Giorgio Ambrosoli

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Giorgio Ambrosoli
Giorgio Ambrosoli (1933 - 1979).jpg
Born(1933-10-17)October 17, 1933
DiedJuly 11, 1979(1979-07-11) (aged 45)
Nationality Flag of Italy.svg Italian
Occupation Lawyer

Giorgio Ambrosoli (October 17, 1933 July 11, 1979) was an Italian lawyer who was gunned down while investigating the malpractice of banker Michele Sindona.

Lawyer legal professional who helps clients and represents them in a court of law

A lawyer or attorney is a person who practices law, as an advocate, attorney, attorney at law, barrister, barrister-at-law, bar-at-law, civil law notary, counsel, counselor, counsellor, counselor at law, solicitor, chartered legal executive, or public servant preparing, interpreting and applying law, but not as a paralegal or charter executive secretary. Working as a lawyer involves the practical application of abstract legal theories and knowledge to solve specific individualized problems, or to advance the interests of those who hire lawyers to perform legal services.

Michele Sindona Italian banker

Michele Sindona was an Italian banker and convicted felon. Known in banking circles as "The Shark", Sindona was a member of Propaganda Due (#0501), a secret lodge of Italian Freemasonry, and had clear connections to the Sicilian Mafia. He was fatally poisoned in prison while serving a life sentence for the murder of lawyer Giorgio Ambrosoli.

Contents

Liquidating Sindona’s financial empire

Appointed by the court as liquidator of the Banca Privata Italiana, one of the Italian banks controlled by Sicilian banker Michele Sindona, which was forced into liquidation, he found evidences of criminal manipulations. [1] He provided the US Justice Department with evidence to convict Sindona for his role in the collapse of the Franklin National Bank. [2]

In law, a liquidator is the officer appointed when a company goes into winding-up or liquidation who has responsibility for collecting in all of the assets under such circumstances of the company and settling all claims against the company before putting the company into dissolution.

Sicily Island in the Mediterranean and region of Italy

Sicily is the largest island in the Mediterranean Sea and one of the 20 regions of Italy. It is one of the five Italian autonomous regions, in Southern Italy along with surrounding minor islands, officially referred to as Regione Siciliana.

Franklin National Bank

Franklin National Bank, based in Franklin Square in Long Island, New York was once the United States' 20th largest bank. On October 8, 1974, it collapsed in obscure circumstances, involving Michele Sindona, renowned Mafia-banker and member of the irregular freemasonic lodge, Propaganda Due. It was at the time the largest bank failure in the history of the country.

According to Ambrosoli, Sindona paid a US$5.6 million commission to "an American bishop and a Milanese banker." Official Italian sources confirmed that it concerned Paul Marcinkus, of the Vatican Bank, and Roberto Calvi, President of Banco Ambrosiano. [3]

Paul Marcinkus Catholic bishop

Paul Marcinkus, GCOIH was an American archbishop of the Roman Catholic Church. He was best known for his tenure as president of the Vatican Bank from 1971 to 1989.

Roberto Calvi Italian banker, president of Banco Ambrosiano

Roberto Calvi was an Italian banker dubbed "God's Banker" by the press because of his close association with the Holy See. A native of Milan, Calvi was Chairman of Banco Ambrosiano, which collapsed in one of modern Italy's biggest political scandals.

Banco Ambrosiano was an Italian bank that collapsed in 1982. At the center of the bank's failure was its chairman, Roberto Calvi, and his membership in the illegal former Masonic Lodge Propaganda Due. The Institute for the Works of Religion, commonly known as the Vatican Bank, was Banco Ambrosiano's main shareholder. The Vatican Bank was also accused of funneling covert United States funds to the Polish trade union Solidarity and to the Contras through Banco Ambrosiano.

Murder

On July 11, 1979, only hours after talking to US authorities, he was shot dead by three Mafia hitmen commissioned by Michele Sindona. [3] [4]

The Sicilian Mafia, also known as simply the Mafia and frequently referred to by members as Cosa Nostra, is a Mafia-terrorist-type organized crime syndicate originating in Sicily, Italy. It is a loose association of criminal groups that share a common organisational structure and code of conduct. The basic group is known as a "family", "clan", or cosca. Each family claims sovereignty over a territory, usually a town or village or a neighbourhood (borgata) of a larger city, in which it operates its rackets. Its members call themselves "men of honour", although the public often refers to them as mafiosi. The Mafia's core activities are protection racketeering, the arbitration of disputes between criminals, and the organizing and oversight of illegal agreements and transactions.

Sindona feared that Ambrosoli would expose his manipulations in the Banca Privata Italiana case. Shortly before he was killed, the American Mafia hitman William Arico, a convicted bank robber, invoked the name of Giulio Andreotti – the influential Christian Democrat politician close to Sindona – in a threatening phone call taped by Ambrosoli . [5] Arico fell to his death while trying to escape from a federal prison in New York in 1984. [6]

The American Mafia or Italian-American Mafia is a highly organized Italian-American criminal society. The organization is often referred to by members as Cosa Nostra and by the government as La Cosa Nostra (LCN). The organization's name is derived from the original Mafia or Cosa nostra, the Sicilian Mafia, and it originally emerged as an offshoot of the Sicilian Mafia; however, the organization eventually encompassed or absorbed other Italian-American gangsters and Italian-American crime groups living in the United States and Canada that are not of Sicilian origin. It is often colloquially referred to as the Italian Mafia or Italian Mob, though these terms may also apply to the separate yet related Sicilian Mafia or other organized crime groups in Italy.

Giulio Andreotti Italian politician

Giulio Andreotti was an Italian politician and statesman who served as the 41st Prime Minister of Italy and leader of the Christian Democracy party; he was the sixth longest-serving Prime Minister since the Italian Unification and the second longest-serving post-war Prime Minister, after Silvio Berlusconi. Andreotti is widely considered the most powerful and prominent politician of the so-called First Republic.

Christian Democracy (Italy) Italian political party, founded in 1943 and dissolved in 1994

Christian Democracy was a Christian democratic political party in Italy.

In 1986 Sindona was sentenced to life imprisonment for having ordered the murder. [2] [6] [7]

Mafia involvement in murder

According to the Mafia turncoat (pentito) Francesco Marino Mannoia, Sindona laundered the proceeds of heroin trafficking for the Bontade-Spatola-Inzerillo-Gambino network. The mafiosi were determined to get their money back and would have played an important role in Sindona's attempt to save his banks. [8]

Ambrosoli was killed shortly after he had a talk with Palermo Police chief Boris Giuliano, who discovered cheques and other documents which indicated that Sindona had been recycling the proceeds from heroin sales by the Mafia through the Vatican Bank to his Amincor Bank in Switzerland. Ten days after the killing of Ambrosoli, Giuliano was shot and killed by the Mafia on July 21, 1979. [9]

Ambrosoli was posthumously awarded with a medal for civic heroism. In 1995 a film about him was made, entitled A Middle-Class Hero, directed by Michele Placido. [4] [10]

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References

  1. Messina and Arico v. United States of America Archived 2012-03-25 at the Wayback Machine ., United States Court of Appeals, February 7, 1984
  2. 1 2 "Justifiable Homicide", by Luigi DiFonzo, New York Magazine, April 11, 1983
  3. 1 2 Scandal at the Pope's Bank, Time Magazine, July 26, 1982
  4. 1 2 "Andreotti says Ambrosoli 'was asking for it'". ANSA. 9 September 2010. Retrieved 10 April 2016.
  5. Stille, Excellent Cadavers, pp. 39-42
  6. 1 2 'God's Banker' Guilty in Milan Murder, Los Angeles Times, March 19, 1986
  7. (in Italian) Giorgio Bocca, Giorgio Ambrosoli, l'uomo che sfidò Sindona e la mafia , La Repubblica, August 26, 2005
  8. (in Italian) Anche Antonino Giuffré nell'inchiesta Calvi, La Repubblica, October 13, 2002
  9. Sterling, Octopus, p. 194
  10. Un Eroe Borghese (1995), Online Video Guide URL visited 2010-10-23

Sources