Frost (1852). The Date Book of Remarkable and Memorable Events Connected with Nottingham and Its Neighbourhood. 1750-1850. Simpkin & Marshall. p. 37.
  8. Lobban, Michael. "Wooddeson, Richard (bap. 1745, d. 1822)". Oxford Dictionary of National Biography (online ed.). Oxford University Press. doi:10.1093/ref:odnb/29911.(Subscription or UK public library membership required.)
  9. Wakefield, Gilbert (1804). Memoirs of the Life of Gilbert Wakefield. Vol. I. J. Johnson. p. 59.
  10. Wakefield, Gilbert (1792). Memoirs of the Life of Gilbert Wakefield. J. Deighton. p. 61.
  11. 1 2 "Wakefield, Gilbert (WKFT772G)". A Cambridge Alumni Database. University of Cambridge.
  12. Wakefield, Gilbert (1799). The Defence of Gilbert Wakefield ... [by Himself] for a Reply to the Bishop of Landaff's Address to the People of Great Britain ... Delivered in the Court of King's Bench ... February 21, 1799. p. 33.
  13. Brayley, Edward Wedlake (1844). The History of Surrey. R.B. Ede. p. 80.
  14. "Wakefield, Thomas (WKFT774T)". A Cambridge Alumni Database. University of Cambridge.
  15. "Andrewes, Lancelot(1775–1776) (CCEd Person ID 108968)". The Clergy of the Church of England Database 1540–1835 . Retrieved 19 December 2021.
  16. "Hardinge (or Hardynge), Henry (HRDN772H)". A Cambridge Alumni Database. University of Cambridge.
  17. Daniell, Alfred Ernest (1897). London Riverside Churches. Westminster : A. Constable & co. p. 24.
  18. Wakefield, Gilbert (1792). Memoirs of the Life of Gilbert Wakefield. J. Deighton. p. 19.
  19. Foster, Joseph (1888–1892). "Watson, John (2)"  . Alumni Oxonienses: the Members of the University of Oxford, 1715–1886 . Oxford: Parker and Co via Wikisource.
  20. Armstrong, Richard Acland (1880). The Modern Review. J. Clarke & Company. p. 872.
  21. "Watson, John(1750–1783) (CCEd Person ID 123787)". The Clergy of the Church of England Database 1540–1835 . Retrieved 17 December 2021.
  22. Wakefield, Gilbert (1792). Memoirs of the Life of Gilbert Wakefield. Vol. I. J. Deighton. pp. 177–178.
  23. Clark, Jonathan Charles Douglas (1994). The Language of Liberty 1660-1832: Political Discourse and Social Dynamics in the Anglo-American World, 1660-1832. Cambridge University Press. p. 316. ISBN   978-0-521-44957-1.
  24. Jenny Graham (2000). The Nation, the Law, and the King: Reform Politics in England, 1789–1799. Vol. 1. University Press of America. p. 102. ISBN   0-7618-1484-1.
  25. Langford, Paul (1998). A Polite and Commercial People: England 1727-1783. Clarendon Press. p. 85. ISBN   978-0-19-820733-7.
  26. White, Daniel E. (25 January 2007). Early Romanticism and Religious Dissent. Cambridge University Press. pp. 23–24. ISBN   978-1-139-46246-4.
  27. Hunt, John (1873). Religious Thought in England, from the Reformation to the End of Last Century: A Contribution to the History of Theology. Vol. IV. Strahan & Company. p. 266.
  28. Lindsey, Theophilus (2007). G. M. Ditchfield (ed.). The Letters of Theophilus Lindsey (1723–1808) Vol.1 1747–1788. Boydell Press. p. 398. ISBN   9781843833444.
  29. Avery, John (8 April 2014). Progress, Poverty and Population: Re-reading Condorcet, Godwin and Malthus. Routledge. p. 57. ISBN   978-1-135-24962-5.
  30. Guyatt, Nicholas (23 July 2007). Providence and the Invention of the United States, 1607–1876. Cambridge University Press. p. 130. ISBN   978-1-139-46628-8.
  31. Wakefield, Gilbert (1784). A Sermon Preached at Richmond in Surry on July 29th 1784: The Day Appointed for a General Thanksgiving on Account of the Peace. By Gilbert Wakefield, B. A. Late Fellow of Jesus-College, Cambridge. No 72, St. Paul's Church-Yard: J. Johnson.{{cite book}}: CS1 maint: location (link)
  32. Clarkson, Thomas (1839). The History of the Rise, Progress, and Accomplishment of the Abolition of the African Slave-trade by the British Parliament. John W. Parker. pp. 82–83.
  33. Jenny Graham (2000). The Nation, the Law, and the King: Reform Politics in England, 1789–1799. Vol. 1. University Press of America. p. 104. ISBN   0-7618-1484-1.
  34. "Robert Hibbert junior 25th Oct 1769 - 23rd Sep 1849, Legacies of British Slavery". www.ucl.ac.uk.
  35. Wakefield, Gilbert (1804). Memoirs of the Life of Gilbert Wakefield ... J. Johnson. p. 271.
  36. Burley, Stephen (1 June 2016). Hazlitt the Dissenter: Religion, Philosophy, and Politics, 1766-1816. Springer. p. 73. ISBN   978-1-137-36443-2.
  37. Lindsey, Theophilus (2012). G. M. Ditchfield (ed.). The Letters of Theophilus Lindsey (1723–1808) Vol. 2 1789–1808. Boydell Press. p. 54 note 3. ISBN   9781843837428.
  38. Baker, Anne Pimlott. "Jones, John (c. 1766–1827)". Oxford Dictionary of National Biography (online ed.). Oxford University Press. doi:10.1093/ref:odnb/15034.(Subscription or UK public library membership required.)
  39. Smith, Valerie (2021). Rational Dissenters in Late Eighteenth-century England: 'an Ardent Desire of Truth'. Boydell & Brewer. p. 90. ISBN   978-1-78327-566-3.
  40. Sangster, Matthew (27 January 2021). Living as an Author in the Romantic Period. Springer Nature. p. 247. ISBN   978-3-030-37047-3.
  41. Mathias, Thomas James (1800). Pursuits of Literature: A Satirical Poem in Four Dialogues, with Notes. To which is Annexed, A Vindication of the Work, and Translations of All the Greek, Latin, Italian, and French Quotations ... H. Maxwell. p. 99 note c.
  42. Burdon, William (1799). An Examination of the Merits and Tendency of The Pursuits of Literature. The Author. pp. 94–95.
  43. Jenny Graham (2000). The Nation, the Law, and the King: Reform Politics in England, 1789–1799. Vol. 1. University Press of America. p. 94. ISBN   0-7618-1484-1.
  44. Jenkins, Geraint H. (7 January 2012). Bard of Liberty: The Political Radicalism of Iolo Morganwg. University of Wales Press. pp. 117–118. ISBN   978-0-7083-2500-1.
  45. Butler, Marilyn (14 June 1984). Burke, Paine, Godwin, and the Revolution Controversy. Cambridge University Press. pp. 220–221. ISBN   978-0-521-28656-5.
  46. Barbauld, Anna Letitia (1792). Remarks on Mr. Gilbert Wakefield's Enquiry Into the Expediency and Propriety of Public Or Social Worship. No. 72, St. Paul's Church-Yard: J. Johnson.{{cite book}}: CS1 maint: location (link)
  47. Allibone, Samuel Austin (1872). A critical dictionary of English literature and British and American authors : living and deceased ; from the earliest accounts to the middle of the nineteenth century. 2. Lippincott. p. 253.
  48. Wilson, James (1792). A Defence of Public Or Social Worship; in a Letter, Addressed to Gilbert Wakefield, B.A. by James Wilson, M.A. J. Clarke.
  49. Smith, Christopher. "Bruckner, John (1726–1804)". Oxford Dictionary of National Biography (online ed.). Oxford University Press. doi:10.1093/ref:odnb/3764.(Subscription or UK public library membership required.)
  50. The Freethinking Christians' Quarterly Register. Sherwood, Jones, & Company. 1823. p. 207.
  51. Wakefield, Gilbert (1794). The Spirit of Christianity, Compared with the Spirit of the Times in Great Britain. Kearsley.
  52. Anon. "Vindiciae Britannicae : being strictures on a late pamphlet by G. Wakefield A. B." (PDF). qspace.library.queensu.ca/.
  53. Carty, T. J. (3 December 2015). A Dictionary of Literary Pseudonyms in the English Language. Routledge. p. 668. ISBN   978-1-135-95578-6.
  54. Winkler, Henry R. (1952). "The Pamphlet Campaign Against Political Reform in Great Britain, 1790-1795". The Historian. 15 (1): 35 note 25. doi:10.1111/j.1540-6563.1952.tb00138.x. ISSN   0018-2370. JSTOR   24436164.
  55. "Penn, William (PN795W)". A Cambridge Alumni Database. University of Cambridge.
  56. Wakefield, Gilbert (1794). Remarks on the General Orders of the Duke of York to his Army on June 7, 1794. Kearsley.
  57. Wakefield, Gilbert (1794). An Examination of The Age of Reason,: ... By Thomas Paine. Kearsley.
  58. Wakefield, Gilbert (1796). A Reply to the Letter of Edmund Burke, Esq. to a Noble Lord. author, and sold.
  59. Wakefield, Gilbert (1797). A Letter to William Wilberforce, Esq. on the Subject of His Late Publication. author.
  60. Cookson, J. E. (1982). The Friends of Peace. CUP Archive. p. 8.
  61. Watkins, John (1797). A Word of Gentle Admonition to Mr. Gilbert Wakefield: Occasioned by "his Letter to William Wilberforce, Esq. on the Subject of His Late Publication". George Cawthorn.
  62. Hutton, George (1798). An appeal to the nation on the subject of Mr. Gilbert Wakefield's Letter to William Wilberforce ... To which are subjoined four sermons, etc.
  63. Wakefield, Gilbert (1798). A letter to Sir J. Scott, his Majesty's Attorney-General, on the subject of a late Trial at Guildhall. The author.
  64. Analytical Review: Or History of Literature, Domestic and Foreign, on an Enlarged Plan. J. Johnson. 1799. p. 313.
  65. Wakefield, Gilbert (1799). The Defence of Gilbert Wakefield ... [by Himself] for a Reply to the Bishop of Landaff's Address to the People of Great Britain ... Delivered in the Court of King's Bench ... February 21, 1799.
  66. Thompson, E. P. (26 September 2002). The Making of the English Working Class. 200: Penguin Books Limited. ISBN   978-0-14-193489-1.{{cite book}}: CS1 maint: location (link)
  67. Prochaska, F. K. (1973). "English State Trials in the 1790s: A Case Study". Journal of British Studies. 13 (1): 75–79. doi:10.1086/385650. ISSN   0021-9371. JSTOR   175370.
  68. Speck, William Arthur (1 January 2006). Robert Southey: Entire Man of Letters. Yale University Press. p. 78. ISBN   978-0-300-11681-6.
  69. Wakefield, Gilbert (1802). A Catalogue of the Very Elegant Classical and Critical Library of the late Rev. Gilbert Wakefield ... Which will be sold by auction, by Leigh, Sotheby, & Son ... March 25, 1802, etc. T. Burton.
  70. Gilbert Wakefield, Arnold Wainewright, John Towill Rutt Memoirs of the life of Gilbert Wakefield: Volume 1 1804 - Page 355
  71. Lindsey, Theophilus (2012). G. M. Ditchfield (ed.). The Letters of Theophilus Lindsey (1723–1808) Vol. 2 1789–1808. Boydell Press. p. 461 note 7. ISBN   9781843837428.
  72. Manchester Grammar School (1866). The Admission Register of the Manchester School: With Some Notices of the More Distinguished Scholars. Chetham society. p. 114.
  73. "Bowness, William (BWNS774W)". A Cambridge Alumni Database. University of Cambridge.
  74. 1 2 3 Wakefield, Homer (1897). Wakefield memorial, comprising an historical, genealogical and biographical register of the name and family of Wakefield. Bloomington, Illinois: Priv. print. for the compiler [Pantagraph Printing and Stationery Co.] p. 283.
  75. Charterhouse School (1913). Alumni Carthusiani: A Record of the Foundation Scholars of Charterhouse, 1614-1872. Priv. Print. p. 188.
  76. The Lancet. J. Onwhyn. 1861. p. 280.
  77. The Court Magazine and Monthly Critic, and Lady's Magazine and Museum: A Family Journal of the Belles Lettres, Music, Fine Arts, Drama, Fashion, Etc. Dobbs. 1847. p. 4.
  78. "Married". Sun (London). 2 October 1817. p. 4.
  79. Hiscoke and Son's Richmond Notes: A Monthly Record of Local Information, for Richmond and Its Neighbourhood. ... [No. 1 March, 1863 - No. 58 December, 1867]. Richmond, London: Hiscoke & Son, printers. 1863. p. 176.
  80. The Christian Reflector and Theological Inquirer. F.B. Wright. 1823. p. 23.
  81. Lindsey, Theophilus (2012). G. M. Ditchfield (ed.). The Letters of Theophilus Lindsey (1723–1808) Vol. 2 1789–1808. Boydell Press. p. 466 note 8. ISBN   9781843837428.
  82. Levasseur, Susan J. "Le Breton [née Aikin], Anna Letitia (1808–1885)". Oxford Dictionary of National Biography (online ed.). Oxford University Press. doi:10.1093/ref:odnb/16256.(Subscription or UK public library membership required.)
  83. The Athenaeum. 1809. p. 76.
  84. Wakefield, Gilbert (1804). Memoirs of the Life of Gilbert Wakefield. J. Johnson. p. 183.
  85. 1 2 Wakefield, Gilbert (1804). Memoirs of the Life of Gilbert Wakefield, B. A., Formerly Fellow of Jesus College, Cambridge: In Two Volumes. Johnson. p. 173.
  86. Foster, Joseph (1888–1892). "Richman, Henry (John)"  . Alumni Oxonienses: the Members of the University of Oxford, 1715–1886 . Oxford: Parker and Co via Wikisource.
  87. Navickas, Katrina (15 January 2009). Loyalism and Radicalism in Lancashire, 1798-1815. OUP Oxford. p. 158. ISBN   978-0-19-955967-1.
  88. James, Patricia (5 November 2013). Population Malthus: His Life and Times. Routledge. p. 82. ISBN   978-1-136-60155-2.