Gladius

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Gladius
Uncrossed gladius.jpg
Replica pseudo-Pompeii gladius
Type Sword
Place of origin Ancient Rome, as gladius, based on the Celtiberian gladius hispaniensis.
Service history
In service3rd century BC – 3rd century AD
Used byRoman foot soldiers during wars
Wars Roman Republic and Roman Empire
Specifications
Mass0.7–1 kg (1.5–2.2 lb)
Length60–85 cm (24–33 in)
Blade length45–68 cm (18–27 in)
Width5–7 cm (2.0–2.8 in)

Blade  typeIron of varying degrees of carbon content, pointed, double-edged
Hilt  typeWood, bronze or ivory

Gladius (Latin:  [ˈɡɫad̪iʊs̠] ) is a Latin word meaning "sword" (of any type), but in its narrow sense, it refers to the sword of Ancient Roman foot soldiers. Early ancient Roman swords were similar to those of the Greeks, called xiphe (plural; singular xiphos). From the 3rd century BC, however, the Romans adopted a sword based on the weapons used by the Celtiberians in Hispania late into the Punic Wars, known in Latin as the gladius hispaniensis, or "Hispanic sword". [1]

Contents

A fully equipped Roman legionary after the reforms of Gaius Marius was armed with a shield ( scutum ), one or two javelins ( pila ), a sword (gladius), often a dagger ( pugio ), and, perhaps in the later empire period, darts ( plumbatae ). Conventionally, soldiers threw pila to disable the enemy's shields and disrupt enemy formations before engaging in close combat, for which they drew the gladius. A soldier generally led with the shield and thrust with the sword. [2]

Etymology

Gladius is a Latin masculine noun. The nominative plural of it is gladiī. However, gladius in Latin refers to any sword, not only the sword described here. The word appears in literature as early as the plays of Plautus (Casina, Rudens).

Gladius is generally believed to be a Celtic loan in Latin (perhaps via an Etruscan intermediary), derived from ancient Celtic *kladi(b)os or *kladimos "sword" (whence modern Welsh cleddyf "sword", modern Breton klezeff, Old Irish claideb/Modern Irish claidheamh [itself perhaps a loan from Welsh]; the root of the word may survive in the Old Irish verb claidid "digs, excavates" and anciently attested in the Gallo-Brittonic place name element cladia/clado "ditch, trench, valley hollow"). [3] [4] [5] [6] [7]

Modern English words derived from gladius include gladiator ("swordsman") and gladiolus ("little sword", from the diminutive form of gladius), a flowering plant with sword-shaped leaves.

Predecessors and origins

A sword of the Iron Age Cogotas II culture in Spain. Cogotas-II (dagas)-Segunda Edad del Hierro.jpg
A sword of the Iron Age Cogotas II culture in Spain.

According to Polibius, the sword used by the Roman army during the Battle of Telamento in 220 BC, though deemed superior to the cumbersome Spanish swords, was mainly useful to thrust. [8] These thrusting swords used before the adoption of the Gladius were possibly based on the Greek xiphos . [9] Later, during the Battle of Cannae in 215 BC, they found Hannibal's Celtiberian mercenaries wielding swords that excelled at both slashing and thrusting. [9] A text attributed to Polybius describes the adoption of this design by the Romans even before the end of the war, which canonical Polybius reaffirms by calling the later Roman sword gladius hispaniensis in Latin and iberiké machaira in Greek. [9] It is believed Scipio Africanus was the promoter of the change after the Battle of Cartagena in 209 BC, after which he set the inhabitants to produce weapons for the Roman army. [10] [11]

In 70 BC, both Claudius Quadrigarius and Livy relate the story of Titus Manlius Torquatus using a "Hispanic sword" (gladius Hispanus) in a duel with a Gaul in 361 BC. [12] [13] However, this has been traditionally considered a terminological anachronism caused by the long established naming convention. [8] Still, some believe the Celtiberian sword was adopted after encounters with Carthaginian mercenaries of that nationality during the First Punic War (264-241 BC), not the second. [8] In any case, the gladius hispaniensis became particularly known in 200 BC during the Second Macedonian War, in which Macedonian soldiers became horrified at what Roman swords could do after an early cavalry skirmish. [9] [8] It has been suggested that the sword used by Roman cavalrymen was different from the infantry model, but most academics have discarded this view. [8]

Arguments for the Celtiberian source of the weapon have been reinforced in recent decades by discovery of early Roman gladii that seem to highlight that they were copies of Celtiberian models. The weapon developed in Iberia after La Tène I models, which were adapted to traditional Celtiberian techniques during the late 4th and early 3rd centuries BC. [14] These weapons are quite original in their design, so that they cannot be confused with Gallic types. As for the origin of the word gladius, one theory proposes the borrowing of the word from *kladi- during the Gallic wars, relying on the principle that K often became G in Latin. Ennius attests the word gladius may have replaced ensis, which until then was used mainly by poets. [15]

Manufacture

Gladius blades of the Mainz type Gladii type Mainz.jpg
Gladius blades of the Mainz type

By the time of the Roman Republic, which flourished during the Iron Age, steel and the steel-making process was not unknown to the classical world. Pure iron is relatively soft, but pure iron is never found in nature. Natural iron ore contains various impurities in solid solution, which harden the reduced metal by producing irregular-shaped metallic crystals. The gladius was generally made out of steel.

In Roman times, workers reduced ore in a bloomery furnace. The resulting pieces were called blooms, [16] which they further worked to remove slag inclusions from the porous surface.

A recent metallurgical study of two Etrurian swords, one in the form of a Greek kopis from 7th century BC Vetulonia, the other in the form of a gladius Hispaniensis from 4th century BC Clusium (Chiusi), gives insight concerning the manufacture of Roman swords. [17] The Chiusi sword comes from Romanized etruria; thus, regardless of the names of the forms (which the authors do not identify), the authors believe the process was continuous from the Etruscans to the Romans.

The Vetulonian sword was crafted by the pattern welding process from five blooms reduced at a temperature of 1163 °C. Five strips of varying carbon content were created. A central core of the sword contained the highest: 0.15–0.25% carbon. On its edges were placed four strips of low-carbon steel, 0.05–0.07%, and the whole thing was welded together by forging on the pattern of hammer blows. A blow increased the temperature sufficiently to produce a friction weld at that spot. Forging continued until the steel was cold, producing some central annealing. The sword was 58 cm (23 in) long. [17]

The Chiusian sword was created from a single bloom by forging from a temperature of 1237 °C. The carbon content increased from 0.05–0.08% at the back side of the sword to 0.35–0.4% on the blade, from which the authors deduce that some form of carburization may have been used. The sword was 40 cm (16 in) long and was characterized by a wasp-waist close to the hilt.

Romans continued to forge swords, both as composites and from single pieces. Inclusions of sand and rust weakened the two swords in the study, and no doubt limited the strength of swords during the Roman period.

Description

The word gladius acquired a general meaning as any type of sword. This use appears as early as the 1st century AD in the Biography of Alexander the Great by Quintus Curtius Rufus. [18] The republican authors, however, appear to mean a specific type of sword, which is now known from archaeology to have had variants.

Gladii were two-edged for cutting and had a tapered point for stabbing during thrusting. A solid grip was provided by a knobbed hilt added on, possibly with ridges for the fingers. Blade strength was achieved by welding together strips, in which case the sword had a channel down the center, or by fashioning a single piece of high-carbon steel, rhomboidal in cross-section. The owner's name was often engraved or punched on the blade.

The hilt of a Roman sword was the capulus. It was often ornate, especially the sword-hilts of officers and dignitaries.

Stabbing was a very efficient technique, as stabbing wounds, especially in the abdominal area, were almost always deadly. [19] However, the gladius in some circumstances was used for cutting or slashing, as is indicated by Livy's account of the Macedonian Wars, wherein the Macedonian soldiers were horrified to see dismembered bodies. [20]

Though the primary infantry attack was thrusting at stomach height, they were trained to take any advantage, such as slashing at kneecaps beneath the shield wall.

The gladius was sheathed in a scabbard mounted on a belt or shoulder strap. Some say the soldier reached across his body to draw it, and others claim that the position of the shield made this method of drawing impossible. A centurion wore it on the opposite side as a mark of distinction. [21]

Towards the end of the 2nd century AD and during the 3rd century the spatha gradually took the place of the gladius in the Roman legions.

Types

Several different designs were used; among collectors and historical reenactors, the three primary kinds are known as the Mainz gladius, the Fulham gladius, and the Pompeii gladius (these names refer to where or how the canonical example was found). More recent archaeological finds have uncovered an earlier version, the gladius Hispaniensis.

The differences between these varieties are subtle. The original Hispanic sword, which was used during the republic, had a slight "wasp-waist" or "leaf-blade" curvature. The Mainz variety came into use on the frontier in the early empire. It kept the curvature, but shortened and widened the blade and made the point triangular. At home, the less battle-effective Pompeii version came into use. It eliminated the curvature, lengthened the blade, and diminished the point. The Fulham was a compromise, with straight edges and a long point. [22]

Gladius Hispaniensis

The Gladius Hispaniensis was a Roman sword used from around 216 BC until 20 BC. The length of the blade was 60–68 cm (24–27 in). The length of the sword was 75–85 cm (30–33 in). The width of the sword was 5 cm (2.0 in). The Gladius Hispaniensis was the largest and heaviest of the gladii. It was also the earliest and longest blade of the gladii, pronounced leaf-shape compared to the other forms. The sword weighed 1 kg (2.2 lb) for the largest versions, most likely a standard example would weigh 900 g (2.0 lb).

Mainz Gladius

4 Types of Gladius 4 Types of Gladius.jpg
4 Types of Gladius

The Mainz Gladius is made of heavily corroded iron and a sheath made of tinned and gilded bronze. The blade was 50-55 centimetres long and 7 centimetres in width. The sword was 65 to 70 centimetres long. The sword weighed 800 grams. The point of the sword was more triangular than the Gladius Hispaniensis. The Mainz Gladius still had wasp-waisted curves. The decoration on the scabbard illustrates the ceding of military victory to Augustus by Tiberius after a successful Alpine campaign. Augustus is semi-nude, and sits in the pose of Jupiter, flanked by the Roman gods of Victory and Mars Ultor, while Tiberius, in military dress, presents Augustus with a statuette of Victory.

Fulham Gladius

The Fulham gladius or Mainz-Fulham gladius was a Roman sword that was used after Aulus Plautius' invasion of Britain in 43 AD. [23] The Romans used it until the end of the 1st century. The Fulham gladius has a triangular tip. The length of the blade is 50–55 cm (20–22 in). The length of the sword is 65–70 cm (26–28 in). The width of the blade is 6 cm (2.4 in). The swords weighs 700 g (1.5 lb) (wooden hilt). [24] [25] A full size replica can be seen at Fulham Palace, Fulham.

Pompeii gladius

The Pompeii gladius was named by modern historians after the Roman town of Pompeii. This type of gladius was by far the most popular one. Four instances of the sword type were found in Pompeii, with others turning up elsewhere. The sword has parallel cutting edges and a triangular tip. This is the shortest of the gladii. It is often confused with the spatha , which was a longer, slashing weapon used initially by mounted auxilia. Over the years, the Pompeii got longer, and these later versions are called semi-spathas. The length of the blade was 45–50 cm (18–20 in). The length of the sword is 60–65 cm (24–26 in). The width of the blade is 5 cm (2.0 in). The sword weighs 700 g (1.5 lb) (wooden hilt).

See also

Notes

  1. Penrose, Jane (2008). Rome and Her Enemies: An Empire Created and Destroyed by War. Osprey Publishing. pp. 121–122. ISBN   978-1-84603-336-0.
  2. Vegetius De Re Militari 2.15
  3. McCone, Kim, "Greek Κελτός and Γαλάτης, Latin Gallus 'Gaul', in: Die Sprache 46, 2006, p. 106
  4. Schrijver, Peter, The Reflexes of the Proto-Indo-European Laryngeals in Latin, Rodopi, 1991, p. 174.
  5. Delamarre, Xavier, Dictionnaire de la langue gauloise, Errance, 2003 (2nd ed.), p. 118.
  6. Schmidt, Karl Horst, 'Keltisches Wortgut im Lateinischen', in: Glotta 44 (1967), p. 159.
  7. Koch, Celtic Culture, ABC-CLIO, 2006, p. 215
  8. 1 2 3 4 5 Quesada Sanz, F. "¿Qué hay en un nombre? La cuestión del gladius hispaniensis" (PDF). Retrieved August 7, 2019.
  9. 1 2 3 4 Quesada Sanz, F. "Gladius hispaniensis: an archaeological view from Iberia" (PDF). Retrieved August 10, 2018.
  10. M. C. Bishop (2016). The Gladius: The Roman Short Sword (in Spanish). Bloomsbury Publishing. ISBN   978-14-728158-6-6.
  11. Flavius Vegetius Renatus (1996). Vegetius: Epitome of Military Science (in Spanish). Liverpool University Press. ISBN   978-08-532391-0-9.
  12. Livy's term (link). Most authors use the term gladius Hispaniensis but a few use Livy's term, Hispanus. Both are adjectives of the same meaning, that is, they refer to Hispania, or the Iberian Peninsula.
  13. Livius, Titus. "The History of Rome, Vol. II". 7.10. Archived from the original on August 30, 2002. Retrieved 25 November 2010.
  14. Archived October 2, 2010, at the Wayback Machine
  15. This theory is stated in Note 80, Page 191, of faculty dissertation RUNIC INSCRIPTIONS IN OR FROM THE NETHERLANDS Archived 2006-07-28 at the Wayback Machine by Tineke Looijenga, University of Groningen.
  16. blooms
  17. 1 2 Nicodemi, Walter; Mapelli, Carlo; Venturini, Roberto; Riva, Riccardo (2005). "Metallurgical Investigations on Two Sword Blades of 7th and 3rd Century B.C. Found in Central Italy". ISIJ International. 45 (9): 1358–1367. doi: 10.2355/isijinternational.45.1358 .
  18. "Copidas vocabant gladios leviter curvatos, falcibus similes: "They called their lightly curved, sickle-like swords (gladius) 'copides'."
  19. Vegetius, De Re Militari, Book I Archived July 16, 2012, at the Wayback Machine : "a stab, though it penetrates but two inches, is generally fatal."
  20. Histories, Book 31, Chapter 34.
  21. See under gladius Archived October 4, 2006, at the Wayback Machine in Seyffert, Dictionary of Classical Antiquities.
  22. "Archived copy". Archived from the original on October 25, 2006. Retrieved December 15, 2006.CS1 maint: archived copy as title (link)
  23. Luis, Salva (2013). Viriathus and the Lusitanian Resistance to Rome 155-139 BC. Great Britain: Pen & Sword. ISBN   978-1-78159-128-4.
  24. History of the Roman Legions.
  25. Ramsay, Syed (2016). Tools of War: History of Weapons in Ancient Times. India: Vij Books. ISBN   978-938-601-980-6.

^ This is only true for the nominative case; For more information, see the Latin declension page.

Related Research Articles

Dagger Short, pointed hand-to-hand weapon

A dagger is a knife with a very sharp point and usually two sharp edges, typically designed or capable of being used as a thrusting or stabbing weapon. Daggers have been used throughout human history for close combat confrontations, and many cultures have used adorned daggers in ritual and ceremonial contexts. The distinctive shape and historic usage of the dagger have made it iconic and symbolic. A dagger in the modern sense is a weapon designed for close-proximity combat or self-defense; due to its use in historic weapon assemblages, it has associations with assassination and murders. Double-edged knives, however, play different sorts of roles in different social contexts.

A sword is a bladed melee weapon intended for cutting or thrusting that is longer than a knife or dagger, consisting of a long blade attached to a hilt. The precise definition of the term varies with the historical epoch or the geographic region under consideration. The blade can be straight or curved. Thrusting swords have a pointed tip on the blade, and tend to be straighter; slashing swords have a sharpened cutting edge on one or both sides of the blade, and are more likely to be curved. Many swords are designed for both thrusting and slashing.

Rapier Slender, sharply pointed sword

A rapier or espada ropera is a type of sword with a slender and sharply-pointed two-edged blade that was popular in Western Europe, both for civilian use and as a military side arm, throughout the 16th and 17th centuries.

The spatha was a type of straight and long sword, measuring between 0.5 and 1 m, with a handle length between 18 and 20 cm, in use in the territory of the Roman Empire during the 1st to 6th centuries AD. Later swords, from the 7th to 10th centuries, like the Viking swords, are recognizable derivatives and sometimes subsumed under the term spatha.

Swordsmanship or sword fighting refers to the skills of a swordsman, a person versed in the art of the sword. The term is modern, and as such was mainly used to refer to smallsword fencing, but by extension it can also be applied to any martial art involving the use of a sword. The formation of the English word "swordsman" is parallel to the Latin word gladiator, a term for the professional fighters who fought against each other and a variety of other foes for the entertainment of spectators in the Roman Empire. The word gladiator itself comes from the Latin word gladius, which is a type of sword.

Classification of swords

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Kopis

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Xiphos Iron Age weapon

The xiphos is a double-edged, one-handed Iron Age straight shortsword used by the ancient Greeks. It was a secondary battlefield weapon for the Greek armies after the dory or javelin. The classic blade was generally about 45–60 cm (18–24 in) long, although the Spartans supposedly preferred to use blades as short as 30 cm (12 in) around the era of the Greco-Persian Wars. The xiphos sometimes has a midrib, and is diamond or lenticular in cross-section. It was a rather light weapon, with a weight around 450 to 900 grams or 1-2 lbs. It was generally hung from a baldric under the left arm. The xiphos was generally used only when the spear was broken, taken by the enemy, or discarded for close combat. Very few xiphe are known to have survived.

<i>Pugio</i>

The pugio was a dagger used by Roman soldiers as a sidearm. It seems likely that the pugio was intended as an auxiliary weapon, but its exact purpose for the soldier remains unknown. Officials of the empire took to wearing ornate daggers in the performance of their offices, and some would wear concealed daggers for defense in contingencies. The dagger was a common weapon of assassination and suicide; for example, the conspirators who stabbed Julius Caesar used pugiones. The pugio developed from the daggers used by the Cantabarians of the Iberian peninsula.

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Roman military personal equipment

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"The production of these kinds of helmets of Italic tradition decreased in quality because of the demands of equipping huge armies, especially during civil wars...The bad quality of these helmets is recorded by the sources describing how sometimes they were covered by wicker protections, like those of Pompeius' soldiers during the siege of Dyrrachium in 48 BC, which were seriously damaged by the missiles of Caesar's slingers and archers."

"It would appear that armour quality suffered at times when mass production methods were being used to meet the increased demand ..." and "...the reduced size curiasses would also have been quicker and cheaper to produce, which may have been a deciding factor at times of financial crisis, or where large bodies of men were required to be mobilized at short notice, possibly reflected in the poor-quality, mass produced iron helmets of Imperial Italic type C, as found, for example, in the River Po at Cremona, associated with the Civil Wars of AD 69 AD; Russel-Robinson, 1975, 67"

"Up until then, the quality of helmets had been fairly consistent and the bowls well decorated and finished. However, after the Marian Reforms, with their resultant influx of the poorest citizens into the army, there must inevitably have been a massive demand for cheaper equipment, a situation which can only have been exacerbated by the Civil Wars..."

Migration Period sword Sword

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Swords made of iron appear from the Early Iron Age, but do not become widespread before the 8th century BC.

Sica Short sword or large dagger

The sica was a short sword or large dagger of ancient Thracians, Dacians and Illyrians, used in Ancient Rome too, originating in the Halstatt culture. It was originally depicted as a curved sword and many examples have been found in what are today Albania, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Bulgaria, Serbia and Romania. It is also depicted on Trajan's Column; notably the Dacian king Decebalus is depicted committing suicide with one.

Samnite (gladiator type)

A Samnite was a Roman gladiator who fought with equipment styled on that of a warrior from Samnium: a short sword (gladius), a rectangular shield (scutum), a greave (ocrea), and the helmet. Warriors armed in such a way were the earliest gladiators in the Roman games. They appeared in Rome shortly after the defeat of Samnium in the 4th century BC, apparently adopted from the victory celebrations of Rome's allies in Campania. By arming low-status gladiators in the manner of a defeated foe, Romans mocked the Samnites and appropriated martial elements of their culture.

Roman army of the mid-Republic

The Roman army of the mid-Republic, also called the manipular Roman army or the Polybian army, refers to the armed forces deployed by the mid-Roman Republic, from the end of the Samnite Wars to the end of the Social War. The first phase of this army, in its manipular structure, is described in detail in the Histories of the ancient Greek historian Polybius, writing before 146 BC.

Mainz Gladius

The Mainz Gladius or Sword of Tiberius is a famous ancient Roman sword and sheath that was found in the Rhine near Mainz in Germany. Since 1866 it has been part of the British Museum's collection, when it was given to the museum by the philanthropist Felix Slade. A replica of the Mainz Gladius can be found in the Romano-Germanic Central Museum (Mainz). The type of gladius was first introduced to the Romans in 20 BC. Eventually the Mainz Gladius was overtaken in popularity by the Pompeii Gladius.

Caetrati

The Caetrati were a type of light infantry in ancient Iberia who often fought as skirmishers. They were armed with a caetra shield, swords, and javelins.

References

The articles in the links below often differ both in theory and in detail. They should not necessarily be understood as fully professional articles but should be appreciated for their presentational value.

Pictures of ancient swords

Reenactments, reconstructions, experimental archaeology

Articles on the history or manufacture of the sword