Giuseppe Sardi

Last updated

Giuseppe Sardi (1680 documented until 1768) was an Italian architect active in Rome. He was born at Sant'Angelo in Vado, Marche which was then part of the Papal States. [1] Known primarily for his church of Santa Maria del Rosario in Marino outside Rome, his name has been linked with the design of the façade of the church of Santa Maria Maddalena in Rome although his involvement with this and with some other building projects remains uncertain. [2] He is not to be confused with the Swiss Italian architect, Giuseppe Sardi (1624–1699), who was active in Venice.

Contents

Career

In contemporary sources, Sardi is described more often as acting in the capacity of a capomastro or master builder rather than as an architect. He designed and executed only one church from scratch, that of Santa Maria del Rosario in 1712 in the Colonna family fiefdom of Marino, in the Alban Hills outside Rome. The interior is centrally planned and has an unusual and elaborately decorated dome. This is also his first known work.

His work as capomastro is documented on the building sites of Santa Maria in Trastevere (where he worked under the direction of Recalcati in 1714), Santa Maria in Monticelli (where he worked under the direction of Sassi in 1715, about six years before his conjectured work on San Paolo alla Regola, located around the corner) and at Santissima Trinità dei Pellegrini (under the direction of Francesco de Sanctis in 1722 - 23). [3] Sardi is also credited with one other minor work, the refurbishment of the baptistery of San Lorenzo in Lucina, executed between 1713 and 1721. [4]

The facade of S. Maria Maddalena S. Maria Maddalena.jpg
The façade of S. Maria Maddalena
A detail from the facade of S. Maria Maddalena Maddalena detail 1.jpg
A detail from the façade of S. Maria Maddalena
A detail from the facade of S. Maria Maddalena Maddalena detail 2.jpg
A detail from the façade of S. Maria Maddalena

Although Sardi's name has been connected with several churches in and around Rome, one of the mostly securely attested of his commissions is the addition of a new façade to the church of Santa Maria in Cosmedin in the Foro Boario in Rome. [5] This façade was erected in place of the previous Romanesque façade in 1718, and destroyed in 1896 – 1899 but its appearance is recorded in Giuseppe Vasi's Magnificenze di Roma (Plate 56) as well as in photographs . [6] Also confirmed is Sardi's authorship of the façade of the Trastavere church of Santi Quaranta Martiri (also known as San Pasquale Baylon) (1736–39). [7] This façade appears to have been modelled on that by Francesco Fontana for the church of Santa Maria ad Nives, Rome (Santa Maria delle Neve), located near the Colosseum, and erected around 1708.[ citation needed ]

More contentious are Sardi's contributions to two other churches that had new (or renovated) façades finished in the period between 1720 and 1740. The first of these projects was the construction of a new façade for San Paolo alla Regola, a church which had been erected around 1687 to a design of Father Giovanni Battista Bergonzoni (called Borgognone), a teacher of theology at the college attached to the church. [8] Vasi claims that the façade was the design of Giovanni Battista Conti, [9] while Titi attributes it to 'Ciacomo Ciolli’ (Giacomo Cioli) and Sardi jointly. [10] In sum, there is no scholarly consensus on how exactly the work should be divided.

A similar problem concerns the attribution to Sardi of the facade of Santa Maria Maddalena which is significant as one of a limited number of facades in Rome displaying the Rococo style, [11] The facade was begun in the late seventeenth century and was still unfinished in 1734. [12] Rossini's Mercurio errante (1741) and the 1745 edition of Roisecco's guide book do not mention the designer, although they do draw attention to the façade. [13] The first mention of Sardi's involvement is in the 1750 edition of Roisecco's guide book. [14] Scholars have long been undecided who should be credited with this design which has also been attributed to Emanuele Rodriguez Dos Santos. Too little of Sardi's work survives to permit attribution on stylistic grounds. [15]

Related Research Articles

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Santa Maria della Vittoria, Rome</span> Roman Catholic basilica, a landmark of Rome, Italy

Santa Maria della Vittoria is a Catholic titular church and basilica dedicated to the Virgin Mary in Rome, Italy. The church is known for the masterpiece of Gian Lorenzo Bernini in the Cornaro Chapel, the Ecstasy of Saint Teresa. The church is in the Rione Sallustiano, on number 98 via XX Settembre, where this street intersects with Largo Santa Susanna. It stands to the side of the Fontana dell'Acqua Felice. The church mirrors the Church of Santa Susanna across the Largo. It is about two blocks northwest of the Piazza della Repubblica and Teatro dell'Opera metro stop.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Santa Maria in Cosmedin</span> Church in Rome, Italy

The Basilica of Saint Mary in Cosmedin is a minor basilica church in Rome, Italy. It is located in the rione of Ripa.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Giuseppe Valadier</span>

Giuseppe Valadier was an Italian architect and designer, urban planner and archaeologist and a chief exponent of Neoclassicism in Italy.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">San Lorenzo in Damaso</span> Roman Catholic basilica, a landmark of Rome, Italy

The Minor Basilica of St. Lawrence in Damaso or simply San Lorenzo in Damaso is a parish and titular church in central Rome, Italy that is dedicated to St. Lawrence, deacon and martyr. It is incorporated into the Palazzo della Cancelleria, which enjoys the extraterritoriality of the Holy See.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Carlo Marchionni</span> Italian architect (1702–1786)

Carlo Marchionni was an Italian architect. He was also a sculptor and a virtuoso draughtsman, who mixed in the artistic and intellectual circles. He was born and died in Rome.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Filippo Barigioni</span> Italian sculptor and architect

Filippo Barigioni (1690–1753) was an Italian sculptor and architect working in the Late Baroque tradition.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Stefano Pozzi</span> Italian painter

Stefano Pozzi was an Italian painter, designer, draughtsman and decorator whose career was spent largely in Rome.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Paolo Portoghesi</span>

Paolo Portoghesi is an Italian architect, theorist, historian and professor of architecture at the University La Sapienza in Rome. He is a former president of the architectural section of the Venice Biennale (1979–92), Editor-in-chief of the journal Controspazio (1969–83), and dean of the Faculty of Architecture at the Politecnico di Milano university (1968–78).

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Santa Maria in Via Lata</span> Church in Rome, Italy

Santa Maria in Via Lata is a church on the Via del Corso, in Rome, Italy. It stands diagonal from the church of San Marcello al Corso.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Filippo Raguzzini</span>

Filippo Raguzzini was an Italian architect best known for a range of buildings constructed during the reign of Benedict XIII.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Gaspare Celio</span> Italian painter

Gaspare Celio was an Italian painter of the late-Mannerist and early-Baroque period, active mainly in his native city of Rome.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Santa Maria Maddalena</span> Church in Rome, Italy

The Santa Maria Maddalena is a Roman Catholic church in Rome, named after Saint Mary Magdalene. It is located on the Via della Maddalena, one of the streets leading from the Piazza della Rotonda in the Campo Marzio area of historic Rome. It is the regional church for the people of Abruzzo.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Benedetto Pamphili</span> Italian cardinal and librettist

Benedetto Pamphili was an Italian cardinal, patron of the arts and librettist for many composers.

Emanuele Rodriguez dos Santos was a Portuguese Baroque architect, principally active in Rome. His most important work is the church of SS. Trinità dei Spagnoli in the via Condotti.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Carlo Francesco Bizzaccheri</span> Italian architect

Carlo Francesco Bizzaccheri was an Italian architect. He worked in a Baroque and early Rococo style.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Antonio del Massaro</span> Italian painter

Antonio del Massaro da Viterbo, or Antonio da Viterbo, nicknamed il Pastura was an Italian painter.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Santi Severino e Sossio</span> Church in Campania, Italy

The church of Santi Severino e Sossio and the annexed monastery are located on via Bartolommeo Capasso in Naples, Italy.

Santa Rita da Cascia in Campitelli Church building in Rome, Italy

The Chiesa di Santa Rita da Cascia in Campitelli is a deconsecrated church in Rome (Italy), in the rione Sant'Angelo; it is located in Via Montanara, at the crossroad with Via del Teatro Marcello. The church formerly rose on the preexisting church of San Biagio de Mercato, dating at least to the 11th-century. The remains of St Blaise putatively were discovered during the dismantling of Santa Rita.

Santa Barbara dei Librai, Rome Church in Rome, Italy

Santa Barbara dei Librai is a small Roman Catholic church in Rome, Italy. It was once known as Santa Barbara alla Regola after the rione in which it was located. Today it now considered within the rione of Parione, near the Campo de' Fiori.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Palazzo del Governatore di Borgo</span>

The Palazzo del Governatore di Borgo, also called Palazzo delle Prigioni di Borgo, Palazzo del Soldano, or Palazzo dal Pozzo, was a Renaissance palace in Rome, important for artistic and historical reasons. Designed by Antonio da Sangallo the Younger, it was demolished in 1936 for the opening of Via della Conciliazione.

References

  1. Contardi and Curcio, 1991, pp. 441 - 42; Portoghesi, 1982, p. 373 - 90; Mallory, 1967; Mallory, 1977, pp. 53 - 75
  2. Alessandra Marino, "La decorazione settecentesca della facciata di S. Maria Maddalena: un'occasione per alcune precisazioni sul rococò romano", Quaderni dell'istituto di storia dell'architettura, 15 – 20, 1990 – 2, pp. 789 – 98.
  3. Contardi and Curcio, 1991
  4. Mallory, 1977, pp. 56 - 58
  5. Mallory, 1977, pp. 54 - 56
  6. Sardi's contribution to this façade is noted in a contemporary account of the history of the church by Giuseppe Maria Crescimbeni, who as an archpriest of the church was thus in a position to know the architect of the façade:Mallory, 1977, p. 54
  7. Mallory, 1977, pp. 61 - 66
  8. Contardi and Curcio, 1999, p. 321
  9. Vasi, 1756, p. 46
  10. Titi, 1978, p. 100. Chapter records from 25 August 1721 also mention both men, with Cioli in the role of designer and Sardi in the role of capomastro: Buchowiecki, 1974, p. 536
  11. Armellini, 1887, pp. 323; Buchowiecki, 1974, pp. 307 – 25; Bussagli, 2004, pp. 576 – 7 and 584; Contardi and Curcio, 1991, pp. 441; Gizzi, 1999, pp. 40 – 1; Mallory, 93 – 101; Mallory, 1977, pp. xi – xii, 67 – 74; Mortari, 1987; Pietrangeli, 1977, pp. 38 – 40; Portoghesi, 1982, pp. 376 – 7; Titi, 1978, pp. 363 – 4; Marino, 1992; Varriano, 1986, p. 149; Vasi, 1756, pp. 67 – 8 (including Plate 138).
  12. The church was built over an extended period, with the major figures including Carlo Fontana (from the early 1670s) and Giovanni Antonio de Rossi, the architect of the Palazzo d'Aste on the Piazza Venezia in Rome. The façade is attributed in contemporary sources to de Rossi or his successor Carlo Quadri: Contardi and Curcio, 1991, p. 426. Chapter records mention his development of designs for the façade of the church: Mortari, 1987, p. 27 Work on this design proceeded between 1696 and 1699. This façade appears to have been undecorated, a fact attested by the hanging of tapestries on this façade for the patronal festival in 1725 (this would only have occurred with a plain façade and would be impossible with the decorative scheme currently in place): Mortari, 1987, p. 39. Similarly, a chapter record written by the general of the Ministri degli Infermi, Costantini, in 1734, indicates that the façade was still unfinished (grezza): Marino, 1992, p. 790. The commencement of the decoration of the façade is noted in Valesio's diary (21 July 1735), but he does not note the designer: Mortari, 1987, p. 126
  13. Mallory, 1977, p. 68
  14. Mallory, 1977, p. 68, n. 27
  15. Scholars have noted similarities between the style of the decoration of this façade and some cabinet work of roughly the same period, particularly the organ case of S. Maria Maddalena (designer unknown) and the armoires of the sacristy of S. Maria Maddalena, attributable to Domenico Barbiani. Alessandra Marino has recently suggested that the decoration of the façade should be attributed to Barbiani and that Emanuele Rodriguez dos Santos (architect of SS Trinità dei Spagnoli) should be credited as the architect of the façade Marino, 1992. In Marino's view, Sardi acted in his usual capacity of capomastro (master builder )

Further reading